The Antibiotic Epidemic Antibiotic Resistance

Antibiotic Resistance: Surviving An Uncertain Future

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Study of Antibiotic Resistance Spectrum of Permafrost Strains

Resistant to a single antibiotic, but also strains resistant to two and three different antibiotics. The frequency of strains with double antibiotic resistance exceeded 20 both in Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria, while the strains with triple resistance were found only among Gram-negative bacteria with 20 frequency Mindlin et. al., 2008 .

Isolation and Primary Characterization of Antibiotic Resistant Strains from Permafrost

To study the antibiotic resistance in ancient bacteria, five antibiotics including three aminoglycosides (gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin), tetracycline and chloramphenicol were chosen. For isolation of antibiotic resistance strains, bacteria from water suspensions of permafrost samples were plated on antibiotic supplemented solid media. Single colonies, formed on antibiotic containing plates were replated three times on the same media and incubated at 25 C. The concentrations of antibiotics in nutrient media were as follows ( g ml) chloramphenicol (Cm), - 20 gentamicin (Gm), - 5-10 kanamycin (Km), - 25-50 streptomycin (Sm), - 50-100 tetracycline (Tc), - 10-20. At these concentrations, the fraction of bacteria, able to grow on selective nutrient media, to those unable to grow, was usually varied from between 1 10-2 and 1 10-3 CFU g.

Azni Idris Katayon Saed and Yung Tse Hung Contents

Gross genetic changes brought about by the interspecies transfer of genetic material may be important in the microbial degradation of xenobiotics. Although there are several mechanisms for such transfers, the most important is thought to be conjugation. In this process, loops of extrachromosomal DNA mediate their own replication from host to recipient microorganisms. Conjugative plasmids, as these DNA loops are known, carry coding for a variety of proteins, which, although not required for reproduction, may confer a selective environmental advantage such as heavy metal resistance or extended substrate range.30 In some cases, nonconjugative plasmids can link to conjugative plasmids and piggy-back from organism to organism.23 Once a plasmid is transferred, DNA sequences called transposons may play a role in the integration of portions of the plasmid DNA into the genome of the new host. The rapid spread of antibiotic resistance among various classes of microorganisms is an example of the...


Principal attention was given to multidrug-resistant strains of Gram-negative bacteria belonging to genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter, Stenotrophomonas, and Xanthomonas. It was shown that multidrug resistance of some strains of Acinetobacter sp. can be transferred by transformation of chromosomal genes and most probably results from expression of efflux pumps. We also revealed that many of the strains contained antibiotic resistance genes closely related to those of modern bacteria. In particular, among different strains resistant to streptomycin, we identified strains with strA-strB genes, strains with aadA genes and strains containing both types of genes. Genes closely related to tetR-tet(H) genes were detected in a strain of Psychrobacter psyhrophilus resistant to tetracycline and streptomycin. Finally, we demonstrated that many of the resistance determinants are associated with mobile elements such as plasmids and transposons. The results of the study strengthen the...

Bacterial Strains

As the first step to identification of the antibiotic resistance determinants of ancient bacteria, we tested permafrost strains from our collection for the presence of known genes encoding for streptomycin resistance. Seven strains resistant to different antibiotics (Table 2) isolated from different locations of Siberian and Antarctic permafrost were chosen for comparative analysis of antibiotic resistance determinants (Table 7). Four of these strains contained plasmids and (or) transposons (Table 3 and data not shown). PCR, Southern blot analysis and partial sequencing revealed that the antibiotic resistant bacteria studied contained genes highly homologous to the known present-day antibiotic resistance genes. Thus, streptomycin-resistant permafrost strains contained streptomycin-resistance determinants of the two known types. In six of these strains streptomycin-resistance was encoded by the linked strA-strB genes, which encode aminoglycoside phosphotransferases and are distributed...

Permafrost Strains

It is known that bacteria of various systematic groups are characterized by different intrinsic antibiotic resistance moreover they may be cross-resistant to several classes of antimicrobial agents Piddock, 2006 . Bacteria may also acquire resistance via the horizontal transfer of specific genes from other organisms Davies, 1994 Tenover, 2006 . To study the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in our collection of multidrug resistant permafrost It is of interest that among Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter plasmids studied we revealed several ones that harboured only mercury resistance genes. At the same time, we succeeded in detection of R plasmids harbouring both mercury-resistance and antibiotic-resistance determinants. In this connection it should be noted that in the history of clinical Pseudomonas plasmids, resistance to HgCl2 was the first marker recognized before 1969. Drug resistance plasmids of Pseudomonas studied thereafter conferred resistance to antibiotics of different...


Bacterial populations that originated from Arctic and Antarctic sediments of different ages and genesis. It turned out that many of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the permafrost collection contained genes highly homologous to the known present-day antibiotic resistance genes. Thus, our results strongly support the hypothesis that antibiotic resistance genes were spread in natural bacterial populations long before the introduction of antibiotics into clinical practice Davies, 1994 . Unexpectedly, we also demonstrated that multidrug resistant bacterial strains can be found in permafrost bacterial communities with high frequency. We found such strains among bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Stenotrophomonas genera. It was revealed that multidrug resistance of some strains of Acinetobacter sp. can be transferred by transformation of chromosomal genes. Therefore, one can propose that multidrug resistance in many strains of permafrost bacteria is due to their...