Mid Jurassic 180 MYA

FIGURE 6.3 Reconstruction of Pangaea (all land) during the early Jurassic surrounded by the ancestral Pacific (Panthalassa) and Mediterranean (Tethys) oceans. Pangaea separated into the Laura-sia and Gondwana supercontinents around 180 million years ago (mya). By the early Cretaceous, the North Atlantic and Indian oceans had begun opening along with the separation of the West Gondwana continents (South America and Africa). India and Madagascar separated from the Antarctica-Australia complex of East Gondwana, which had become positioned over the South Pole by the late Cretaceous. Australia and South America subsequently separated from Antarctica by 55 and 25 mya, respectively. Global configurations of continents today and predicted 50 million years into the future are shown. Arrows indicate plate motion directions. Solid lines in the ocean are spreading ridges and dashed lines are trenches (Fig. 6.2). Modified from Dietz and Holden (1976).

FIGURE 6.3 Reconstruction of Pangaea (all land) during the early Jurassic surrounded by the ancestral Pacific (Panthalassa) and Mediterranean (Tethys) oceans. Pangaea separated into the Laura-sia and Gondwana supercontinents around 180 million years ago (mya). By the early Cretaceous, the North Atlantic and Indian oceans had begun opening along with the separation of the West Gondwana continents (South America and Africa). India and Madagascar separated from the Antarctica-Australia complex of East Gondwana, which had become positioned over the South Pole by the late Cretaceous. Australia and South America subsequently separated from Antarctica by 55 and 25 mya, respectively. Global configurations of continents today and predicted 50 million years into the future are shown. Arrows indicate plate motion directions. Solid lines in the ocean are spreading ridges and dashed lines are trenches (Fig. 6.2). Modified from Dietz and Holden (1976).

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