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A Terrestrial life forms include plant and animal species as well as bacteria, which are not described in this table. Based on Block (1984). b Uncertain number. c Introduced species. FIGURE 9.2 Illustration of the Antarctic marine ecosystem, which exists south of the Antarctic Convergence (Figs. 7.8 and 8.3), showing interactions among representative species groups at different trophic levels (Table 9.2 Fig. 9.7) from the phytoplankton in the sea-ice zone to the zooplankton assemblages with...

Today

Supercontinents Laurasia in the northern hemisphere and Gondwana in the southern hemisphere (Fig. 6.3). Twenty million years later, Gondwana itself began fracturing into two smaller continental masses East Gondwana (Antarctica, Australia, India, Madagascar) and West Gondwana (South America and Africa). Detachment of South America and Africa followed with the formation of the South Atlantic Ocean during the late Jurassic (Fig. 6.3). By 135 million years ago, Madagascar and India began moving...

The Antarctic Environment

Recognizing that prime responsibility for Antarctic matters, including protection of the Antarctic environment, lies with the States active in the area which are parties to the Antarctic Treaty Noting the vulnerability of the Antarctic environment to human interference and that the consequences of major alterations would be of global significance Noting the distance of the Antarctic from the main sources of environmental pollution and hence its value for global baseline monitoring purposes...

Scientific Research Continuum

FIGURE IV Earth system science extends across a continuum from basic to applied research with a broad focus on ecosystem events, entities and phenomena over time and space on a planetary scale (Part I Earth System Science). On the basic end of the spectrum are studies about the world around us just because of its wonder. On the applied end are studies, technologies, and enterprises for utilizing biological and environmental resources. Across the scientific continuum are insights about creating...

Antarctic Treaty System

FIGURE 5.1 The Antarctic Treaty System was initiated by integrating policy formulation with international ''scientific or technical advice'' through the Antarctic Treaty and ''specialized agencies of the United Nations and other international organizations (Fig. 2.4b). The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, which preceded the 1959 Antarctic Treaty, was formally identified as a relevant international organization along with the International Council of Scientific Unions at the first...

Conceptual Integration

It is important that students bring a certain ragamuffin, barefoot irreverence to their studies they are not here to worship what is known, but to question it. J. Brownowski (1973), The Ascent of Man This book is as much about the process of learning as it is an interdisciplinary journey through the science and policy of the Earth system. Rather than teaching by the academic method, where information is presented and restated where facts are decoupled from the processes that uncovered them this...

Awakening Science

The whole of science is nothing more than a refinement of everyday thinking. Albert Einstein (1954), Ideas and Opinions Early explorers furnished the world with observations about the Antarctic an ocean covered by ice and teeming with life icebergs larger than cities bone-piercing cold and violent winds howling off a barren ice-shrouded continent. Their tales were more than lore they were the seeds of science in Antarctica. Educated sealers, such as James Weddell, focused on describing all...

K

When population sizes are nearly zero, for example after a volcanic eruption or other ''convulsion of nature,'' resources are effectively unutilized and there is an opportunity for geometric population growth. Conversely, as resources become limiting toward the carrying capacity of the habitat (when N approaches K), population growth rates become zero. If there are more individuals than the habitat can FIGURE 9.4 Diagram of the principal species groups and their trophic linkages in the...

Preamble

The States Parties to this Convention, Prompted by the desire to settle, in a spirit of mutual understanding and co-operation, all issues relating to the law of the sea and aware of the historic significance of this Convention as an important contribution to the maintenance of peace, justice and progress for all peoples of the world, Noting that developments since the United Nations Conferences on the Law of the Sea held at Geneva in 1958 and 1960 have accentuated the need for a new and...

Breathing Planet

Nuclear Blast Radius

With thee conversing I forget all time, All seasons, and their change all please alike. John Milton (1867), Paradise Lost, Book IV Solar radiation is the principal heat engine powering the Earth system. Across the planet, there are air-sea interactions that are forced by seasonal sunlight, most notably in the high latitudes where the winter-summer contrasts are most extreme. For example, around Antarctica, the absence of solar radiation during the winter cools sea-surface temperatures and...

Mid Jurassic 180 MYA

FIGURE 6.3 Reconstruction of Pangaea (all land) during the early Jurassic surrounded by the ancestral Pacific (Panthalassa) and Mediterranean (Tethys) oceans. Pangaea separated into the Laura-sia and Gondwana supercontinents around 180 million years ago (mya). By the early Cretaceous, the North Atlantic and Indian oceans had begun opening along with the separation of the West Gondwana continents (South America and Africa). India and Madagascar separated from the Antarctica-Australia complex of...

Total

B See Table 10.1 for pre-whaling population estimates. Widespread reductions in large pelagic predator populations caused the commercial fisheries to consider new resources. Based on the diets of the whales species (Fig. 9.6) and their pre-exploitation population sizes, it is estimated that whale consumption of krill was around 190 million tons of krill each year (Table 10.1). After being exploited, it is estimated that whales only consumed around 43 million metric tons of krill (Table 10.2)....

Our Global Commons

During the second half of the 20th century, as a civilization, we have walked with Neil Armstrong on the Moon and driven in a robotic vehicle across the Martian surface. We have sent manned submer-bles to the bottom of the deepest ocean trenches and space vehicles toward the limits of our solar system. We have space borne telescopes that are beginning to peer into the universe billions of light years beyond and satellites scanning the Earth in minutes across distances that took explorers...