T11111

Major Increase in Upwelling & Biogenic Productivity

Ice-Cap Expansion

East Antarctic Ice Cap

Antarctic Convergence

Drake Passage Opens Circum-Antarctic Current

Sea Ice Antarctic Bottom Water

Pleistocene Pliocene

Late Miocene

Mid-Miocene

Early Miocene

Mid-Late Oligocene

Mid-Oligocene

Early Oligocene

Late Eocene

Early Eocene

Mid-Early Eocene

Early Eocene

Late Paleocene

Oxygen Isotope - S18Oc (%0) 3.0 2.0 1.0 0 -1.0 "T

Ice-Cap Expansion

East Antarctic Ice Cap

Sea Ice Antarctic Bottom Water

Late Miocene

Early Miocene

Mid-Oligocene

Early Oligocene

Early Eocene

Mid-Early Eocene

Early Eocene

Late Paleocene

Australia Moves Northward

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