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Rattus norvegicus

Norway rat

c. 1800

Rattus rattus

Black rat

1800s

a Based on Leader-Williams (1985) and Chevrier et al. (1997).

a Based on Leader-Williams (1985) and Chevrier et al. (1997).

down with the early explorers at the start of the 19th century (Table 11.5). Along with the rats, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and cats (Felix catus) have been responsible for local elimination of various native birds on subantarctic islands. In the case of Macquarie Island (54°40'S, 158°55'E), two endemic bird species—a banded rail (Rallus philippensis) and a parakeet (Cyanorhampus no-vaezelandiae)—even became extinct between 1880 and 1894 because of species introductions.

Invading species also have extended into the Antarctic region, including an insect and two spider species (Table 9.3). In 1997, Australian scientists also identified antibodies to an avian pathogen from domestic chickens (Gallus domesti-cus) that had been incorporated into 2% of the Adelie penguins and up to 63% of the emperor penguins (Aptenodytes foresteri) near Mawson Station (Fig. 11.1). This infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), which is transmitted through waste materials, is known to affect the immune systems of chicks and retard their growth. However, around Antarctica, there is scarce information on the impacts and continental extent of such diseases and other nonindigenous introductions.

In contrast to localized human impacts, there also are global impacts around Antarctica from remote sources. For example, during the 1960s, DDT and other human-synthesized compounds began accumulating in Antarctic ice, lakes, and species—in the most remote and isolated regions of the Earth system. Two decades later, emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (predominantly from the Northern Hemisphere) were found to be inducing the ''ozone hole'' in the remote atmosphere over Antarctica (Figs. 8.11a and 8.11b). Moreover, since the late 19th century, combustion of organic materials has contributed to the increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide in the global atmosphere that have been found in ice cores (Figs. 8.9 and 8.10). Like messengers, such transboundary pollutants have been dispersing with the ocean and atmosphere (Figs. 7.8, 7.9, and 8.5)—connecting resource activities among nations and environments throughout the Earth system in an international context.

accommodating values

In addition to objective features that can be quantified, Antarctic environmental protection involves values that are shared among diverse stakeholders. In 1959, these shared values were expressed in terms of ''common interests'' (Box 5.3) among the claimant and nonclaimant nations who originally signed the Antarctic Treaty (Fig. 3.5, Table 5.1)—providing a ''firm foundation'' for the ''internal accommodation'' of nations in the Antarctic Treaty System (Chapter 5: International Stewardship).

How are the values of the Antarctic Treaty System relevant to humanity?

As the Antarctic Treaty System evolved with new situations and stakeholders (Figs. 5.3 and 11.1-11.4, Tables 5.1, 5.2, 11.1, and 11.3), specific values were identified by the consultative nations in relation to the Antarctic environment ''in the interest of all mankind.'' In 1975, the remote and pristine nature of the Antarctic environment was characterized in terms of its ''value for global baseline monitoring purposes'' (Box 11.6). As discussions about Antarctic mineral resources began escalating in 1979 (Recommendation X-1), the ''importance of Antarctica to the world environment'' was further described in terms of its ''unique box 11.6 1985 recommendation vih-13a

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