Contents

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xi

FOREWORD xiii

CHAPTER 1 : HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION

Introduction 1

History of exploration 3

Minerals 15

Marine living resources 17

Environmental considerations 19

Concluding remarks 20

CHAPTER 2 : METEOROLOGY

Introduction 21

Atmospheric circulation over the Southern Ocean 26 Interaction between sea ice and atmospheric circulation in the Southern Ocean 42 Effect of the Antarctic continent on atmospheric circulation in the Southern Ocean 47

Present research efforts and problems for the future 50

Summary 52

CHAPTER 3 : PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY

Introduction 55

Mean wind forcing and large-scale oceanic response 57

Mean current structure and interaction with bottom topography 59

Transport 63

Zonation 64

Mesoscale variability 75

Water masses and thermohaline circulation 76

Summary and conclusions 92

CHAPTER 4 : ICE

Introduction 95

The Antarctic ice sheet 95

Ice shelves and other marine glaciers 100

Ross Ice Shelf 103

Other marine glaciers 107

Icebergs 108

Sea ice 116

Conclusions 123

CHAPTER 5 : STRUCTURE AND TECTONICS

Introduction 125

Plate tectonic development of the southern Pacific Ocean 129

Tectonic history of the margins of the southern Pacific Ocean 138

Summary 154

CHAPTER 6 : HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION AND POTENTIAL

Introduction 155

Exploration history 156

Assessments of hydrocarbon potential 158

Regional hydrocarbon evaluation 160

Sedimentary basins of southern New Zealand 165

Basins of the Campbell Plateau 167

Basins of the Ross Sea 173

Western Antarctic peninsula and western Ellsworth Land 180

High latitude exploration and production 182

Summary 184

CHAPTER 7 : SEDIMENTS

Introduction 187

Continental margin sedimentation 187

Abyssal sediments 196

Summary 205

CHAPTER 8 : PLANKTON

Introduction 207

Physical and chemical characteristics 208

Phytoplankton 211

Composition 211

Standing crop and primary production 215

Factors governing primary production 223

Significance of nanoplankton and picoplankton 228

Ice algae 228

Plankton under the Ross Ice Shelf 229

Zooplankton 230

Composition 231

Distribution 231

Standing crop 233

Seasonal variations 233

Krill 234

Distribution 234

Breeding and spawning of krill 236

Longevity 237

Food and feeding 237

Krill stocks 237

Krill exploitation 238

Summary and conclusions 239

CHAPTER 9 : MARINE MAMMALS

History of exploitation 242

Occurrence and status of marine mammals 250

Whales 250

Seals 257

The future 261

CHAPTER 10: SEABIRDS

Introduction 263

Origins 263

Taxonomy 264

Breeding distribution 265

Distribution at sea 281

Bird densities at sea 286

Foraging behaviour and food 287

CHAPTER 11 : ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

Introduction 291

Methods/observations 292

Plastics and the subantartic islands 292

Distribution and sources 295

Enviromental implications 300

Petroleum products 307

Exploration and exploitation 309

Concluding commentary 323

Note added in press 324

REFERENCES 325

SUBJECT INDEX 381

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