Preamble

The States Parties to this Treaty,

Inspired by the great prospects opening up before mankind as a result of man's entry into outer space,

Recognizing the common interest of all mankind in the progress of the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes,

Believing that the exploration and use of outer space should be carried on for the benefit of all peoples irrespective of the degree of their economic or scientific development,

Desiring to contribute to broad international co-operation in the scientific as well as the legal aspects of the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes,

Believing that such co-operation will contribute to the development of mutual understanding and to the strengthening of friendly relations between States and peoples,

Recalling resolution 1962 (XVIII), entitled ''Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space,'' which was adopted unanimously by the United Nations General Assembly on 13 December 1963,

Recalling resolution 1884 (XVIII), calling upon States to refrain from placing in orbit around the earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction or from installing such weapons on celestial bodies, which was adopted unanimously by the United Nations General Assembly on 17 October 1963,

Taking account of United Nations General Assembly resolution 110 (II) of 3 November 1947, which condemned propaganda designed or likely to provoke or encourage any threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression, and considering that the aforementioned resolution is applicable to outer space,

Convinced that a Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, will further the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations,

Have agreed on the following:

Matters of Common Interest

Patrones Blusas Casa

FIGURE 12.3 "Matters of common interest pertaining to Antarctica" that Article IX of the 1959 Antarctic Treaty elaborated as the basis for continuous consultation among nations (Box 5.3). Science is the keystone and common focus among diverse stakeholders, promoting the use of Antarctica for "peaceful purposes only." In the "interest of all mankind," international cooperation in Antarctica provides a global precedent for humanity. Modified from Berkman (1997a).

FIGURE 12.3 "Matters of common interest pertaining to Antarctica" that Article IX of the 1959 Antarctic Treaty elaborated as the basis for continuous consultation among nations (Box 5.3). Science is the keystone and common focus among diverse stakeholders, promoting the use of Antarctica for "peaceful purposes only." In the "interest of all mankind," international cooperation in Antarctica provides a global precedent for humanity. Modified from Berkman (1997a).

1957-58, which brought 12 nations together for 18 months as thousands of scientists collaborated in studying the land, ocean, atmosphere, and ice in the Antarctic region (Chapter 4: Awakening Science). These interdisciplinary exchanges fostered international cooperation and facilitated development of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959. The extraordinary feature is that the Antarctic Treaty nations have continuously consulted with each other in a marriage of science and policy that has sustained the cooperative international management of a region beyond the jurisdiction of any nation (Chapter 5: International Stewardship). As noted by Matthew Maury during the 19th century with statesman-like vision:

Navies are not all for war. Peace has its conquests, science its glories; and no navy can boast of brighter chaplets that those which have been gathered in the fields of geographic exploration and physical research.

From the outset of the Antarctic Treaty System, cooperation extended to the Soviet Union and the United States despite their growing ''cold war'' differences. Antarctic claimant and nonclaimant nations found common ground. Japan and the United States were collaborating in Antarctica, healing the animus of the previous decade. Even during the Falkland-Malvinas war in 1982, when all diplomatic channels were severed between Great Britain and Argentina, these two nations were meeting in Antarctica to discuss ''matters of common interest'' regarding the region south of 60° south latitude (Fig. 12.3).

From pollution, ozone depletion, and ''greenhouse'' warming to the extinction of species and the loss of biodiversity, there is increasing awareness and concern about the extent of human impacts on the global environment (Table 12.1). At the core, these global issues are driven by the geometric growth of the human population and our increasing demand of the Earth's resources at global to local levels (Fig. II). In effect, environmental issues are awakening international discussions about the common future of humankind on a planetary scale (Plates 1 and 8).

As demonstrated by the Antarctic precedent over the past five decades, ''international cooperation in scientific investigation'' provides a ''firm foundation'' for nations to unite in managing vast regions of the Earth—perhaps encompassing our entire world one day for ''peaceful purposes only.'' Moreover, like an international language, science engenders communication and education among diverse stakeholders (Fig. V). Across time and space, with vision toward the distant future, science is the keystone for the ''progress of all mankind'' (Fig. 12.3).

We live in a wondrous world and share in its protection.

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