Water sample return

A small volume of water will be transported to the surface of the ice sheet at first. In situ filtering will be completed to recover microbial biomasses for DNA and other analyses. A 400-bar pressure change during the samples return to the surface is not considered to be a problem for microbial studies, but temperature changes from the freezing point of water at the ice-lake water interchange (2-3°C) to the ice sheet surface (approx. —55°C) will be a problem due to freezing of samples or the possible exposure of samples to high temperatures in the case of hot-water drilling. Samples will probably need insulation to avoid such problems. DNA analyses, culturing of microbes, and a full spectrum of microscopy should be used for sample analyses. Molecular probing might be employed to identify specific microbial groups. Large pressure changes while taking water samples from the lake to the laboratory may influence gas analyses requiring special methods of sample retrieval to be developed. A wide spectrum of organic and inorganic chemical analyses of filtered and unfil-tered samples will be performed (Kennicut, 2001).

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