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Victoria Land Coastal Latitude (°S)

FIGURE 9.3 Persistence of Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) rookeries along the Victoria Land Coast (Fig. 8.6), particularly in the vicinity of Terra Nova Bay, which have been radiocarbon-dated from cores of guano deposits (Plate 5). The radiocarbon ages have been corrected by subtracting the 1300-year age of Antarctic seawater (Berkman and Forman, 1996) that traveled through the deep sea from the North Atlantic and upwelled at the Antarctic Divergence (Figs. 7.8 and 7.9). Based on data from Baroni and Orombelli (1994) and adapted from Berkman (1997b).

as blue-green algae like the stromatolites that were among the most primitive photosynthesizers of oxygen in Earth's early atmosphere (Fig. 1.6). Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems also contain mosses, liverworts, lichens, fungi, and two species of flowering plants (Fig. 9.4).

Antarctica also holds promise for identifying adaptations that could support extraterrestrial life. Under the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, where water is maintained

TABLE 9.3 Terrestrial Life on the Antarctic Continenta

Faunal

Number of

Floral

Number of

phylum

species

form

species

Protozoa

68 b

Algae

360 b

Rotifera

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