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Fish production d (tons/year)b

1,630,000

121,500,000

129,600,000

a Adapted from Ryther (1969). b Based on wet weights.

c Average value of two trophic levels (when the fish species are herbivorous, as among the anchovy) and three trophic levels.

a Adapted from Ryther (1969). b Based on wet weights.

c Average value of two trophic levels (when the fish species are herbivorous, as among the anchovy) and three trophic levels.

This Page Intentionally Left Blank one percent of the total ocean area, account for more than half of the total fish production from the sea!

The principal upwelling areas in the ocean are associated with eastern boundary currents that carry cold polar waters equatorward along the west coasts of North America, South America, Africa, and Australia. Along with monsoonal upwelling along east Africa, these mid-latitude regions account for about 200,000 square kilometers of the estimated upwelling area in the ocean (Table 9.4). Conservatively, the remaining 160,000 square kilometers of upwelling area occurs around Antarctica (32,000-kilometer circumference), in a narrow zone that would cover an area around a quarter of the continent seaward for a distance of only 20 kilometers. These estimates suggest that the Antarctic marine ecosystem alone accounts for much more than 25% of the total production at the second and third trophic levels in the world ocean.

Sustainable Resource Use

Resource Economics

Resources are everything biological or environmental that species use for their benefit. In a human context, resources are identified, utilized, and managed by diverse stakeholders as commodities that can be owned and sold. These commodities include living and nonliving resources, such as marine fisheries or mineral deposits, which have short-term commercial values that are limited by resource supply and demand. There also are resources that have long-term values, such as records of climate change that are necessary for charting the course of civilization centuries into the future. There even are abstract resources whose value is in the eye of the beholder, like the view of a pristine wilderness or the hut of an early explorer. The purpose of Part IV of this book is to examine the development and implementation of resource strategies in Antarctica as an example for balancing economic, scientific, government, and social interests in utilizing natural resources on a global scale (Antarctic Treaty Searchable Database: 1959-1999 CD-ROM).

On the broadest management level, the 1959 Antarctic Treaty created a dynamic framework for using the entire south polar region ''exclusively for peaceful purposes'' as a global resource ''in the interest of all mankind.'' Through the Antarctic Treaty System (Chapter 5: International Stewardship), competing stakeholders have been able to identify common interests in continuously consulting and formulating resource management strategies (Box 5.3).

From the outset, the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings (ATCM) provided forums for the international community to elaborate conservation strategies for Antarctic living resources (Table 5.2). In 1964, the Agreed Measures on the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora were adopted, creating specially protected areas as well as protected species. Recognizing the extensive exploitation of Antarctic seals during the 19th century and the potential for other human-induced reductions in species, the Antarctic Treaty nations signed the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (CCAS) in 1972. However, seals along with most other species are part of interacting ecological systems, involving perspectives that focus beyond individual groups of species (Chapter 10: Ecosystem Conservation).

In the Antarctic marine ecosystem (Chapter 9: Living Planet), there also had been severe depletion of whale populations since the start of the 20th century with keystone species such as krill (Euphausia superba) as emerging commercial targets. Moreover, it became apparent that the krill alone could become a food staple exceeding the total harvest of all species from the sea, which is on the order of 100 million tons per year. Responding to these global concerns, the Antarctic Treaty nations signed the 1980 Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) to create an ''ecosystem approach'' for managing ''harvested, related and dependent populations'' in the Antarctic marine ecosystem.

These living resource regimes were fair-haired children of the Antarctic Treaty System compared to the Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities (CRAMRA), which was signed in 1988 (Table 5.2). Accommodations had to be reached among the claimant and nonclaimant nations—a divisive element in the Antarctic Treaty System. Interests in Antarctica as a ''glittering prize'' also were growing throughout the international community, especially after the Wall Street Journal speculated in 1974 on the exten-

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