Contents

Preface to the third edition page ix

PART I THE UNDERWATER LIGHT FIELD 1

1 Concepts of hydrologic optics 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 The nature of light 3

1.3 The properties defining the radiation field 6

1.4 The inherent optical properties 14

1.5 Apparent and quasi-inherent optical properties 21

1.6 Optical depth 24

1.7 Radiative transfer theory 24

2 Incident solar radiation 28

2.1 Solar radiation outside the atmosphere 28

2.2 Transmission of solar radiation through the Earth's atmosphere 30

2.3 Diurnal variation of solar irradiance 38

2.4 Variation of solar irradiance and insolation with latitude and time of year 42

2.5 Transmission across the air-water interface 44

3 Absorption of light within the aquatic medium 50

3.1 The absorption process 50

3.2 The measurement of light absorption 53

3.3 The major light-absorbing components of the aquatic system 61

3.4 Optical classification of natural waters 92

3.5 Contribution of the different components of the aquatic medium to absorption of PAR 95

4 Scattering of light within the aquatic medium 98

4.1 The scattering process 98

4.2 Measurement of scattering 104

4.3 The scattering properties of natural waters 116

4.4 The scattering properties of phytoplankton 128

5 Characterizing the underwater light field 133

5.1 Irradiance 133

5.2 Scalar irradiance 143

5.3 Spectral distribution of irradiance 144

5.4 Radiance distribution 147

5.5 Modelling the underwater light field 149

6 The nature of the underwater light field 153

6.1 Downward irradiance - monochromatic 153

6.2 Spectral distribution of downward irradiance 159

6.3 Downward irradiance - PAR 159

6.4 Upward irradiance and radiance 168

6.5 Scalar irradiance 178

6.6 Angular distribution of the underwater light field 181

6.7 Dependence of properties of the field on optical properties of the medium 188

6.8 Partial vertical attenuation coefficients 197

7 Remote sensing of the aquatic environment 199

7.1 The upward flux and its measurement 200

7.2 The emergent flux 215

7.3 Correction for atmospheric scattering and solar elevation 218

7.4 Relation between remotely sensed reflectance and the scattering/absorption ratio 225

7.5 Relation between remotely sensed reflectances and water composition 228

PART II PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN THE AQUATIC

ENVIRONMENT 263

8 The photosynthetic apparatus of aquatic plants 265

8.1 Chloroplasts 265

8.2 Membranes and particles 268

8.3 Photosynthetic pigment composition 275

8.4 Reaction centres and energy transfer 298

8.5 The overall photosynthetic process 300

9 Light capture by aquatic plants 308

9.1 Absorption spectra of photosynthetic systems 308

9.2 The package effect 311

9.3 Effects of variation in cell/colony size and shape 314

9.4 Rate of light absorption by aquatic plants 319

9.5 Effect of aquatic plants on the underwater light field 325

10 Photosynthesis as a function of the incident light 330

10.1 Measurement of photosynthetic rate in aquatic ecosystems 330

10.2 Photosynthesis and light intensity 339

10.3 Efficiency of utilization of incident light energy 360

10.4 Photosynthesis and wavelength of incident light 380

11 Photosynthesis in the aquatic environment 388

11.1 Circulation and depth 388

11.2 Optical characteristics of the water 397

11.3 Other limiting factors 400

11.4 Temporal variation in photosynthesis 430

11.5 Photosynthetic yield per unit area 440

12 Ecological strategies 453

12.1 Aquatic plant distribution in relation to light quality 453

12.2 Ontogenetic adaptation - intensity 469

12.3 Ontogenetic adaptation - spectral quality 479

12.4 Ontogenetic adaptation - depth 488

12.5 Significance of ontogenetic adaptation of the photosynthetic system 503

12.6 Rapid adaptation of the photosynthetic system 514

12.7 The microphytobenthos 528

12.8 Highly productive aquatic ecosystems 532

References and author index 539

Index to symbols 626

Index to organisms 628

Index to water bodies 632

Subject index 638

The colour plates appear between pages 212 and 213.

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