Article 3 Environmental Principles

The protection of the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems and the intrinsic value of Antarctica, including its wilderness and aesthetic values and its value as an area for the conduct of scientific research, in particular research essential to understanding the global environment, shall be fundamental considerations in the planning and conduct of all activities in the Antarctic Treaty area. a. activities in the Antarctic Treaty area shall be planned and conducted so as...

Cited references

R. (1992). Cenozoic glacial history of the Ross Sea revealed by intermediate resolution seismic reflection data combined with drill site information. In Kennett, J. P., and Warnke, D. A. (eds.), ''The Antarctic Paleoenvironment A Perspective on Global Change,'' Part One. Antarctic Research Series, Volume 56, pp. 231-263. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C. Arntz, W. E., Gutt, J., and Klages, M. (1997). Antarctic marine biodiversity an overview. In...

Wilkes Land

FIGURE 11.1 Fifty-five research stations were operated around Antarctica (tick marks at 10 latitude increments) during the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957-58 (Chapter 4 Awakening Science) by the 12 nations that became the original signatories to the 1959 Antarctic Treaty (Chapter 5 International Stewardship). Twelve of the IGY stations are among the 37 year-round research stations operated by 18 nations in the Antarctic region in 1998 (http www.scar.org). Throughout, the Antarctic...

Info

FIGURE 1.3 Hypsographic curve of Earth surfaces today, which illustrates the percentage of the total area on our planet that is occupied at various land elevations and ocean depths relative to sea level. Note that the ocean accounts for more than two-thirds of the Earth's total area with an average depth of 3865 meters and a maximum depth that is deeper than the elevation of the highest mountain. Modified from Thurman (1978). deepest point in the ocean at the bottom of the Marianas Trench, the...

Internet Resources

Center for Astrophysical Research in Antarctica Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iceberg Page Jet Propulsion Laboratory Polar Oceanography Group National Snow and Ice Data Center Unites States Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Library West Antarctic Ice Sheet Program World Climate Research Program add home.html http astro.uchicago.edu cara http www.ipcc.ch index.htm http uwamrc.ssec.wisc.edu amrc iceberg.html http polar.jpl.nasa.gov http nsidc.org index.html cold reg.html http...

Spreading Planet

To one who thoughtfully ponders the centuries and surveys the whole in the clear light of the spring, oceans and continents alone are of account. Time and space (Fig. 2.3) provide the conceptual framework for interpreting events, entities, and phenomena that influence the Earth system (Fig. 6.1). Most of Earth's history is written in the rocks and sediments over geological time scales involving the transformation of oceanic and continental environments during millions and billions of years....

Global Dimensions

Talk of mysteries Think of our life in nature daily to be shown matter, to come in contact with it, rocks, trees, wind on our cheeks the solid earth the actual world the common sense Contact Contact Who are we where are we Henry David Thoreau (1848), Ktaadn The Earth system, as an entity in the cosmos, exists within an envelope of gases that are kept from escaping into space by gravitational attraction to the planet below (Fig. 1.1a). Hydrogen, which is the smallest and least dense atom, with a...

Progress of All Mankind

Learning about the Earth as a system of interconnected events, entities, and phenomena (Fig. 2.1) is relevant to the sustainable development of our civilization. This global relevance which extends from local communities across continents commonly is represented by terms that connect human populations around the planet, such as global change, global economy, or global warming. Underlying these global perspectives are the technologies for viewing the entire planet at once across time with...

Jl

FIGURE 10.10 Illustration of the cooperative international scientific research timetable for the Biological Investigations of Marine Antarctic Systems and Stocks (BIOMASS) program, which was created by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Basic and applied information (Fig. IV) about the Antarctic marine ecosystem were collected and analyzed through a series of integrated activities scientific planning, technical preparation, seagoing experiments, other seagoing activities, shore...

Academic Press

A Harcourt Science and Technology Company San Diego San Francisco New York Boston London Sydney Tokyo Clockwise from upper left Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) on the sea ice near Cape Washington (74 39' S, 165 25' E) in Terra Nova Bay, along the northern Victoria Land coast, during January 1999. SCUBA diving in the nearshore marine environment with colleagues from the Italian Antarctic program near Evans Cove (74 53' S, 163 48' E) in Terra Nova Bay during January 1995. Flags of the...

Total

B See Table 10.2 for current whale population estimates. These continuous shifts in the target species and the progressive depletion of each stock (Fig. 10.3), except the new minke whale target, demonstrate that all whale fisheries have collapsed. This pattern of whale overexploitation occurred despite the regulatory strategies developed by the International Whaling Commission since its inception in 1946. These historical perspectives are strong evidence for the lack of human restraint in...

Earth System Science

Earth contains land, air, water, and life phenomena with rhythms of natural variability that are connected over time and space (Plate 1). For example, continental collisions produce jagged mountains that gradually erode into rounded ranges. With weathering of the rocks, minerals are transported into streams that flow into rivers which add salts to the sea. In the ocean and on land, biological assemblages flourish and disappear with habitat changes that occur during their lifetimes as well as...

Lu

Physical Climate System Atmospheric Physics Dynamics FIGURE 2.2 ''Bretherton Diagram'' illustrating the complexity of air, sea, and land reservoirs and their dynamic chemical, geological, physical, and biological interactions in the Earth system (Part III Our Dynamic Planet). Adapted from Earth System Sciences Committee (1988). FIGURE 2.2 ''Bretherton Diagram'' illustrating the complexity of air, sea, and land reservoirs and their dynamic chemical, geological, physical, and biological...

U

Atmospheric Window for Infrared Radiation FIGURE 8.8 (a) Relative intensities of radiating wavelengths emitted from the Sun (5780 K) and Earth (255 K) based on their absolute temperatures (Box 8.1). (b) Absorptivity of different wavelengths across the electromagnetic spectrum (Fig. 8.7) by major greenhouse gases in the troposphere (Fig. 1.1b), showing the windows for incoming solar shortwave radiation and outgoing terrestrial infrared radiation. Modified from Lutgens and Tarbuck (1998).

Ecosystem Conservation

Each organic being is striving to increase in a geometrical ratio . . . each at some period of its life, during some season of the year, during each generation. . Charles Robert Darwin (1859), On the Origin of Species All species, as Darwin noted, are striving to survive and multiply in a ''geometric ratio'' (Fig. 9.5). Homo sapiens is no different from any other species, particularly in view of our geometric population growth during the past several centuries (Fig. II). Like other species for...

Q

FIGURE 7.4 Earth's climate history during the previous 500,000 years based on atmospheric, marine, and terrestrial records that continuously cover the last five glacial-interglacial transitions (identified by dashed vertical lines with Roman numerals and the duration of the period in thousands of years, ka). Temperature profile from the Vostok ice core from Antarctica has been calculated in relation to the oxygen and hydrogen isotope content of the snow. Close correlation between atmospheric...

M

Characteristic Temporal SExapenential Seconds) FIGURE 6.1 The envelope of Earth system phenomena represented across exponential scales of time and space (Fig. 2.3). Geological processes transform oceanic and terrestrial environments over millions and billions of years (Fig. 1.6). Ecological processes operate, on the opposite end of the spectrum, in relation to the persistence of populations and their habitats over periods that may be shorter than seasons. Modified from Earth System Science...

Stefanboltzmann

Radiation emission constant 2 X (Absolute temperature)4 absolute temperature ( K, degrees Kelvin) C (degrees celsius) + 273.15 constant 2 5.67 X 1Q 8 Watts m 2 K4. diation also is absorbed 19 by the atmosphere and 51 by Earth's surfaces (largely in the oceans). This solar energy budget warms the Earth system to around -18 C. Although much colder than the Sun, the Earth also emits radiation (Box 8.1), but at a much lower wattage and with a maximum wavelength in the infrared region around 10...

Ho

FIGURE 8.11 (a) Antarctic measurements of ozone at Halley Station (75 south, 26 west) showing average concentrations in October, when ozone levels generally are lowest each year. Ozone concentrations are measured in Dobson units, in parts per billion, which represent the amount of ozone in a square-centimeter column through the atmosphere. Based on data from the British Antarctic Survey (b) The ''ozone hole'' over Antarctica on 7 October 2000, showing the circumpolar concentrations of...

Environmental Protection

When the Well's dry, we know the Worth of Water. Benjamin Franklin (1746), Poor Richard's Almanack Humans are intimately linked to the physical, geological, chemical, and biological elements of the Earth's environment (Figs. II and III). We breathe the air and drink the water. We eat food from land and sea. We seek materials to clothe and shelter us. We build vast cities with technologies that are powered by diverse sources of energy. The resources for our civilization come from anywhere we...

The Science keystone

Imagine all the people, living life in peace . Imagine all the people, sharing all the world. John Lennon (1971), Imagine Coldest, windiest, driest, most isolated, least populated, most pristine, and most peaceful Antarctica is a land of extremes, offering precious perspectives on the Earth system and its relation to humankind (Fig. IV). These insights about Antarctica and the Earth system largely emanate from scientific investigations (Fig. III). Moreover, in Antarctica, science has the added...

Xx

BAP, Antarctic Peninsula (80-35 W) RS, Ross Sea (160 E-165 W) WL, Wilkes Land (100-160 E) PB, Prydz Bay (60-90 E) and WS, Weddell Sea (60 W-5 E). Based on Cooper et al. (1995). oil spill was two orders of magnitude smaller than the Exxon Valdez accident, which released nearly 40 million liters of crude oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska, on 24 March 1989. Nonetheless, concerns about environmental impacts from Antarctic mineral resource activities were galvanized, and during this period...

Flowing Planet

Since the measuring device has been constructed by the observer we have to remember that what we observe is not nature in itself but nature exposed to our method of questioning. Werner Karl Heisenberg (1958), Physics and Philosophy The geological framework imposed by the tectonic movement and ultimate positioning of the continents has exerted a major influence on Earth's climate. Not only have vast oceans been created as continents drifted apart, but pathways for air and sea currents to...

K

Consequently, the MSY occurs when net recruitment and fishing mortality are in equilibrium at 50 of the population's carrying capacity (Fig. 10.9). Moreover, to sustain the population, a fishery would remove only large adults that already have contributed their reproductive output to the next generation. The size of the individuals is critical because only sexually mature adults can reproduce and support the recruitment of the population. Removing the smaller individuals, especially the...

Living Planet

The pieces are the phenomena of the universe, the rules of the game are what we call the laws of Nature. Thomas Henry Huxley (1868), A Liberal Education and Where to Find It Life is the ultimate expression of natural variability. Through the course of the Earth system, organisms have evolved within kingdoms of differing biological complexity from bacteria to the plants and animals. Within each kingdom, organisms are further distinguished across hierarchies of taxonomic complexity (e.g., Table...

Preamble

Patrones Blusas Casa

Inspired by the great prospects opening up before mankind as a result of man's entry into outer space, Recognizing the common interest of all mankind in the progress of the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, Believing that the exploration and use of outer space should be carried on for the benefit of all peoples irrespective of the degree of their economic or scientific development, Desiring to contribute to broad international co-operation in the scientific as well as...

Today

Supercontinents Laurasia in the northern hemisphere and Gondwana in the southern hemisphere (Fig. 6.3). Twenty million years later, Gondwana itself began fracturing into two smaller continental masses East Gondwana (Antarctica, Australia, India, Madagascar) and West Gondwana (South America and Africa). Detachment of South America and Africa followed with the formation of the South Atlantic Ocean during the late Jurassic (Fig. 6.3). By 135 million years ago, Madagascar and India began moving...

The Antarctic Environment

Recognizing that prime responsibility for Antarctic matters, including protection of the Antarctic environment, lies with the States active in the area which are parties to the Antarctic Treaty Noting the vulnerability of the Antarctic environment to human interference and that the consequences of major alterations would be of global significance Noting the distance of the Antarctic from the main sources of environmental pollution and hence its value for global baseline monitoring purposes...

International Stewardship

To boldly go where no one has gone before. The significance of scientific cooperation in Antarctica during the International Geophysical Year (IGY) reverberated through the participating nations. Recognizing their historic opportunity, in 1959 the seven claimant nations (Fig. 3.5) and five nonclaimant nations (Belgium, Japan, South Africa, Soviet Union, and the United States) crafted the Antarctic Treaty and became the initial signatories ''with the interests of science and the progress of all...

Scientific Research Continuum

FIGURE IV Earth system science extends across a continuum from basic to applied research with a broad focus on ecosystem events, entities and phenomena over time and space on a planetary scale (Part I Earth System Science). On the basic end of the spectrum are studies about the world around us just because of its wonder. On the applied end are studies, technologies, and enterprises for utilizing biological and environmental resources. Across the scientific continuum are insights about creating...

Antarctic Treaty System

FIGURE 5.1 The Antarctic Treaty System was initiated by integrating policy formulation with international ''scientific or technical advice'' through the Antarctic Treaty and ''specialized agencies of the United Nations and other international organizations (Fig. 2.4b). The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, which preceded the 1959 Antarctic Treaty, was formally identified as a relevant international organization along with the International Council of Scientific Unions at the first...

Conceptual Integration

It is important that students bring a certain ragamuffin, barefoot irreverence to their studies they are not here to worship what is known, but to question it. J. Brownowski (1973), The Ascent of Man This book is as much about the process of learning as it is an interdisciplinary journey through the science and policy of the Earth system. Rather than teaching by the academic method, where information is presented and restated where facts are decoupled from the processes that uncovered them this...

Awakening Science

The whole of science is nothing more than a refinement of everyday thinking. Albert Einstein (1954), Ideas and Opinions Early explorers furnished the world with observations about the Antarctic an ocean covered by ice and teeming with life icebergs larger than cities bone-piercing cold and violent winds howling off a barren ice-shrouded continent. Their tales were more than lore they were the seeds of science in Antarctica. Educated sealers, such as James Weddell, focused on describing all...

Protozoans Phyla In Antarctica And Arctica

When population sizes are nearly zero, for example after a volcanic eruption or other ''convulsion of nature,'' resources are effectively unutilized and there is an opportunity for geometric population growth. Conversely, as resources become limiting toward the carrying capacity of the habitat (when N approaches K), population growth rates become zero. If there are more individuals than the habitat can FIGURE 9.4 Diagram of the principal species groups and their trophic linkages in the...

Breathing Planet

Nuclear Blast Radius

With thee conversing I forget all time, All seasons, and their change all please alike. John Milton (1867), Paradise Lost, Book IV Solar radiation is the principal heat engine powering the Earth system. Across the planet, there are air-sea interactions that are forced by seasonal sunlight, most notably in the high latitudes where the winter-summer contrasts are most extreme. For example, around Antarctica, the absence of solar radiation during the winter cools sea-surface temperatures and...

Mid Jurassic 180 MYA

FIGURE 6.3 Reconstruction of Pangaea (all land) during the early Jurassic surrounded by the ancestral Pacific (Panthalassa) and Mediterranean (Tethys) oceans. Pangaea separated into the Laura-sia and Gondwana supercontinents around 180 million years ago (mya). By the early Cretaceous, the North Atlantic and Indian oceans had begun opening along with the separation of the West Gondwana continents (South America and Africa). India and Madagascar separated from the Antarctica-Australia complex of...

Our Global Commons

Pemafibrate Ppar

During the second half of the 20th century, as a civilization, we have walked with Neil Armstrong on the Moon and driven in a robotic vehicle across the Martian surface. We have sent manned submer-bles to the bottom of the deepest ocean trenches and space vehicles toward the limits of our solar system. We have space borne telescopes that are beginning to peer into the universe billions of light years beyond and satellites scanning the Earth in minutes across distances that took explorers...