Wilkes Land

McMurdo Sound (USA)

allet USA-NZ)

Dumont d' Urville (FRANCE)

Oazis (USSR)

Wilkes (USA)

Chakéot

A(frAnce)

FIGURE 11.1 Fifty-five research stations were operated around Antarctica (tick marks at 10° latitude increments) during the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957-58 (Chapter 4: Awakening Science) by the 12 nations that became the original signatories to the 1959 Antarctic Treaty (Chapter 5: International Stewardship). Twelve of the IGY stations are among the 37 year-round research stations operated by 18 nations in the Antarctic region in 1998 (http://www.scar.org). Throughout, the Antarctic Peninsula has been the most crowded region (Fig. 11.4), in part because of the overlapping claims between Argentina, Chile, and the United Kingdom (Fig. 3.5).

people) with an average of eight landings per ship-based expedition. The majority of these visits are in the Antarctic Peninsula region where more than 150 sites, including 20 research stations, have been visited since 1989 (Fig. 11.4). Most of the visits, however, have been concentrated at fewer than 50 sites, with a handful of popular sites receiving 3000 to 4000 tourists each season. In addition, Chile and Argentina have established permanent outposts at their Antarctic Peninsula stations that are inhabited by small communities with banks, hotels, schools, and

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