a Within the statistical fishing areas that have been defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations that are being managed under the auspices of the 1980 Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. b Data from Fischer and Hureau (1985).

c Benthic protozoans that secrete a gluelike substances for binding sand grains have been identified as potential resources by United States and Australian scientists subsequent to the publication by Fischer and Hureau (1985).

d Capturing most species of marine mammals around Antarctica is prohibited by regulations under the 1946 International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling and the 1972 Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Seals.

is possible to harvest commercial quantities of squid within the Antarctic marine ecosystem.

In addition to the swimming organisms (Figs. 10.1-10.3 and 10.5), there also is interest in harvesting Antarctic bottom-dwelling species. For example, near South Georgia in 1992—as a novelty—more than 299 tons of crabs (Paralomis spinosissima and Paralomis formosa) were harvested, representing more than 272,000 animals. In 1996, the South Georgia harvest of Paralomis spinosissima nearly doubled. Exploratory fisheries also have focused on bivalve mollusc species near other subantarctic islands.

How much of the harvest of marine species around Antarctica, as well as living resources worldwide, is driven by interests in economic gain rather than human survival?

Antarctic marine living resource activities mirror the exploitation of species throughout the sea during the last half of the 20th century (Table 10.4). Catches of the largest species, seals and whales, have decreased while the harvest of all other species groups has increased to a global yield from the sea that now exceeds 100 million tons per year. In addition on a global scale, fisheries for benthic species have increased at a faster rate than for pelagic species. As in the Antarctic marine ecosystem (Fig. 9.2)—with traditional commercial targets being progressively depleted, marine fisheries have been expanding to new species and into new areas throughout the ocean (Table 10.4).

As an upwelling zone (Fig. 7.8, Table 9.4), the Antarctic marine ecosystem supports an enormous biomass of krill, fish, squid, birds, seals, and whales. Natu-

TABLE 10.4 Global Harvest of Marine Species a

Catch (X 1000 tons)b

TABLE 10.4 Global Harvest of Marine Species a

Catch (X 1000 tons)b

Marine species

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