FIGURE 11.6 Drill site locations south of 30° south latitude (tick marks at 10° latitude increments) where more than 1000 marine sediment cores (e.g., Fig. 6.4) have been drilled since 1972 by the international community as part of the Deep Sea Drilling Program (period: 1968-1985) and its successor, the Ocean Drilling Program (period: 1985-present). Since 1990, marine geological research around Antarctica has been conducted in coordination with the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) Antarctic Stratigraphy Antarctic Offshore Stratigraphy Project (ANTOSTRAT), described in Figure 11.7 ( Modified from Webb and Cooper (1999).

utilizing this renewable mineral resource, the First International Conference and Workshop on Iceberg Utilization for Fresh Water Production, Weather Modification and Other Applications was convened in 1977 at Iowa State University with participants from 18 countries. Based on this meeting, it was estimated that about 800 cubic kilometers of icebergs could be utilized each year from Antarctica as a potentially significant contribution to the 3100-cubic-kilometer consumption of freshwater worldwide. Eventually, recognizing that the ''Antarctic represents the world's largest freshwater reserve,'' Recommendation XV-21 was adopted in 1989 to consider the ''feasibility of commercial exploitation of icebergs, relevant technologies and possible environmental impacts.''

Recognizing potential environmental and political repercussions from the ''exploration and exploitation of mineral resources'' around Antarctica, the Conven-

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