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FIGURE 11.7 More than 150,000 kilometers of multichannel seismic reflection data (Fig. 6.4), acquired around Antarctica (tick marks at 10° latitude increments) by universities and institutions from different nations since 1978 (Table 11.3). Since 1988, these seismic data have been compiled by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) through the Antarctic Offshore Stratigraphy Project (ANTOSTRAT), for the purpose of providing open access to marine geophysical data for interpreting the environmental history of Antarctica since the breakup of Gondwana (Fig. 6.3). The implementation of ANTOSTRAT helps to diffuse the economic issue of shared versus proprietary information (Fig. 11.8). Modified from Behrendt (1990).

FIGURE 11.7 More than 150,000 kilometers of multichannel seismic reflection data (Fig. 6.4), acquired around Antarctica (tick marks at 10° latitude increments) by universities and institutions from different nations since 1978 (Table 11.3). Since 1988, these seismic data have been compiled by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) through the Antarctic Offshore Stratigraphy Project (ANTOSTRAT), for the purpose of providing open access to marine geophysical data for interpreting the environmental history of Antarctica since the breakup of Gondwana (Fig. 6.3). The implementation of ANTOSTRAT helps to diffuse the economic issue of shared versus proprietary information (Fig. 11.8). Modified from Behrendt (1990).

tion on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resources (CRAMRA) was signed in 1988 after 6 years of urgent negotiation to ''ensure that Antarctica shall continue forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and shall not become the scene or object of international discord.'' In supporting this visionary objective of peaceful use—which the 1959 Antarctic Treaty instituted as humankind's primary use—CRAMRA identified environmental protection as a common goal of all resource activities around Antarctica (Box 11.1). Beyond protecting against environmental impacts, CRAMRA further recognized thatresourceactivitiescould affect each other and that additional strategies were required to protect the multipleuses of Antarctica (Box 11.2).

Despite the development of CRAMRA, on 28 January 1989, the Argentine supply vessel Bahia Paraiso ran into Full Astern Reef along the coast of the Antarctic Peninsula—spilling 600,000 liters of oil into Arthur Harbor. This Antarctic

TABLE 11.3 Acoustic Surveys of Marine Sediments around Antarctica Conducted by the International Community a

Antarctic Regions b

Nation Organization(s) AP RS WL PB WS

Australia

Brazil

China

France

Germany

Italy Japan

Korea

Norway

Poland

Russia

Spain

United Kingdom United States

Australian Geological Survey Organization National Committee on Antarctic Research Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey Institut Francais du Petrole

Alfred Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Institut für Geophysik Osservatorio Geofísico Sperimentale Geological Survey of Japan, Japan National Oil

Corporation Korean Ocean Research Development Institute University of Bergen Polish Academy of Sciences Joint Stock Marine Arctic Geological Expedition Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Universidad de

Granada British Antarctic Survey

Rice University, United States Geological Survey

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