Subject Index

AABW (see Antarctic bottom water

(AABW)) AAIW (see Antarctic intermediate water (AAIW)) ACC (see Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC)) ACE programme (see Antarctic Climate Evolution (ACE) programme) Acoustic basement rocks, of Ross Sea region, 122 Acoustic stratification, wedge downlaps, 145 Acoustic stratigraphy, of Wilkes

Land,127-133 Age-depth model, for ODP drilling site, 141

Alkalic magmatic province, Ross Sea tectonic evolution, 283 AMS (see Atomic mass spectrometry (AMS))

Andean Orogen, Antarctic, 275 ANDRILL drilling, on Ross Ice shelf, 124

Angiosperms, fossil flora, 333-335 Antarctica climate change/warming, 103-107 future geoscience investigations in,

287-291 modelling, 555-558 Antarctic Andean Orogen, 275 Antarctic bottom water (AABW), 94-97

Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC),

97-99, 341, 573 Antarctic climate glacial-interglacial time scales, and,

481-485 millennial-scale changes, and, 485-486

Antarctic climate evolution, 509-513 ice sheet expansion, 509 late Pliocene cooling, 509 late Pliocene-early Pleistocene G-I

climate cycles, 509-510 marine ice sheet margin development, 509 Marine Isotope Stage 31, 510-511 mid-Pleistocene climate transition,

511-512

millennial-scale climate variability,

512-513

Antarctic Climate Evolution (ACE)

programme, 2-4 Antarctic coastal and continental shelf rock-drilling sites, 60-61 Antarctic coastal current, 100 Antarctic geological drilling programme (ANDRILL), 476-479

Antarctic glacial history, Cenozoic, 4-9

advancement in geological research during twenty-first century, 58-63

developments in late 1970s, 46-47

discoveries at offshore and on continent in 1980s, 47-53 drilling records during 1972-1975, 39-45

land-based drilling, 1973-1974, 43

sea ice drilling, 1975, 43-45 ship-based drilling, 1972-1973, 40-43

events in evolution of, 36-37 research advancement in mid-twentieth century, 38-39 research advancement in 1990s, 53-57

Antarctic glaciological data versus

Ice-Sheet models, 245-249 Antarctic Ice Sheet

DSDP-ODP drilling dates initiation of, 50-52 dynamic, late Oligocene, 49-50 future prospective of, 63-69 John Mercer's hypothesis for behaviour of, 47 landscape modelling, 58-59 modelling of, 55-56 numerical modelling of, 235-253 EISMINT, 242-245 ice-sheet models, 238-241 ice-sheet models versus glaciological data, 245-249 ice-sheet processes, 236-238 ice-sheet reconstructions,

249-253 model input, 241-242 Pliocene record of, 7 pre-Quaternary history for, 39 proxies climate records, 50 thermal conditions, 247-248 velocity map of, 68 Antarctic Ice Sheet, 468, 533-535 over a full glacial-interglacial cycle, 551

Antarctic intermediate water

(AAIW), 90-92, 491 Antarctic Isotopic Maxima (AIM), 486

Antarctic Offshore Stratigraphy (ANTOSTRAT) project, 52-53, 116 and ODP, 53-54 Antarctic Peninsula, 472-473, 532, 545-547, F12.1 eastern margin of bathymetric contours, 153 single-channel seismic line across, 154 fossil floras

King George Island, 328-330 Late Palaeocene-Late Eocene,

326-327 Seymour Island, 330 geologic transition in, 170 geomorphic and seismic stratigraphic features of, 162-164 lithostratigraphic transitions in,

167-170 Pacific margin of depositional sequences, 159 mid-shelf basins, 161 ridge-crest segments, 158 sea-level and ice-volume changes,

170-172 sedimentary strata, 311-313 seismic stratigraphic history

Cretaceous to early Oligocene, 165

Oligocene glaciomarine sections, 166 sediment drape, 167 South Orkney Islands region,

155-156 South Shetland Islands region Bransfield Strait, 156-157 scientific drilling in, 158

terrestrial environment, Middle Miocene to Pliocene, 417-421 Antarctic periphery climate, 486-487 Antarctic sea-ice drilling, 54-55 Antarctic slope front, 100 ANTOSTRAT (see Antarctic Offshore Stratigraphy (ANTOSTRAT) project) Apparent sea level, 379 Atlantic DWBC inflow, 101-102 Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) at E/O boundary, computer modelling, 344-348 influence across

Oligocene-Miocene boundary, 385

Atmospheric circulation, 467 Atmospheric variability, from ice cores, 479-488 Antarctic climate and glacial-interglacial time scales, 481-485 Antarctic periphery climate,

486-487

future challenges, for ice coring,

487-488

ice core record, 480-481 millennial-scale changes, 485-486 Atomic mass spectrometry (AMS), 536

Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition, 15-16

Basement rocks, acoustic of Ross Sea region, 122 Battye Glacier Formation, 412 Beacon Supergroup, 273-274 Beaver Lake, 539 BEDMAP topography, 555 Bellingshausen Sea Volcanic Group, 421

Biomagnetostratigraphic dating, 55

Borchgrevink orogeny, 272-273 Bransfield Strait, 156-157, 276 Bunger Hills, 541 Byrd, Rear-Admiral Richard E., 21-22 Byrd glacier, 248

Canonical Milankovitch theory, 467 Cape Roberts drilling project, 291 Cape Roberts Project (CRP), 54-55, 469

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

(see Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2)) CDW (see Circumpolar deep water

(CDW)) Cenozoic geological time periods, 2 magmatism in Ross Sea, during,

279-284 oxygen isotope records for, 343 tectonic evolution in Ross Sea, during, 279-284 Cenozoic climate history

Antarctic Peninsula, 152-161 Prydz Bay, 135-144 Ross Sea, 118-126 Weddell Sea, 144-152 Wilkes Land, 126-135 Cenozoic investigations in the western Ross Sea (CIROS) Project, 47-48, 469 Circum-Antarctic geographical distribution maps dinocysts, in Late

Paleocene-Miocene, 338 Circum East Antarctic Mobile Belt, 263

Circumpolar deep water (CDW), 92-94 types of, 94

CIROS (see Cenozoic investigations in the western Ross Sea (CIROS) Project) CIROS-1, 49-50 CIROS-1 drill core climate records,

Oligocene-Miocene boundary, 381, 384-385 revised age models for, 383 western Ross Sea, 317-321 CLIMAP reconstruction, 555 Climate change/warming, of

Antarctica and Southern Ocean (Subpolar region), 103-107 Climate modelling, 55-56 Climate records drilling, 316-321 Eocene/Oligocene, 310-349 from fossil plants, 325-331 from marine microfossils,

335-342 from palynomorphs, 331-335 from sedimentary record,

311-325 from terrestrial realm, 325-335 Middle Miocene to Pliocene marine record, 424-436 terrestrial environments, 404-424 Oligocene-Miocene boundary, 370-391 Coastal current, Antarctic, 100 Coats Land, 548-549 CO2 concentrations, 483 Collins Glacier deposit, fossil flora,

Geophysique Internationale

23-24

Computer modelling

CO2 and ice-sheet inception at E/O boundary, 344-348 Continental rise glacial stratigraphy,

Wilkes Land, 132-133 Continental shelf glacial stratigraphy,

Wilkes Land, 130-131 Continental slope deposits, 159 Continental slope glacial stratigraphy,

Wilkes Land, 131 Contribution to global sea level, isostatic modelling, 558-559 Crary Mountains, 423 Crary Trough Mouth Fan channel-levee complexes, 151 seismic line NARE-8517 across, 148 Cratons, 261 Crozet basin, 102 CRP-2A drill core environmental proxy data,

Oligocene-Miocene boundary, 381, 382 revised age models for, 383 CRP-3 drill core, 317-321 Cryosphere, 534 CSAGI (see Comite Special de l'Anneee Geophysique Internationale (CSAGI)) Cytadela leaf flora, 328-329

Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O)

interstadials, 467 5D (deuterium) signal, 552 Deep ice cores proxy climate records from, 53 Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), 40-41

Wilkes Land margin, 133 Deep-sea isotopes

Antarctic Ice Sheet proxy records, 50

Deep western boundary currents

(DWBC), 101-103, 490 Depositional model for Late Oligocene/Early Miocene, 319-320 Depositional patterns, 159

of Antarctic Ice Sheets, 49 Dinocysts

Late Eocene-Early Oligocene,

337-339 Middle Eocene, 339-340 Palaeocene-Middle Eocene, 336-337 D-O climate oscillations, 467 D-O interstadials (see

Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) interstadials) Dragon Glacier Moraine, macroflora deposits, 328 Drake Passage, climate evolution, 346 Drake Plate, 275 Drill cores, in western Ross Sea,

317-321 Drilling climate records, 316-321 in Prydz Bay, 321-325 records of Ross Sea ice-sheet evolution, 122-126 on Wilkes Land margin, 133 Dronning Maud Land continental slope, 145 Dronning Maud Land margin, 152

seismic line AWI-90110 across, 147

Dry Valley Drilling Project (DVDP), 43, 469

DSDP (see Deep Sea Drilling Project

DSDP-ODP drilling dates initiation of Antarctic Ice Sheet, 50-52 DVDP (see Dry Valley Drilling

Project (DVDP)) DVDP-15, 45

DWBC (see Deep western boundary currents (DWBC))

EAIS (see East Antarctica ice sheet

(EAIS)) Early glacial deposites during late Eocene, Prydz

Bay, 138-139 ice-sheet evolution in Ross Sea region during late Oligocene to early Miocene, 123-124 Earth Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC), 505 Earth's temperature, variation from cenozoic to present, 3 East Antarctica, 259-260 East Antarctic Craton, 261 East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS), 403-404, 472, 573 marine record, Middle Miocene to Pliocene, 424-428 East terrestrial environments, Middle Miocene to Pliocene, 404-417 East wind drift, 100 EBM (see Energy-balance climate models (EBM)) Edward VII Peninsula (Westernmost

Marie Byrd Land), 271 Eemian interglacial, 536-537 EISMINT (see European Ice Sheet Modelling Initiative (EISMINT)) ELA (see Equilibrium line altitude

(ELA)) Ellsworth Land, 421-422 Ellsworth Orogeny, 274-275 Ellsworth-Pensacola Mountains, 274

EMIC (see Earth Models of

Intermediate Complexity (EMIC)) Enderby land, 537-538, F12.2 Energy-balance climate models

(EBM), 501 Environmental records from marine microfossils, 335-342 from palynomorphs, 331-335 Eocene environment in Ross Sea,

314-316 ocean isotope record, climate evolution, 342-344 Eocene erratic rocks found in coastal region of Ross Sea, 122-123 Eocene/Oligocene climate signals from sedimentary record, 311-325 EPICA (see European Programme for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA)) Equilibrium line altitude (ELA), 250-251

Erebus volcanic province, Ross Sea tectonic evolution, 283-284 Erratic rocks, Eocene found in coastal region of Ross Sea, 122-123 Eucampia antarctica, 472 European Ice Sheet Modelling Initiative (EISMINT), 242-245 outcomes, 244-245 European Programme for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA), 469 Eustatic sea-level curves,

Oligocene-Miocene boundary, 378-379 Exhumation events, variation Transantarctic Mountains, 286

Ferrar Supergroup, 277 Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, 532,

in central regions, 245-247 processes controlling, 237 radar layering and internal, 247 Fluctuation, NH ice volume, 468 Fossil Hill Formation, 329 Fossil plants climate records, Eocene/Oligocene, 325-331 Fossil record, terrestrial of east Antarctic climate, 414-417 Framnes mountains, 538 Franz Joseph Land, 15

Gaussberg, 541

GCM (see Global Climate Model (GCM))

Geological information, 535-550 Holocene glacier, climate fluctuations, 549 Last Glacial Maximum, 537-549 last interglacial, 536-537 late Quaternary ice-sheet, 535-536 pattern and timing, of ice retreat, 550

Prydz Bay, 550 Geological map, 262 Geological time periods, Cenozoic, 2 Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale calibration history, Oligocene-Miocene boundary, 373 Geotectonic settings before Gondwana amalgamation,

261-264 present-day, 259-260 George V Land, 541 Glacial climate, 533-534 Glacial history of Antarctic, 4-9

Glacial-interglacial cycles, 488-499 (see also Oceanic variability, from southern ocean sediment cores)

iceberg discharge and migration,

498-499 intermediate waters, 491 ocean fronts, 496-497 surface ocean currents, 497 surface waters, 492-495 thermohaline circulation, 488-490 Glacial-interglacial (G-I) cycles, 468 Glacial-interglacial time scales,

481-485 Glacial sedimentation ancestral Lambert Glacier, advance and recession stages, 323-324 Glacial sequences on Continental shelf, 130-131 Glacial stratigraphy continental rise, 132-133 continental shelf, 130-131 continental slope, 131 Glacial variability, from continental margin geological record, 469-479 ANDRILL, 476-479 Antarctic Peninsula, 472-473 Prydz Bay, 473-475 Ross Sea, 475-476 Weddell Sea, 471-472 Glaciation record of Wilkes Land, 134-135

GLIMMER community ice-sheet model, 555 Global Circulation Model (GCM) simulation, 347, 348 south polar climate variations in response to a growing ice sheet, 388

Global Climate Model (GCM), 504, 551

Global ice volume evolution during Eocene to Oligocene, 342-344 Global positioning system (GPS), 559 GLOCHANT (see Group of

Specialists on Global Change (GLOCHANT)) Glomar Challenger, 40, 42 Gondwana amalgamation, 270

geotectonic settings before, 261-264 break-up, 276-287

tectonic stages of, 276-279 dispersal of Southern Hemisphere

Continents, 276-287 supercontinent, 265-276 Gondwana, evolution late precambrian-early palaeozoic

(c. 600-450Ma), 266-272 from Rodinia, 267-272 upper palaeozoic-mesozoic (c. 450-180Ma), 272-276 GPS (see Global positioning system

(GPS)) Grenvillian orogen, 263 Grounding-line fan model of glaciomarine sedimentation, Late Oligocene/Early Miocene, 319-320 Group of Specialists on Global

Change (GLOCHANT), 54 Gyres, 99-100

"Heroic era'', 35, 38 Holocene, 531

glacier, climate fluctuations, 549

Iceberg discharge and migration, 498-499 (see also Glacial-interglacial cycles) Iceberg-rafted debris (IRD), 473

Ice cores proxy climate records from deep, 53

Ice coring, future challenges,

487-488 Ice-sheet development mid-early Miocene to early

Pliocene in Ross Sea region, 124-125 Ice-sheet evolution in Ross Sea early glacial, 123-124 during mid-early miocene to early pliocene, 124-125 polar ice sheet, 125-126 pre-ice-sheet, 122-123 Ice sheet expansion, 509 (see also

Antarctic climate evolution) Ice-sheet fluctuations

Late Miocene-Early Pliocene, 427-428 Ice-sheet hysteresis influence across

Oligocene-Miocene boundary, 390-391 Ice-sheet inception at E/O boundary, computer modelling, 344-348 Ice sheet Model Intercomparison Programme (ISMIP), 245 Ice-sheet modelling, 55-56, 550-551 Ice-sheet models, numerical, 238-241 versus Antarctic glaciological data, 245-249 Ice-sheet processes, 236-238 Ice Sheets, Antarctic

East (see East Antarctic Ice Sheet

(EAIS)) modelling, 437-441 West (see West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS)) Ice-sheet sensitivity, 554 Ice streams, 154

Ice volume, global evolution during Eocene to Oligocene, 342-344 Ice-volume variations, 170-172 ICSU (see International Council of

Scientific Unions (ICSU)) IGY (see International Geophysical

Year (IGY)) IMAGES programme (see

International Marine Global Change Study (IMAGES) programme) IMO (see International

Meteorological Organization (IMO)) Indian DWBC inflow, 102 Indo-Antarctica, 270 InSAR (see Interferometric Synthetic

Aperture Radar (InSAR)) Integrated Ocean Drilling Programme

(IODP), 65, 469 Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) for surface velocity of ice sheets, 248-249 Interglacial ice sheet, 551-552 International Council of Scientific

Unions (ICSU), 23, 25 International Geophysical Year (IGY), 1957-1958, 22-26 establishment of SCAR, 25 estimation of ice volume in Antarctica, 25 International Marine Global

Change Study (IMAGES) programme, 8 International Meteorological

Conference, 1879, 17 International Meteorological

Organization (IMO), 19 International Polar Commission, 17, 19-20

International Polar Conference, 17 International Polar Year (IPY) 1882-1883, 14-19 1932-1933, 19-22 1957-1958, 22-26 2007-2008, 27-30 themes, 29 IODP (see Integrated Ocean Drilling

Programme (IODP)) Isostasy, 238 Isostatic modelling contribution to global sea level,

558-559 of post-glacial uplift, 558-559 Isotopic record

Oligocene-Miocene boundary, 374-377

James Ross Island Volcanic Group,

417, 421 John Mercer's hypothesis for behaviour of Antarctic Ice Sheet, 47 Jurassic Ferrar Large Igneous

Province (FLIP), 277 Jutul Penck Graben, 279

K-Ar dating for Antarctic Cenozoic ice sheets, 39

King George Island fossil plants, 328-330 stratigraphy, 313-314 Krakowiak Glacial Member, 314

Lake glubokoye, 537 Lambert Glacier, ancestral glacial sedimentation, advance and recession stages, 323-324

Lambert glacier-Amery ice shelf, 7, 538-539

Lambert Glacier region

Middle Miocene to Pliocene history, 410-414 Lambert Graben, 278-279 La Meseta Formation, 312 Land-based drilling to study Antarctic Cenozoic glaciation, 43 Landscape modelling of Antarctic Ice Sheet, 58-59 Larsemann Hills, 539, 549-550 Larsen Shelf sediments, 149

seismic line AWI-97051 across, 147 Last glacial maximum (LGM), 8-9, 473, 531, 537-549, 574 Antarctic Peninsula, 545-547 Coats Land, 548-549 Enderby Land, 537-538, F12.2 Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, 548-549 Lambert Glacier-Amery Ice Shelf,

538-539 Mac.Robertson Land, 538-539 Marie Byrd Land, 544-545 Princess Elizabeth Land, 539-542 Prydz Bay, 538-539, F12.3 Queen Mary Land, 539-542 Queen Maud Land, 537-538,

F12.2 in Ross Sea, 125-126 Ross Sea Embayment, 542-544 Transantarctic Mountains, 542-544

Weddell Sea Embayment, 548-549 Wilkes Land, 539-542 Late Eocene-Early Oligocene dinocysts, 337-339 Late Eocene-early Oligocene cooling, 5

Late Miocene-Early Pliocene ice-sheet fluctuations, 427-428 marine records, 435-436

Late Oligocene/Early Miocene depositional model for, 319-320 Victoria Land coast in, 321 Late Palaeocene-Late Eocene fossil floras, Antarctic Peninsula region, 326-327 Late Pliocene cooling, 509 (see also Antarctic climate evolution) Late Pliocene-early Pleistocene G-I climate cycles, 509-510 (see also Antarctic climate evolution) Late Precambrian-Early Palaeozoic (c. 600-450 Ma) Gondwana, evolution, 266-272 palaeo-pacific margin, 270-272

Late Quaternary ice-sheet, 535-536

reconstructions, 533-534 Law dome, 105, 534 LCDW (see Lower circumpolar deep water (LCDW)) LGM (see Last glacial maximum

(LGM)) Lithostratigraphic changes, in antarctic margin, 169 in drill cores from continental rise,

167-168 facies, 170

sea-level and ice-volume changes, 170-172

''Longyear 44'' drilling rig, 43, 46 Lower circumpolar deep water

(LCDW), 94 Lutzow Holm-Prydz Bay

Pan-African orogenic belt, 268-270

Mac.Robertson Land, 538-539 Magmatism in Ross Sea Sector, during the Cenozoic, 279-284

Magnesium/Calcium (Mg/Ca) data across Oligocene-Miocene boundary, 375-377, 380 Marie Byrd Land, 422-424, 544-545 Marine ice sheet margin development, 509 (see also Antarctic climate evolution) Marine Isotope Stage 31, 510-511 (see also Antarctic climate evolution) Marine microfossils climate records from, 335-342 Marine record, Middle Miocene to Pliocene Antartic Peninsula, 429-433 EAIS, 424-428 Southern Ocean, 433-436 WAIS, 429-433 Marine records, Late Miocene-Early

Pliocene, 435-436 Mass balance, 237-238 Maud Rise, records from, 380 MCMC (see Monte Carlo Markov

Chain (MCMC)) McMurdo Dry Valleys, 43 McMurdo Erratics, 315 McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS), 471 McMurdo Sound climate data, Oligocene-Miocene boundary, 381-385 fossil flora, 330-331 map and cross-section of, 44 post-IGY surveys of glacial deposits in, 39 stratigraphy, 284 McMurdo Sound Sediment and Tectonic Studies Project (MSSTS), 46-47 MCS (see Multichannel seismic

(MCS) reflection) MCS profiles, location of Wilkes Land margin, 128

Mertz glaciers, 541 Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basin, 152 Methane concentrations, 483 Meyer Desert Formation, fossil records, 416 Microfossils, marine, climate records from, 335-342 Middle-late Miocene cooling, 6 Middle Miocene Climate Transition

(MMCT), 433-435 Middle Miocene cooling, marine records, 425-427 Middle Miocene to Pliocene terrestrial environments, 404-424 east, 404-417 west, 417-424 Mi-1 518O event, origin, 386 Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), 468, 505, 511-512 (see also Antarctic climate evolution; Pleistocene ice volume variation modelling) Mi-1 glaciations (see Miocene (Mi-1)

glaciations) Millennial-scale climate variability, 485-486, 506, 512-513 (see also Antarctic climate evolution; Pleistocene ice volume variation modelling) Miocene climatic optimimum, 62-63

Miocene (Mi-1) glaciations, 5-6 Modelling

Antartic climate and ice sheets, 437-441

CO2 and ice-sheet inception at E/O boundary, 344-348 Monte Carlo Markov Chain

(MCMC), 502 Moraine complexes, 152

Mount Murphy, 422-423 Mount Wawel, macroflora deposits, 328

Moutone'e Lake, 549 Mozambique suture zone, 267-268 MPT (see Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT))

MSSTS (see McMurdo Sound

Sediment and Tectonic Studies Project (MSSTS)) Multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection, 117 study of Ross Sea, 119-126 ice-sheet evolution, 122-126

NADW (see North Atlantic Deep

Water (NADW)) Neogene age volcanic outcrops in West Antarctica, 418-420 Neogene (15-2 Ma) distribution terrestrial volcanic outcrops, West Antarctica, 413 Neogene stratigraphic section of Ross Sea, 126

Neogloboquadrina pachyderma, 474 New Zealand Antarctic Programme (see McMurdo Sound Sediment and Tectonic Studies Project (MSSTS)) NH (see Northern Hemisphere (NH)) Nimrod Glacier area, 270-271 Ninnis glaciers, 541 North Atlantic Deep Water

(NADW), 488 Northern continental slope, 154 Northern Hemisphere (NH), 467 ice volume fluctuation, 468 summer insolation, 467 North Greenland Ice Core Project (North GRIP), 481

Novolazarevskaya ice shelf, 537 Nowaja Semlja, 15 Numerical ice-sheet models, 238-241

Numerical modelling of Antarctic Ice Sheet, 235-253 EISMINT, 242-245 ice-sheet models, 238-241 versus glaciological data, 245-249 ice-sheet processes, 236-238 ice-sheet reconstructions, 249-253 model input, 241-242 Numerical modelling reconstructions, 550-559 Antarctica modelling, 555-558 ice-sheet modelling, 550-551 ice-sheet sensitivity, 554 interglacial ice sheet, 551-552 time dependent simulations, 552-554

Ocean circulation, 467 influence across

Oligocene-Miocene boundary, 385-389

Ocean Drilling Programme (ODP), 469

age-depth model for drilling site of, 141

and ANTOSTRAT, 53-54 deep-sea isotope data from sites in Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, 50 drilling sites of Prydz Bay, 136 Oceanic variability, from southern ocean sediment cores, 488-501 glacial-interglacial cycles, 488-499 millennial-scale cycles, 499-501 Ocean isotope record climate evolution during Eocene and Oligocene, 342-344

Ocean temperatures evolution during Eocene to Oligocene, 342-344 ODP (see Ocean Drilling Programme

(ODP)) Oligocene glaciation, 158 ice sheets dynamic, 49-50 ocean isotope record, climate evolution, 342-344 Oligocene-Miocene boundary drivers of climate change across,

385-391 identification of, 371-374 proxy records, 374-379 records from Antartic margins, 379-385

Oligocene-Miocene boundary Mi-1

glaciation, 5-6 Orbital parameters influence across

Oligocene-Miocene boundary, 389-390 Orogenic belts, 263 Oxygen isotope data across Oligocene-Miocene boundary, 374-376, 380 Oxygen isotope records for Cenozoic, 343

Pacific-Antarctic Ridge, initiation, 282 Pacific DWBC inflow, 102-103 Pagodroma Group, 7, 404-405 clay mineralogy, 412-414 glacial erosional features, 411 Middle Miocene to Pliocene history, 410-414 sedimentary characteristics, 411 stratigraphy, 408 Palaeoceanography, 339-342 Palaeocene-Middle Eocene dinocysts, 336-337

Palaeogene, Antarctic strata pollen assemblages, 332-333 Palaeogene fossil plants, 325-328 Palaeo-ice streams and S3/S2

boundary, 159 Palaeo-pacific margin

Gondwana evolution, late precambrian-early palaeozoic, 270-272 Palaeo sea level records,

Oligocene-Miocene boundary, 377-379 Palynomorphs climate records from, 331-335 from OPD drilling site in Prydz Bay, 139

Pattern and timing, of ice retreat, 550 Payer, Julius, 16 Plant macrofossils climate records from, 325-328 Plate-tectonically active part, 275-276 Pleistocene glacial cycles, 7-8 ice sheets, 251-253 Pleistocene ice volume variation modelling, 501-509 Antarctica, 506-509 millennial-scale variability, 506 MPT, 505

Northern Hemisphere, 501-505 Pliocene ice sheets, 249-251 record, of Antarctic Ice Sheet, 7 vegetation distributions, climate modelling, 439 Plio-pleistocene strata, 543 Point Hennequin Flora, 328 Polar ice sheet evolution in Prydz Bay, 142-143

evolution in Ross Sea region during early Pliocene through Quaternary, 125-126 Polar stereographic projection Oligocene-Miocene boundary locations, 372 Pollen assemblages in Antarctic Palaeogene strata, 332-333 Polonez Cove Formation, 314 Post-glacial uplift, isostatic modelling,

558-559 Pre-ice-sheet

Cenozoic shelf edge, 148 evolution in Ross Sea region during pre-late-Oligocene, 122-123

palaeo-climate evolution of Prydz Bay during pre-late Eocene, 137-138 stratigraphy of Wilkes Land, 127-130 Prince Gustav Channel, 549 Princess Elizabeth Land, 539-542 Proxy records

Oligocene-Miocene boundary, 374-379

cenozoic climate history, seismic interpretation and drilling, 135-144

ice-sheet development during Oligocene-Miocene, 139-142 drilling in, 321-325 geomorphic and seismic stratigraphic features of, 163 geomorphic features of, 163, 165 lithostratigraphic transitions in,

168-169 sea-level variations, 171

seismic lines and ODP drill sites of, 136

seismic stratigraphic features of, 165-167

Quaternary Antarctic evolution,

553-554 Quaternary climate dataset, 468 Queen Mary Land, 539-542 Queen Maud Land, 537-538

Radar layering

Antarctic Ice Sheet, 247 RCM (see Regional Climate Model

(RCM)) ''Refrigerator trap'', 342 Regional Climate Model (RCM), 504 Rennick Graben, 279 Rodinia

Gondwana, evolution from, 267-272 Ross embayment

McMurdo Sound coastal area of, 284

rifting in, 280-282 Ross gyre, 100 Ross Ice shelf

ANDRILL drilling on, 124 Ross Ice Shelf Project (RISP), 46 Ross Orogeny, 271 Ross Sea, 475-476, 532, 542-544, F12.1

Cenozoic climate history, seismic interpretation and drilling data, 118-126 continental shelf edge, 166 Eocene environments in, 314-316 fossil flora from McMurdo Sound,

330-331 geomorphic and seismic stratigraphic features of, 165

lithostratigraphic transitions in,

168-170 magmatism, during Cenozoic,

279-284 sea-level variations in, 171 seismic data used in glacial sedimentary processes, 121-122

ship-based drilling at eastern, 40 stratigraphic correlation, 121 structural framework of, 119 tectonic evolution, during Cenozoic, 279-284 Ross Sea, South Western climate data, Oligocene-Miocene boundary, 381-385 Ross Sea, western drill cores in, 317-321 Ross Sea Rift, 279 RSL curve, 549

Salinity trends, of Southern Ocean, 105-106

SAM (see Southern Annular Mode (SAM))

SAMW (see Subantarctic mode water

(SAMW)) Satellite interferometry to calculate ice velocity, 248-249

SCAR (see Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR)) Schirmacher oasis, 537 Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) CIROS, 47-48

establishment during IGY, 25 planning for future research, 52-53 Sea ice drilling, 54-55 future prospective of, 64

to study Antarctic Cenozoic glaciation, 43-45 advancement during twenty-first century, 59-63 Sea-level variations, 170-172 Sea-riser technology, 471 Sedimentary record (Eocene/Oligocene)

climate records from, 311-325 Seismic stratigraphy

Antarctic Ice Sheet proxy records, 50 ice-sheet evolution in Ross Sea region, 122-126 sea level changes, 46-47 Seymour Island fossil flora, 330 Shelf aggradation, 145, 147 Shelf-ice drilling future prospective, 64 to study history of Antarctic Cenozoic Glaciation, 59-63 Ship-based drilling CIROS Project, 47-48 future prospective of, 64-66 to study Antarctic Cenozoic glaciation, 40-43 Siliceous biogenic facies, 149 Single-channel seismic (SCS) surveys, of Ross sea, 119 Siple coast, of Ross Sea, 537 Sirius Group, 7, 404-405

glacial erosional features, 407 Middle Miocene to Pliocene history, 406-410 sedimentary characteristics, 407 stratigraphy, 408 Skelton Glacier area, 270 Sorsdal Glacier, 541 Southern Annular Mode (SAM), 104 Southern Ocean circulation, 97-103

Antarctic circumpolar current, 97-99

subpolar circulation, 99-100 thermohaline circulation, 100-103

climate change/warming, 103-107 oceanographic elements of, 87 salinity trends of, 105-106 water mass formation and dispersal, 88-97 South Orkney Islands region, 155-156 South polar seasonal temperatures, sea ice and winds in response to a growing ice sheet, GCM simulation, 388 South Shetland Islands, 275

stratigraphy, 313-314 South Shetland Islands region Bransfield Strait, 156-157 scientific drilling in, 158 South Western Ross Sea climate data, Oligocene-Miocene Boundary, 381-385 SPECMAP reconstruction, 553 Sporomorphs, in Tasman Sea relative abundance, 335 S3/S2 boundary, 159 Stratigraphic correlation of Antarctic sedimentary strata with other Gondwana continents, 38-39 of Ross Sea area, 121 Stratigraphy continental shelf glacial, Wilkes

Land, 130-131 Wilkes Land Acoustic, 127-133 Stratigraphy, seismic

Antarctic Ice Sheet proxy records, 50

Strike-slip fault system in

Victoria and Oates Lands, 279 Structural framework of Ross Sea, 119

Subantarctic mode water (SAMW),

90-92, 491 Subglacial lakes location of, 247-248 sediments deposites, 63 Subpolar circulation, 99-100 Summer insolation, NH, 467 Supercontinent, Gondwana, 265-276 Surface ocean currents, 497 (see also Glacial-interglacial cycles)

Tasmanian Gateway climate evolution, 346 Tasman Sea sporomorphs, relative abundance, 335

Taylor Dome, 534 Taylor Dry Valley, 43 Tectonic evolution in Ross Sea Sector, during

Cenozoic, 279-284 of Transantarctic Mountains, 284-287 Tectonic isolation influence across

Oligocene-Miocene boundary, 385-389 Tectonic stages of Gondwana break-up, 276-279 Terrestrial environments, Middle Miocene to Pliocene east, 404-417 west, 417-424 Terrestrial realm climate records from, 325-335 Terrestrial volcanic outcrops in West Antarctica distribution of Neogene (15-2 Ma), 413

Tethyan closure, 389

Thermohaline circulation (THC), 100-103, 488-490 (see also Glacial-interglacial cycles) Time dependent simulations,

552-554 Transantarctic flora, 336 Transantarctic mountains, 259-260, 542-544

exhumation events, variation, 286 map of, 281

Middle Miocene to Pliocene history, 406-410 new records from, 63 reinterpretation of climate discoveries in, 56-57 tectonic evolution of, 284-287 wet-based glacial deposits, 48-49

UCDW (see Upper circumpolar deep water (UCDW)) Upper circumpolar deep water

(UCDW), 94 Upper Palaeozoic-Mesozoic (c. 450-180 Ma) Gondwana, evolution, 272-276

Vegetation distributions

Pliocene, climate modelling, 439 Velocity map of Antarctic Ice Sheet, 68

Vestfold Hills, 542, 549 Victoria Group, 274 Victoria Land coast in Late Oligocene/Early Miocene, 321

Volcanic outcrops of Neogene age in West Antarctica, 418-420 Vostok core, 53 Vostok ice core, 551-552

WAIS (see West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS))

Water mass, formation and dispersal, 88-97

Antarctic bottom water, 94-97 circumpolar deep water, 92-94 Subantarctic mode water and Antarctic intermediate water, 90-92 surface water, 88-90 Weddell-Enderby Basin, 101 Weddell gyre, 99 Weddell Orogeny, 274-275 Weddell Sea, 471-472

Cenozoic climate history, seismic interpretation and drilling data, 144-152 continental margin sediments, 151 environmental change in Miocene sediments, 151 Oligocene sediments, 149 sedimentation rates, 150 glacigenic sediments, acoustic stratification of wedge of Crary Trough, 145, 148 Dronning Maud Land margin and Larsen Shelf, 147 ice-sheet history, 151-152 MCS lines, 145

pre-ice-sheet Cenozoic shelf edge, 148

pre-Oligocene section of inferred turbidites, 149 Weddell Sea Embayment, 548-549 West Antarctica, 259-260 West Antarctica, terrestrial volcanic outcrops distribution of Neogene (15-2 Ma), 413

West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), 118, 404, 536, 572 marine record, Middle Miocene to Pliocene, 429-433 West Antarctic Rift System (WARS), 259 map of, 281 Westernmost Marie Byrd Land

(Edward VII Peninsula), 271 Western Ross Sea drill cores in, 317-321 West terrestrial environments, Middle Miocene to Pliocene, 417-424 West wind drift, 97 Weyprecht, Karl, 14-17 Whitmore Mountains, 274 Wilkes Land, 539-542

acoustic stratigraphy, 127-133 Cenozoic climate history, seismic interpretation and drilling data, 127-135 drilling on margins of, 133 geomorphic and seismic stratigraphic features of, 163, 165

inferred long-term record of glaciations, 134-135 seismic stratigraphic history, 166 Wilkes Land margin drilling on, 133 location of MCS profiles, 128 Wilkins ice shelf, 572, F13.2 Wind drift, 97 Windmill Islands, 541 WMO (see World Meteorological

Organization (WMO)) World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 19, 27

Developments in Earth & Environmental Sciences, 8 F. Florindo and M. Siegert (Editors) © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved DOI 10.1016/S1571-9197(08)00013-X

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