Making Your Own Fuel

Free Power Secrets

The Free Power Secrets program, developed by Reggie Hamel is a complete step-by-step guide showing you everything you need to know in order to start powering your car, tractor, truck, or anything else that has a motor on homemade alcohol fuel by the end of the week. You'll get video and PDF guides that will teach you step-by-step how to setup your own consistent gas source in the comfort of your home. It doesn't matter if you've never tried DIY projects before. Everything you need to learn can be find in this guide. You get access to a step by step free power secrets guide and video tutorials that allow you to make your own fuel for less than 70 cents a gallon. Although the system is simple and easy to implement, it may not be easy for everyone to do this, especially if you don't get the raw materials for alcohol production regularly. Therefore results may vary from case to case. More here...

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What needs to be done Policy measures to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and to encourage diversification of energy

Fossil fuels should bear the full cost of the burden that the emission of carbon dioxide is imposing on the world. This requires either taxation of carbon products (such as gasoline), or a system for rationing and trading permits to release carbon dioxide, or both. The European Union (EU) already has comparatively high levels of taxation of oil and oil products, but may still need to go further in this direction. It has also pioneered a system for rationing and trading permits to release carbon but this system still contains a number of anomalies and loopholes and has not yet established a clear and stable market signal in favour of reducing fossil-fuel consumption and diversifying to other fuels. Anomalies need to be fixed, and Some commentators have suggested that carbon trading systems might be developed in such a way that a floor price for carbon is established to give greater certainty to the market. The floor price might then be driven steadily upwards over the next three...

Nature Of Nonenergy Uses Of Fossil Fuels

As explained in Section 1.1 some CO2 emissions from fossil fuels arise from uses that are not primarily for energy purposes and, in this section, the principles are described which have guided their estimation and reporting. The methods used to estimate emissions are described in the specific IPPU source category chapters (Chapters 3, 4 and 5). This section provides important and additional background information for the use of data relating to non-energy use and the links between these data and the fossil fuel use. Non-energy use is widespread, diverse and the correct reporting of its emissions is conceptually difficult. It is good practice to ensure that all fossil fuels supplied for non-energy purposes can be linked to uses covered by the inventory and the reported emissions are consistent with the carbon supplied. Accordingly, Section 1.4 provides guidance for assessing consistency and completeness of carbon emissions from feedstock use of fuels by (a) checking that feedstock...

Production of Biofuels

The Environmental Defense Fund has determined that a key factor in how effective biofuels are in fighting global warming is the energy efficiency of their production methods. These include everything from running plows and harvesters to manufacturing pesticides and fertilizer to converting the material into fuel and transporting it. Improving land use through sustainable practices such as no-till farming, and boosting energy efficiencies make biofuels more effective at reducing heat-trapping pollution. biodiesel transportation There are advantages to farmers for producing biofuels. As energy prices rise, farms that reduce their energy use increase efficiency. Those that produce fuels will be more financially stable in the country's currently unstable fossil fuels market. In addition, producing and selling biofuels provides additional income to farmers. Biofuel production also supports and strengthens the local economy rather than foreign economies.

The role of fossil fuels

While our aim is to reduce as rapidly as possible the share of fossil fuels in the world primary energy supply, substantially reducing the amount of energy consumed and deploying renewable energy sources will take time. What can the role of fossil fuels be during this transition period and how can they contribute to help in achieving a transition aimed at their disappearance Furthermore, is the objective to widen and diversify fossil fuel sources reconcilable with the need to reduce CO2 emissions Considering only coal, its proven reserves presently amount to around 900 billion tonnes, which means that 3700 billion tonnes of CO2 will be produced, if this coal is consumed. This is much more than the total emissions of carbon which might be acceptable during the next fifty years, if we want to keep to the objective of a mean temperature increase below 2 C. Three reasons have to be taken into account for maintaining substantial efforts in the area of fossil fuels - As has already been...

Globalization Biofuels and GHGs

The major feedstocks of biofuels are maize in the United States and rape-seed in the EU. All grains and oilseeds (or cooking oil) are storable and easily transported, and the large global market has been traditionally supplied by EU and US exporters. The other characteristic of the market is the ready substitution that takes place between grains and oilseeds. If one of the major export crops such as maize is scarce and rises in price then more of the close substitutes such as wheat and rice will be used and their price may also rise triggering increases in supplies. Steady productivity gains have tended to keep grain prices low, even in the face of an increase in world population. The key to understanding the social and environmental impacts of an increase in subsidies for biofuels production from annual crops in the US Table 6.2 Impacts of subsidizing biofuels production in the US and EU Subsidies in the US and EU raise the price of corn and rapeseed oil and divert production to...

Technologies for New Fossil Fuel Plants

In the three countries discussed in this chapter, domestic fossil fuel will continue to remain a key element of power sector. Many developing countries with ready access to such cheap domestic fuel will use them for future development, and therefore it is important to consider potential GHG mitigation options for these new fossil fuel-based plants. A key first option, especially for China and India, is to focus on advanced combustion technologies, such as supercritical (SC) and ultra-supercritical (USC) PC technologies. Some of these plants can help replace retire older inefficient plants from the existing fleet. China has already made substantial progress in this direction, and installed 8.8 GWe indigenous USC PC generation capacity. Further, China has embarked on significant future capacity addition based on USC and SC PC combustion technology. According to the IEA, as a result of the introduction of advanced steam cycle plants and the closure of smaller inefficient plants, carbon...

Energy Fugitive Biofuel

The data sources for fugitive CO2 emissions and CH4 and N2O from energy are listed below. Data for fossil fuel production and use for 138 countries were taken from the IEA energy statistics for OECD and non-OECD countries 1970-2005 (extended energy balances, in energy units) (IEA, 2007). This dataset comprises 94 sectors and 64 fuel types. For the countries of the Former Soviet Union and Former Yugoslavia a modified dataset was used to achieve a complete time series for the new countries for 19702005 of which the sum converges to the older dataset for the total Former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. For another 62 countries, the aggregated IEA data for the regions 'Other America', 'Other Africa' and 'Other Asia' have been split using the sectoral IEA data per region and total production and consumption figures per country of coal, gas and oil from energy statistics reported by the US Energy Information Administration (EIA, 2007). the IEA estimates CO2 emissions from carbon released in...

Fossil Fuel Consumption

The main source of all the extra carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is the burning of fossil fuels. These include coal, oil in all its refined forms, and natural gas. All these fuels contain a lot of carbon. This chart shows that the annual consumption of fossil fuels varies by region and by country. The biggest consumers of fossil fuels are the United States, China, and the European Union. Coal produces far more carbon dioxide per unit of energy than the other fuels, so countries that burn a lot of coal, such as China, have a bigger impact on the climate than countries that burn more gas.

Contribution Of Fossil Fuels To Co2 Emissions

Based on the energy scenario forecast to the end of the 21st century the probable and necessary demand of fossil fuels can be calculated (BP, 2005 WEC, 1995 Skov, 2003 ExxonMobil, 2004 Shell, 2001 US-DOE, 2005). The absolute and relative contribution of coal, oil and gas to energy production, per decade, are shown in Figs 5 and 6. The data in these diagrams suggest that the global role of fossil fuels, in contrast to various information in the world media, will increase until the middle of the century and then decrease monotonously until 2100. Technological improvements in the energy sector had already started well before the Kyoto accord. Significant efforts have been made to increase the efficiency of power stations and to decrease their air pollution. As far as the utilization of fossil fuels is concerned oil, and later natural gas, have Figure 5. Absolute contribution of fossil fuels to energy production (2000-2100). Figure 5. Absolute contribution of fossil fuels to energy...

Budgeting of climate consequences of biofuels

Ecological budgeting of bioethanol and biodiesel covers a wide range of GHG emissions according to the specific conditions on site. Figure 13.7 represents the results of a literature survey (Bauen, 2005). The difference between biofuels and fossil based petrol or diesel is displayed. Maximum and minimum values are given GHG emissions of actual cases would lie between the two extremes. In general the results elucidate that the GHG emissions range is between negative values and more than 100 percent improvement. Negative values indicate that more GHG emissions would occur compared to fossil fuel production. A value of more than 100 percent means that not only the GHG emissions from fossil fuels are compensated but a bonus results from benefits of by-products such as renewable energy generated during fuel production. In some cases there is more energy transformed into power than into resulting biofuel.

Biofuels and Other Non Petroleum Fuels

The environmental impacts of switching from petroleum-based fuels to those from other feedstocks must include the impacts across the complete life cycle of primary For biofuels, the feedstock production and logistics impacts are the same as those discussed for biomass above impacts on land use (and the potential for GHG emissions due to such changes), water quality and quantity issues, potential impacts to soil quality, air emissions from feedstock collection and transport, and potential ecosystem impacts due to changes in the biomass being grown and the disruption during production and harvest. A significant increase in the ethanol content of fuel for motor vehicles will result in environmental impacts during the distribution and storage phase of the full biofuel life cycle. Increased transport of ethanol, either through pipelines or by truck or rail will result in increased spills of the fuel. The impacts of such spills include potential major fish kills if spilled into open water...

Table 41 Alternatives to Fossil Fuels for Heating and Cooling

Fossil fuels to biomass for district heating, reducing associated emissions to less than one third their 1980 level. Austria and Den heating needs. Biomass can directly replace fossil fuels, and modern wood burners can convert biomass to heat at efficiency rates of up to 90 percent.39 Because buildings generally require heat as well as electricity, combined heat and power units can be designed to supply both. CHP plants generate electricity and capture remaining heat energy for use in industries, cities, or individual buildings. They convert about 75-80 percent of fuel into useful energy, with efficiencies exceeding 90 percent for the most advanced plants. As a result, even traditional fossil fuel CHP systems can reduce carbon emissions by at least 45 percent. These systems can also make use of absorption chillers for space cooling to lower electricity demand even further. Residential-scale CHP units have been widely available in Japan and Europe for years and were recently introduced...

Hydrogen Production from Fossil Fuels

Noncatalytic Partial Oxidation Reactor

Hydrogen production from fossil fuels such as natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, coal, tar and petroleum coke are well established industrial processes. The principle reaction mechanisms are shown in Figure 5. Hydrogen is produced on a very large scale, principally for ammonia and me-

The Inorganic Carbonate Carbon Sedimentary Sink for Fossil Fuel CO2

Fossil Fuel Nitrogen

To see where carbonate rocks come into the greenhouse sink picture, we recap on the sequence of different fates that befall CO2 released to the atmosphere through anthropogenic activities such as the burning of fossil fuels and cement production (Fig. 6.4). Some of the added CO2 may be relatively quickly removed from the atmosphere and taken up by the terrestrial biosphere as a result of 'CO2 fertilization' of plant productivity (although nutrient limitation may limit the importance of this effect see Hymus and Valentini, Chapter 2, this volume) as well as forest regrowth and changes in land use practice. Current estimates suggest that 100-180 Pg C may already have been removed in this way, equivalent to 28-50 of total emissions from fossil fuels and cement production (Sabine et al., 2004). The timescale for this CO2 sink to operate is years to decades (for the aboveground vegetation response) to centuries (for the soil carbon inventory to adjust). At the same time, CO2 dissolves in...

Endogenous technological progress in fossil fuel demand

This chapter reports on work to develop energy demand sectors for the Global Econometric Model (GEM), maintained jointly by the London Business School and the National Institute for Economic and Social Research. We have derived data for the total fossil fuel energy consumption, energy prices, GDP and general prices for the main OECD countries (Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Japan, the UK and the United States). We then apply multivariate cointegration tests to test for the presence of cointegration between this set of variables. We find remarkably similar relationships in terms of price elasticities and in terms of trend increases in energy efficiency across all the countries. We then go on to estimate full dynamic models for all the countries. Finally in this chapter we consider the relationship between long-term growth, increasing energy efficiency and energy prices and calculate some illustrative trade-offs which leave CO2 emissions unchanged. In recent...

Climate impacts of bioethanol

Typical Gasoline Co2

For bioethanol, in figure 13.7 five variants of feed-stocks are shown with results ranging from minus 30 to 110 percent. The worst case is corn. Grain and sugar beet follow. Sugar cane and wood are best suited. The positive results using wood as a feedstock are for the gasification of wood and the transformation of the resulting process gas into ethanol by a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (2nd generation biofuels - see table 13.5). On average about 60 percent as compared with fossil-fuel generated CO2 emissions would result if bioethanol is applied. Figure 13.7 GHG effects of biofuel production (Bauen, 2005) Figure 13.7 GHG effects of biofuel production (Bauen, 2005) Bioethanol production from corn as a feed-stock is connected with high inputs of agrochemicals and pesticides, but also with high power needs for the production. Wheat and sugar beet are in the medium range. Sugar cane is the basic feed-stock for the Brazilian Pro lcool bioethanol programme. This is due to favourable...

Is Greenhouse Gas Abatement Achieved By Biofuels

A major benefit claimed for the replacement of fossil fuels by biofuels is their potential to reduce (GHG) emissions. This claim needs to be subject to rigorous analysis because GHG savings depend on whether a simple life-cycle approach is taken to their estimation or a wider approach that recognizes the fact that the markets for biofuels are global. This analysis divides GHG emissions from biofuels into direct the savings incurred by replacing fossil fuels by growing and processing crops to deliver biofuels at the pump in the US and EU, and indirect the impacts on GHG emissions elsewhere of US and EU biofuels policies. A comprehensive analysis by Wang et al. (2007) in the case of corn ethanol in the US shows that GHG savings are profoundly influenced by the method of production and in particular by how the process is fuelled. If the plant is fired by coal then there is net increase in emissions compared with gasoline. Using natural gas together with by-products such as distillers'...

Climate impacts of biodiesel

With biodiesel the improvements relative to fossil fuel even in the worse case are in the range of more than 50 percent (see figure 13.7). The best result, with effects of more than 100 percent, would be reached if biodiesel was produced from wood as a feedstock, via the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, where byproducts of the process, such as electricity and heat, are considered. For rapeseed as a feedstock of biodiesel (as RME) the life cycle assessment comes down with benefits for the greenhouse gas balance. Under German conditions, in the case of a 100,000 t plant, the benefit in GWP is 162 g CO2-eq. per kWh compared to fossil diesel (BMELV, 2008). Figure 13.10 displays the distance related effect of the use of biodiesel instead of fossil based diesel. In the case of the greenhouse gas potential the emissions of about 6 litres of diesel are avoided by application of RME at a distance of 100 km driven. In absolute numbers this amounts about 2.2 kg CO2-eq. l RME (not shown in the figure)....

Biofuels facts and definitions

As figure 13.4 displays energy from biogenic resources may be applied as direct heating material, as a transport fuel or as a source of electricity in power stations. The following chapter deals with biofuels in the transport sector. Types of biofuels are presented in table 13.5. Table 13.5 Biofuel types and market products Table 13.5 Biofuel types and market products Biofuel Synthetic biofuels 2nd generation biofuels Biofuels such as bioethanol and biodiesel derived from lingo-cellulosic biomass by chemical or biological processes, especially by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis via gasification of biomass Liquid biofuels Bioethanol Ethanol produced from biomass and or from the biodegradable fraction of waste, for use as biofuel. Most ethanol used for fuel is being blended into gasoline at concentrations of 5 to 10 percent. Fuel specification Ex contains x percent ethanol and (100-x) percent petrol, e.g. E5 and E85 with 5 and 85 percent of ethanol, respectively. E100 is non-blended...

The Role Of Fossil Fuels In The 21st Century

Abstract According to a widely accepted forecast the global energy consumption, which is roughly 400 EJ today, will quadruple by the end of the century and the use of fossil fuels will probably increase until the middle of the century. Hence, the energy scenario definitely implies that the emission of greenhouse gases will also increase by a minimum 30 , leveling off at that value for the coming decades. Unfortunately, a simplified idea is that the use of fossil fuels is solely responsible for global warming, and hence climatic changes. Although the anthropogenic impact on climate is represented by only 15 of carbon dioxide emissions, this is the area where science and engineering can focus all efforts to influence its detrimental effects. The small anthropogenic effect on climate, however, clearly proves that the earth is extremely vulnerable to even marginal changes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Key words energy scenario, fossil fuels, emission of greenhouse gases,...

Alternatives To Fossil Fuels

The phrase Alternative energy implies that these energy sources are alternatives to nuclear and traditional fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, or natural gas. Alternative energy, therefore, is a catchall category of energy sources that proponents argue can replace traditional fossil fuels in daily life, while causing less harm to the environment. Alternative energy is increasingly important for at least three reasons. First, fossil fuels are nonrenewable eventually, they will be exhausted. The United States is already witnessing a decline in its petroleum production. In 1950, the United States was largely self-sufficient in fossil fuels, producing 32,562,667 billion Btus of energy. At the same time, Americans consumed 31,631,956 billion Btus of fossil fuels. The United States therefore enjoyed a slight fossil fuel surplus. Now, fossil fuel consumption in the United States far outstrips production. In 2006, the United States produced 56,032,329 billion Btus of fossil fuels, but...

Bioethanol and Bioethylene

Biomass- based ethanol currently substitutes around 3 of the global gasoline consumption. It has a higher octane rate compared with gasoline (98 vs. 80), but has a lower volumetric energy content (67 of gasoline). Therefore, per kilometer driven, around 20 more ethanol is required - 15 , Favorable political conditions for biofuels have stimulated a significant increased in global production. Currently, the major producers are Brazil (sugarcane) and the USA (corn). In Brazil, the integrated production of sugar and ethanol provides a certain degree of flexibility, depending on market demand. The production may be shifted from 55 45 sugar ethanol to 45 55 sugar ethanol. At the standard 50 50 ratio, roughly 67 kg sugar and 47 l ethanol is obtained per ton sugar cane. Most production plants are energy self- sufficient due to the use of the internal by-product bagasse. One ton of sugar cane yields between 240 and 280 kg bagasse (humidity ca. 50 ) with an energy content that can replace 580...

Biomass energy and biofuels potentialities and risks

Production of biofuels currently represents the main alternative to petroleum fuels in the field of transport. The production of biofuels has grown very rapidly, generating strong controversies about its negative impact on food supply. The world production in 2006 reached 24.4 Mtoe, as compared with 10.3 Mtoe in 2000. Biofuels offer the advantage of reducing the dependence of the consumer countries on oil while at the same time improving the CO2 balance. The CO2 emitted by combustion of biomass is seen as neutral with respect to the greenhouse gas balance since it can be considered as being recycled during photosynthesis, as indicated earlier. We must nevertheless take into account all emissions generated during the production, transport and transformation of biomass (life cycle analysis), which may in some cases significantly reduce, or even completely cancel out, this advantage. The European Union member states have set an initial goal of incorporating at least 5.75 of biofuels in...

Fossil Fuel Use in Agriculture

Energy is required for all agricultural operations. Modern intensive agriculture requires much more energy input than did traditional farming methods, since it relies on the use of fossil fuels for tillage, transportation and grain drying, for the manufacture of fertilizers, pesticides and equipment used as agricultural inputs, and for generating electricity used on farms (Frye, 1984). Early estimates suggested that fossil fuel usage by agriculture, primarily of liquid fuels and electricity, constitute only 3-4 of the total consumption in developed countries (CAST, 1992 Enqu te Commission, 1995). To provide a reference for agriculture's contribution, C emissions from fossil fuel use in the USA in 1996 were reported to be 286.7, 229.9, 477.5 and 445.5 MMTCE for residential, commercial, industrial and transportation sectors, respectively (EPA, 1998). The total amount of C emitted as CO2 in the USA in 1996 from fossil fuels was 1450.3 MMTCE, a value that has steadily increased with time....

Current policies promoting biofuels

Most biofuels are still more costly than fossil fuels and thus production has to be encouraged e.g. by financial and organisational support. On the other hand measures are necessary to control negative environmental and social consequences such as shortage of nutritional crops, change in agricultural structures, or eradication of primeval forests. Most stimulating for biofuels was the Brazil Proalcool bioethanol programme, launched after the energy crisis of 1973. An extra aim was to use surplus sugar production. Sugar cane is the main source of bioethanol in Brazil. About two-thirds of the sugar cane biomass is processed into bioethanol. The commercial capacity is 400 facilities which currently produce a total of about 14 Mio t a. This is now second largest national production in the world after decades in front-runner position. The costs of the ethanol production are in the range of 250 US m3 which is less than half the costs of bioethanol in Europe (450 to 500 EUR m3). In Brazil...

Growing New Forests for Biofuels

Analysis by the author suggests that unharvested plantations are much more effective in saving GHG emissions over a 34-year period than if they are harvested for ethanol production. Using the carbon sequestration model of the Australian Government (2007) the comparison was made between the amount of CO2 removed from the atmosphere by a hectare of hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii) grown in north Queensland and the carbon dioxide savings of a plantation that was clear felled, with the resulting biomass being used for ethanol production. Forest thinnings prior to harvest were also used for ethanol production. A similar result was obtained by Johnson and Heinen (2007) in comparing the GHG implications of growing trees or growing rapeseed for biodiesel. Replacing biodiesel with petroleum diesel and devoting the land to forest was twice as effective, in terms of reducing GHG emissions, as producing biodiesel to replace petroleum diesel. Despite the likelihood that the GHG benefits of...

Biodiesel and bioethanol

Ambitious biofuels targets have been agreed in major automobile markets. In the US, a goal of 35 billion gallons of biofuels, replacing approximately one fifth of oil-based transport fuels, is proposed by 2017. Current production is just 4.2 billion gallons. The European Union (EU) Biofuels Directive demands that 5.75 per cent of European fuel comes from biomass by 2010, increasing to 10 per cent by 2020. Even more ambitious targets are being discussed (Doornbosch and Steenblik, 2007). Bioethanol is the most widely used biofuel for transport and accounts for more than 94 per cent of global biofuel production, the rest being mostly biodiesel from various oil plants such as palm oil, soy and rapeseed (IEA, 2008, p 161). About 60 per cent of the world's bioethanol comes from sugarcane and 40 per cent from other crops. Germany is the market leader in biodiesel where bioethanol is insignificant. With sales at approximately 1.5 million tonnes, biodiesel currently supplies more than 4 per...

Emissions from fossil fuel combustion

There are three Tiers presented in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for estimating emissions from fossil fuel combustion. In addition a Reference Approach is presented. It can be used as an independent check of the sectoral approach and to produce a first-order estimate of national greenhouse gas emissions if only very limited resources and data structures are available to the inventory compiler.

Consequences for biofuels application

A hundred percent reduction of greenhouse gas emissions will not be possible if biofuels of the first generation are applied. Better results would occur if, besides biofuel production, also power production during a combined process is envisaged. Thus instead of the simple replacement of fuels combined technological developments are to be supported. If a replacement is envisioned in a first approach, it will be best to focus on such feed-stocks which result in a more than 50 percent emission reduction throughout the total supply chain. In future 80 percent reduction should be envisaged as the target. Moreover, the production of biofuels should also fulfill criteria concerning the origin, the production chain, and social aspects, especially when imported from less developed countries (EEB, 2005), as well as a full LCA. Only with 2nd generation biofuels is a mostly greenhouse gas free fuel-supply possible which also does not need fossil fuel inputs (Picard, 2006).

Non Fossil Fuel Power Plants

Last, but not least, zero-CO2 emission technologies such as nuclear and renew-ables, need to account for a larger fraction of new capacity in order to reduce GHG emissions. The emphasis on these technologies needs to be paramount, and wherever possible substitute for fossil fuel based plants. Nuclear power can play a key role in meeting the electricity demand without CO2 emissions. While operating and safety performance of nuclear plants have improved, and new designs offer safer and competitive generation options, public perception of risk and safety of nuclear power, and ultimate disposal of nuclear waste still remain key challenges facing the nuclear industry. Developing countries, China and India in particular, have continued to make additions to their nuclear generation capacity. While China and India will continue to add to their existing nuclear generation capacity, share of nuclear power in Mexico is likely to continue to decline. Mexico's Laguna Verde plant has two units...

Fossil Fuel Combustion

NO is formed by high-temperature chemical processes during combustion of fossil fuels, both from nitrogen present in fuel and from the oxidation of atmospheric N2 in the presence of 02. The distribution for this source is heavily weighted toward the Northern Hemisphere where most of the industrialized world resides. Detailed inventories are available for Canada, the United States, and western Europe describing the spatial patterns of NO, emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes Wagner et al., 1986 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 1986 Fossil fuels NO( emissions due to maritime shipping have been estimated to contribute as much as 3 TgN yr to the global NO, budget (Corbett et al, 1999) with half of these emissions occurring in the North Atlantic. While small compared to the overall fossil fuel contribution of 22TgN yr, NO, emissions from seagoing vessels could prove important over the open ocean in and around shipping lanes far removed from major continental...

CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use

In mechanized farming, fossil fuel is used both to power farm implements and to manufacture and transport fertilizers, pesticides and machinery. Adopting NT usually conserves energy by eliminating energy-intensive tillage and reducing the wear on tillage equipment. The amount of energy saved depends on the previous tillage intensity. For a subhumid site in western Canada, Zentner et al. (2004) found that NT, compared to CT, reduced on-farm fuel and lubricants by 25-31 . In wetter regions where the intensity of CT systems is higher, NT may reduce tillage-related on-farm fossil energy use by up to 60 (West and Marland, 2002). If soil carbon increases upon adopting NT, higher nitrogen inputs might be needed, at least in the short-term, assuming that the carbon nitrogen ratio of organic matter is constant. The increased requirement for nitrogen inputs should diminish as soil carbon levels reach steady state. Many factors interact to determine how tillage affects yield, and an assumption...

Fossil fuel exploitation

For CH4 emissions from fossil fuel exploitation it is assumed that the most profitable measures would be taken first. Therefore, increased maintenance is assumed at a 'cost' of- 200 per tonne CH4 in 1990 and increased on-site use of otherwise vented gas at a cost of - 100 in 2000 and 2025. Other measures are taken later in time at a cost of 100 in 2050, 200 in 2075 and 300 in 2100. In 1990, the introduction of improved inspection and maintenance is assumed. In 2000 and 2025 extra measures are taken to increase on-site gas use from vents and flares. The more expensive measures are taken between 2050 and 2100. Cost estimates are based on AEAT (1998) and De Jager et al (1996). The cost development is based on my own assumptions. Fossil fuel exploitation

Indirect GHG Impacts of Biofuels Policies

Given the global nature of the market for agricultural commodities, global agricultural models are required to measure the indirect GHG implications of biofuels. The results of selected models are now reviewed. A study of impacts of US corn-based ethanol production found that, instead of generating 20 percent savings in GHG emissions, it nearly doubles them over a 30-year period. Forest and grassland conversion that released large quantities of GHGs was accelerated by the higher crop prices. Brazilian sugarcane ethanol is credited with high direct savings of GHGs because bagasse, the waste product of crushing, is used to fuel the process. Nevertheless, GHGs will increase if Brazilian ranchers displaced by sugarcane convert more forest to pasture (Searchinger et al., 2008). Another global study by Fargione et al. (2008) showed how carbon debts were incurred by the clearing of rainforests, peatlands, savannahs or grasslands to produce biofuel crops in Brazil, south-east Asia and the US....

Chemicals and biofuels production

Biotechnology, in particular the fermentation sector, has become more and more attractive in recent years for the production of chemicals and biofuels from organic wastes (Willke and Vorlop, 2004). In fact, there are numerous possibilities for replacing chemical techniques with biotechnological methods based on renewable resources. The most important biogenic sources of raw materials for industrial chemicals are oil plants (oil, fat, glycerol, celluloses) starch plants (starch, inulin, carbohydrates, celluloses) sugar beets and sugar cane (sucrose) wood (ligno-cellulose, cellulose) and waste and residues from agriculture and industry (biomass, fats, oils, whey, glycerol). The food industry is probably the main source for these materials. Fermentative processes can be used for both production of biofuels (methane, hydrogen, ethanol, biodiesel) and building blocks, such as lactic acid, succinic acid, ascorbic acid, isomalt, cyclodextrines and polyamino-acids (Wilke, 1995 Gavrilescu and...

Low Carbon Fuels for Electricity Production

Energy systems that do not rely on fossil fuels and will ultimately be needed to limit the magnitude of future climate change. Switching from one fossil fuel to another having lower emissions (e.g., from coal to natural gas for power generation) also remains an important near-term option. Increasing the efficiency of power generation (for example, by adding combined-cycle technology to natural gas-fueled plants) can also contribute to lower carbon emissions per unit of energy produced. However, greater use of technologies with low or zero emissions would be needed to dramatically reduce emissions. These technologies include nuclear energy which currently provides about 20 percent of U.S. electricity generation and technologies that exploit energy from renewable resources, including solar, wind, hydropower, biomass, and geother-mal energy.

The Rising Tide Of Biofuels

The sustained rise in world oil prices has made renewable energy more cost-competitive. Previous oil price increases have tended to spike but then subside without having provided sufficient stimulus for large-scale private and public capital investments in plant and equipment for the production of biofuels. The rise in oil prices and the attendant increase in the production of biofuels from 1999 to 2006 are illustrated in Figure 6.2. The higher oil prices coincided with maturing technology for the production of biofuels. The increase in world biofuel production in 2006 over 2005 was 27.6 percent (Table 6.1). While in the short term, prices may continue to fluctuate, in the long term they are likely to do so around a higher average price. Other liquid biofuels Biodiesel Figure 6.2 World biofuels production, 2000-2006, and West Texas Intermediate oil spot price The 2005 Energy Policy Act established a renewable fuel standard that increased the mandated use of renewable 'efuels'...

Box 61 Us And Eu Targets For Biofuels

The President's 2007 State of the Union Address (Bush, 2007) urged Congress to agree to increase the supply of renewable and alternative fuels by setting a mandatory Renewable Fuels Standard requiring 35 billion gallons of renewable and alternative fuels in 2017. This was nearly five times the 2012 target already in law. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 already required 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022. In 2017, the President's plan would displace 15 percent of projected annual gasoline use. A 10 percent substitution of petrol and diesel is estimated to require 43 percent of current cropland area of the US (International Energy Agency, 2004). It has been estimated (Perlack et al., 2005 US Department of Energy, 2008a) that there will be sufficient biofuel feedstock to meet the projected demand from several sources In the case of Europe, the European Council has agreed to a target of 20 percent share of renewable energies in overall European Community fuel...

Forests as a source of biofuels

For thousands of years wood has been a major energy source. But in developed countries fossil fuels have become dominant, with renewables making up only 3.9 percent of all fuels in terms of oil equivalents in 2007 (International Energy Agency, personal communication, 2008). In contrast, in many developing countries wood remains the predominant household fuel for cooking and heating. Of the renewables, wood is second only to hydropower in importance globally (see Table 6.1). One of the ways that biomass, provided by plants or forests, can contribute to tackling climate change is as a source of liquid fuel to replace fossil fuels used in transport. Before undertaking an investigation of what might be the specific future role for forests in providing renewable energy, it is necessary to examine in some depth the global trends in overall biofuel production, presently dominated by annual crops. Biofuels cost more than other forms of renewable energy but they are the only form that can...

Sustainable Forestry as a Source of Bioenergy for Fossil Fuel Substitution

Abstract In tropical countries, anthropogenic pressures have led to deforestation and degradation of forests and pasture lands. Realising the large potential and also the importance of producing biomass for energy as a substitute for fossil fuel, using degraded land for plantation forestry has been emphasised in recent years and could become one of the most important counter-agents to deforestation. In India, the area under forests has been reported to be stable at 65 Mha since 1982, although the area under dense forests (> 40 tree crown cover) has been increasing, which suggests an increase in carbon stocks sequestered by Indian forests. The current rate of afforestation in India is one of the largest in the world (about 2 Mha per annum). However, rural households in India depend largely on forests for their basic biomass needs such as medicines, fuelwood, livestock feed and raw materials for various products. Looking to the future needs of biomass in the country and the extent of...

Global Scenarios In Biofuels Production

The OECD has forecast rising prices for agricultural commodity prices, particularly vegetable oils (OECD, 2008). While the world financial crisis of 2008 will slow demand for commodities in the near future, world economic growth will in time regain its former momentum. Given constraints on domestic supply, a likely scenario is that much of the developed world's needs for vegetable oils for biodiesel and human consumption and for ethanol to replace petroleum fossil fuels will be outsourced. Production is likely to come from existing low-cost countries in south-east Asia and Brazil. The OECD (2008) expects palm oil production to increase by 40 percent by 2017, for example, and Brazilian sugarcane production to increase by 75 percent over the same period. This growth will entail the clearing of tropical forests and savannah lands unless drastic measures are taken to modify the economic drivers. Third is the removal of distorting subsidies by the US and the EU for biofuels and instead...

Biofuels

Biofuels may be carbon neutral in themselves, but growing biofuel crops like these oil palms is already leading to the destruction of tropical rain forests. Growing the crops also releases nitrous oxide, an extremely powerful greenhouse gas. So using biofuels instead of fossil fuels can actually increase greenhouse gas emissions, by up to several hundred percent.

Biodiesel

Oil waste waters can be used for the production of biodiesel. Dmytryshyn et al. (2004) conducted the transesterification of four vegetable oils (canola oil greenseed canola oil heat-damaged seeds, processed waste fryer grease and unprocessed waste fryer grease) using methanol and KOH as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol, purified and characterized by various methods to evaluate their densities, viscosities, acid numbers, fatty acid and lipid compositions, lubricity properties and thermal properties. The fatty acid composition suggests that 80-85 of the ester was from unsaturated acids. A substantial decrease in density and viscosity of the methyl esters compared with their corresponding oils suggested that the oils were in mono- or di-glyceride form. The lubricity of the methyl esters, when blended 1 vol treat rate with ISOPAR M reference fuel, showed that the canola ester enhanced the fuel's lubricity number. From the...

Fossil Fuels

Isopar Viscosity

Fossil fuels are the remains of living things that were buried underground before they had time to decay. Coal is made of plants, so it contains the remains of the carbohydrates they created using the energy of sunlight. So coal is stored solar energy, compacted over millions of years. For thousands of years, timber was the main fuel used for heating, cooking, and in the form of charcoal industrial processes like metalworking. But in the 1700s, people started mining coal, which is a more concentrated, abundant source of energy. Coal fueled the rise of modern industry, as well as the railroads and steamships of the 1800s. In the 1900s oil and natural gas were developed into fuels for road vehicles and aircraft, and both coal and gas are used to generate the electricity that powers our modern lives. All these are carbon-rich fossil fuels,created from long-dead organisms by processes that take millions of years. They are being burned far more quickly than they are formed, releasing...

Types Of Biofuels

The most common type of biofuel is bioethanol, made by fermentation and distillation of sugar and starch. No engine modifications are needed in cars for blends of petrol and 10 percent ethanol. In the US the main feedstock is corn, in the EU sugar beet, feed wheat and barley, while in Brazil it is sugarcane. While biodiesel makes up only 5 percent of biofuel production it is important in Europe where diesel is in increasingly short supply and where increasing the diesel gasoline ratio is costly for refineries. Biodiesel is made mainly from rapeseed in Europe and soybeans in the US. Figures 6.1a and 6.1b show the regional sources of ethanol and biodiesel production in 2006. The above biofuels are conventional or first generation types. The so-called second generation biofuels are made from any kind of biomass, including for example forest or crop residues, which are generally cheaper sources than dedicated energy crops. The principal advantage of second generation biofuels is the...

Low Carbon Fuels

Brazil was the first country to make a significant shift to renewable, lower carbon fuels based on producing ethanol from sugar cane, but many countries around the world are now pursuing similar approaches with mixed success. California recently proposed carbon based fuels requirements and the EU is pursuing low carbon fuels standards (LCFS) 16 . However, to achieve significant global benefits from low carbon fuels it is increasingly clear that a full life cycle analysis13 is necessary which includes consideration of indirect land use effects. When such factors are taken into account, it is clear that moving to low carbon fuels that actually achieve significant benefits is a very difficult proposition. The goal of a LCFS is to promote investment and use of low carbon fuels (e.g., sustainable corn ethanol and biodiesel, CNG, renewable electrons14 hydrogen) and dampen demand for high carbon fuels (e.g. Canadian tar sands, Venezuelan shale oil, U.S. coal to liquids). The current U.S....

Agricultural impacts of climate change

A related problem is that many of the most productive rivers to fuel hydroelectricity are fed from the melt water of high altitude glaciers and snow pack. The Yangtze River in China is important for agriculture, and with the Three Gorges hydroelectric power plant, it is also an important energy producer. However, the Yangtze River, like the Colorado River in the United States and the Ganges River in India, is replenished by melt water from glaciers and snowmelt. This shows the complex impacts of rising temperatures that will reduce water for agriculture, but also produce a renewable form of energy to offset carbon dioxide production from fossil fuels. Melting glaciers may also increase sea levels, which could jeopardize agriculture by flooding and accelerated soil erosion in many low-lying areas around the world. Global warming is caused by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxides, methane, and other gases produced by the combustion of fossil fuels. The impact of...

Contributions To Climate Change

While agriculture is affected by climate change, agricultural processes also contribute directly and indirectly to global warming. This occurs for many reasons. A direct contribution is agriculture's reliance on the combustion of fossil fuels such as gasoline, diesel, and propane to power farm equipment, including tractors, combines, grain elevators, grain dryers, and transport trucks for shipping feed and livestock. Agriculture also relies on petrochemicals in the form of herbicides and pesticides. Estimates suggest that agriculture uses 8 percent of all energy consumed in the United States. However, the impact of swidden agriculture is small compared to the destruction of tropical and temperate rainforests for the purposes of agriculture and timber production. Brazil is effectively competing with the United States in soybean production by turning its forests into fields. By turning its rainforests into cropland, Brazil is increasing greenhouse gases through deforestation. It also...

Society Issues Painkiller Solutions Dependence and Sustainable Agriculture

Abstract Here I tackle three major issues, climate change, financial crisis and national security, to disclose the weak points of current remedies and propose sustainable solutions. Global warming and the unexpected 2008 financial crisis will undoubtedly impact all nations. Treating those two critical issues solely by painkiller solutions will fail because only adverse consequences are healed, not their causes. Therefore, all sources of issues must be treated at the same time by enhancing collaboration between politicians and scientists. Furthermore, the adverse consequences of globalisation of markets for energy, food and other goods have been overlooked, thus deeply weakening the security of society structures in the event of major breakdowns. Therefore, dependence among people, organisations and nations must be redesigned and adapted to take into account ecological, social and security impacts. Solving climate, financial and security issues can be done by using tools and principles...

The global atmosphere

Although CO2 is well mixed in the global atmosphere, it is not perfectly mixed, and there are small horizontal gradients in CO2 concentration that are driven by the spatial pattern of sources and sinks for carbon dioxide. For example, CO2 concentrations are higher in the northern hemisphere (the source of most fossil fuel combustion) than in the southern hemisphere. In principle, if the transport of CO2 in the atmosphere can be accurately simulated by atmospheric transport models, it should be possible to use observations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations to derive the spatial pattern of CO2 sources and sinks. As the spatial pattern of CO2 sources from fossil fuel combustion can be accurately predicted from economic data, the remainder will be the spatial pattern of biosphere CO2 sources and sinks (including the effects of land use change). Further information can be derived by also including observations of the stable isotopes of CO2 (biosphere exchange has a different isotopic...

Adaptation to Climate and Climate Change

This came about because the negotiators of the Convention found it convenient to divide responses to anthropogenic climate change into two types. The first and foremost response was called mitigation by which the negotiators meant any and all measures that could be taken to stabilise and eventually reduce the concentrations of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. This includes the development and deployment of energy sources other than fossil fuels, effective approaches to increase energy efficiency, and technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon capture and storage. The framers of the Convention understood that many different form of action could be taken to reduce vulnerability to climate, climate variability, and climate change. Adaptation was the convenient shorthand to refer to these potential actions.

Alternative energy overview

Starting in the late 18th century with the Industrial Revolution, the global economy has increasingly relied on fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. In the future, the global economy will run out of these fuels. In the meantime, some scientists argue that dependence on fossil fuels has contributed to global warming. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), founded in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, argues that measurable global warming has occurred, and that humans are at least partially to blame. Some scientists and commentators from across the political spectrum downplay the significance of global warming especially the role humans might play in climate change. However, even famous skeptics such as author Michael Crichton, or contrarian scientist Bjorn Lomborg, agree that the Earth is getting warmer, but do not believe that humans are to blame. The heavy reliance on fossil fuels raises several...

Raja Reddy and Harry F Hodges

Weather is the most important cause of year-to-year variability in crop production, even in high-yield and high-technology environments. There has been considerable concern in recent years about the possibility of climatic changes caused by human activities, because any change in weather will increase uncertainty regarding food production. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, earth's population has increased dramatically, with accompanying large-scale burning of fossil fuels, the manufacture of cement, and intensive cultivation of lands not previously used for crops or livestock production. The largest population in human history will occur during the 21st century and thus dictate greater pertinence of climatic changes because the consequences may be so great and drastic. Agriculture provides a sizable contribution to the radiative gases that appear to be the driving forces in climatic change. The primary sources of these gases are the fossil fuel used in agricultural...

Rethinking Society Dependence

Globalisation of the market for food, fuels and other goods has undoubtedly induced positive effects such as lowering prices and fostering collaborations among citizens and nation. However, it has also induced serious dependence problems such as a sharp increase of maize prices in Mexico following the fast-rising use of maize as biofuels in northern countries. Another striking example is the peak of petroleum prices that has impacted almost all nations. A recent failure of the European electricity grid resulting in thousands of home without current for several days further illustrates the weaknesses of global dependence. We also know that crop control with pesticides is contaminating drinking water, even many years after the ban of those pesticides (Barth et al. 2009), and so on. As a result, though we live at a time of outstanding technology, the excess of dependence created by wild globalisation has strongly weakened our society. In case of major catastrophic events, the society...

Global climate change

Greenhouse gases from human activities is carbon dioxide. Today, the atmospheric concentration of this gas is higher than it has been in the past 650,000 years. Adding to this disturbing observation is that the growth rate in carbon dioxide was faster during the past decade (1995-2005) than it has been since measurements began. This indicates that the political recognition of climate change as a major challenge to human society has not yet led to any change in the trend of constantly increasing global emissions. The major source of carbon dioxide is the burning of fossil fuels with a lesser contribution from land-use changes, such as deforestation.

Alternative energy wind

WiND is A source of solar energy that does not rely on the condition of the sky. Unlike fossil fuels, wind energy can be collected during storms, snow, or the night. Wind power is the alteration of wind energy into more purposeful forms, usually electricity using wind turbines, and is a form of renewable ing, to grinding grain, to pumping water. Windmills have been found dating back to 10th century Persia, while their appearance in Europe is believed to have begun around the Middle Ages. It was not until the 20th century that people became interested in using the wind to generate electricity. In 1941, the 1,250 kilowatt (kW) Smith-Putnam wind turbine was constructed in the United States. There are records of 100 kW turbines in the former Soviet Union in 1931, and other innovative designs originating in Germany during the 1950s to the 1960s. However, after the 1950s, lower-cost fossil fuels made wind energy technology economically unprofitable, and only in the 1970s did rising fuel...

Energy Economy and the Environment

The world's future energy path is uncertain. At the beginning of the 20th century, nuclear energy was unheard of, but, today, more than 400 nuclear power plants are in operation worldwide. Similarly, the present-day society cannot imagine life without petroleum products and electricity. However, the environmental implications of increased fossil fuel use and the risk of climate change in particular, will place limits on the use of fossil fuel resources. The progressive exhaustion of the easily accessible supplies will cause significant price increases by the turn of this century. Increasingly, researchers and policy makers have begun to focus on the more efficient utilization of existing energy supplies to help meet society's energy needs. Depending on the system and user investigated it may be more economical to make efficient use of the existing energy resources and to reduce waste rather than to develop new energy supplies to meet growing energy demand. Energy efficiency (EE) has...

Energy Insecurity Challenges to Future Energy Stability

In this section of the book authors present various analyses on the challenges facing the international community in meeting future energy demands by highlighting the potential security-related problems that may arise from technological choices, energy uses and, in some cases, land-use choices. The section will aim to contextualize the problems related to both traditional and new energy resources by highlighting areas where conflicts, either localized or global, may arise in the future. This includes a focus on security issues related to the oil and gas, nuclear, biofuels and hydropower sectors, highlighting areas that may cause potential threats to international peace and security, as well as to development. This is not all the challenges we are facing the section tries also to look at energy access for all and the meeting of the Millennium Development Goals, addressing sustainable consumption and production in the rapidly industrializing development countries, as well as the...

Energyrelated emission

Strictly speaking, energy-related CO2 emissions should also include transport, but to simplify things this section will deal only with 'stationary sources', such as power stations. Of the emissions arising from fossil fuel burning - a total of 6.5 Pg C year - nearly The amount of CO2 emitted as a result of the generation of a given unit of electricity varies greatly depending on the fuel used and the level of efficiency at which the power plant operates. Generally speaking, coal-fuelled power generation is the most carbon-intensive, with the emission of up to 1 kg of CO2 for every kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity that it provides. Oil- and gas-fuelled electricity generation tends to have a lower CO2 emission cost. Even those energy-generation strategies without apparent use of fossil fuels generally have some associated CO2 emissions. Nuclear power, for instance, relies on large amounts of energy use for fuel extraction and processing, and so indirectly results in CO2 emissions. The...

The Kyoto protocol and carbon politics

The evidence outlined above suggests that the terrestrial biosphere is already playing a clear role in slowing the rate of atmospheric and climatic change. This has led to the debate over whether management of the terrestrial biosphere could be employed as a tool to further slow atmospheric change. This management could take the form of enhanced reforestation, reduced forest degradation through logging, slowed down tropical deforestation, and sequestration of carbon in soils through no-till agricultural practices Royal Society (2001) . These options would also have a number of beneficial environmental side-effects, such as protection of biodiversity, watershed protection, and reduced soil erosion. Another potentially exciting option is the growing of bio-fuels to replace fossil fuels as an energy source.

Regulation Of Carbon Emissions

Burning biomass produces smoke and a number of other pollutants. Consequently, problems may arise over atmospheric pollution. Biomass burnt domestically can cause a number of health problems (Smith 1987, 1996, Gupta et al. 1998) because of the release of carbon monoxide, methane, nitrogen oxides, benzene, formaldehyde, benzo(a)pyrene, aromatics and respirable particulate matter. These health problems are important given that 75 of the world's population is dependent on domestic biofuels (Robertson 1998). Biomass burning can also result in significant atmospheric pollution, some of which may be transported very long distances, as demonstrated by the SAFARI-2 and TRACE A experiments. The US Clean Air Act contains specific clauses related to fine particulates and other products generated by biomass fires and, as explained in the chapter by Fox et al., there is potential for considerable conflict between land managers and air quality regulators.

Summary Of Remedial Engineering Technologies

Sulfur dioxide (S02) is a compound formed both naturally and by the combustion of fossil fuels. Exposure to higher concentrations of S02 can cause respiratory problems for some people. When combined with water, S02 forms sulfur compounds that are one of the main components of acid rain. Nitrogen dioxide (N02) is another compound formed by the combustion of fossil fuel that contributes to the formation of both acid rain and smog. N02 is one of several nitrogen oxide (NOj compounds present in the atmosphere. The NAAQS is established for N02, but NO, is more commonly measured. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that occurs naturally in the atmosphere and is also formed in the combustion of fossil fuel.

Human Progress Puts Pressure on Natural Climate Patterns

Since the dawn of the industrial revolution some two centuries ago, however, humans have become the principal drivers of climate change. The burning of fossil fuels such as oil, coal, and natural gas has led to an increase in atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide, a powerful greenhouse gas. And farming practices have led to increased atmospheric levels of methane, another potent greenhouse gas. If humanity continues such activities at the current rate through the end of this century, the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will be higher than they have been for tens of millions of years. It is the unprecedented rate at which we are amplifying the greenhouse effect, warming Earth's surface, and modifying our climate that causes scientists so much concern.

Policy Analysis And Proposals

The impact on global food prices of the subsidization of biofuels mainly derived from annual crops in the United States and the European Union is an issue that surfaced in 2008. These subsidies were found to be perverse incentives in that they had the indirect effect of increasing emissions from tropical forests in Brazil and south-east Asia. Large-scale diversions of land from food crops to carbon-capturing plantations will be likely to cause food prices to rise, with consequences for the poor. It is argued that the type of socioeconomic impact analysis that has been done for biofuels needs to be extended to include the impact of the future establishment of extensive forests for their carbon.

Transportation Sector

Of all the biomass processes, thermo-chemical processes that can convert biomass to bio-diesel or other transportation fuels using gasification, pyrolysis, or Fischer-Tropsch technology, appear to have the most potential for CO2 mitigation and should be considered for an aggressive RD& D program. In addition, ethanol production by biochemical processing of biomass offers the potential for large-scale displacement of gasoline. However, breakthroughs will be necessary in the ability to chemically break down major biomass components to sugar for fermentation to produce ethanol. Note that Chap. 3 Coal and Biomass to Liquid Fuels, evaluates biofuels production technologies and Chap. 6 Mobile Source Mitigation Opportunities, discusses evolving low carbon vehicle propulsion technologies.

The Carbon ClimateHuman System

It has been more than a century since Arrhenius (1896) first concluded that continued emissions of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels could lead to a warmer climate. In the succeeding decades, Arrhenius's calculations have proved both eerily prescient and woefully incomplete. His fundamental conclusion, linking fossil-fuel combustion, the radiation balance of the Earth system, and global climate, has been solidly confirmed. Both sophisticated climate models (Cubasch et al. 2001) and studies of past climates (Joos and Prentice, Chapter 7, this volume) document the link between atmospheric CO2 and global climate. The basic understanding of this link has led to a massive investment in detailed knowledge, as well as to political action. The 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is a remarkable accomplishment, signifying international recognition of the vulnerability of global climate to human actions (Sanz et al., Chapter 24, this volume).

The Changing Atmospheric Composition

However, since the beginning of the industrial age, emissions associated with human activities have risen rapidly. Agriculture, industry, waste disposal, deforestation, and especially fossil fuel use have been producing increasing amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other important gases. Due to increasing emissions, atmospheric levels of these greenhouse gases have been building at an unprecedented rate, raising concerns regarding the impact of these gases on climate. Some of the gases, such as CFCs, are also responsible for large observed depletions in the natural levels of another gas important to climate, ozone. Of these gases, two, carbon dioxide and methane, are of special concern to climate change. These two gases are discussed in some detail in the sections below. Under the international Montreal Protocol and its amendments, emissions of CFCs and other halocarbons are being controlled and their atmospheric...

The Economics of Energy Efficiency

The key economic question that will determine the pace of the widely anticipated energy revolution is the cost of improving EE relative to various forms of energy generation, such as for instance the cost of extracting fossil fuel and providing services through renewable energy sources. The fundamentals of EE are discussed in greater detail in Chapter 4. It is worth discussing three fundamental relationships here With increasing stability and soundness of economic policies and overall macroeconomic conditions, the probability of increasing EE will be higher. It is generally postulated that macroeconomic conditions matter less with regard to EE area because EE projects are more of a short-term proposition than fossil fuel or nuclear power projects. However, traditional energy investments tend to be large and long term, and hence the political and economic stability of the country is particularly important.

Energy Efficiency and Climate Change

In recent years, the main focus of the global environment has been on global warming and the related policy responses. The exploitation of fossil fuels not only has contributed to human well-being, but has also led to increasing environmental pressure on the earth. Currently, climate change induced by humans is one of the most important environmental problems related to the use of fossil fuels. The emission of CO2, the most important of the greenhouse gases, is a direct result of the combustion of fossil fuels. One policy response of particular interest is EE. This can be used to reduce the level of CO2 in the atmosphere by reducing the amount of fossil fuels combusted and therefore the amount of CO2 released. Together with renewable energy, transportation and forestry projects, EE is widely viewed as one of the most accessible and cost-effective opportunities to mitigate climate change.

Context of this Forum The Urgency of Current Demands by the Policy Community on the Scientific Community and the Need

This high degree of uncertainty regarding clouds, combined with the urgency for societies to make firm decisions on the emissions of greenhouse gases (most especially on the continued combustion of fossil carbon fuels), places a great burden on our scientific community. Because we are the only group trained to study the details of clouds and climate, we must do our utmost to reduce the uncertainties and clarify the details of the climate forecast. In doing so, we assume the awesome obligation to communicate our research to the policy community in ways that are impeccably honest and forthright, so that the uncertainties that will always remain and which will, by nature, constrain the confi dence that can be taken regarding policy decisions are understood. Just a few decades ago, our fi elds of science contributed far less to policy making, and we enjoyed the freedom to speculate openly about the physics of clouds and aerosols. Today, however, what we say does count, and a very...

Electricity Generation from Renewables

There are many conventional and non-conventional ways by which electricity can be produced. One of the conventional ways is to produce electricity by using fossil fuels. Coal-based power plants are the mostly used method to produce electricity. They are also referred to as thermal power plants. Though the energy produced by a thermal power plant is more economical as compared to non-conventional sources, it also causes greenhouse gas emission at a higher rate and hence called dirty. On the contrary the photovoltaic system causes no harm to the environment as it uses solar energy which is also called clean energy but the electricity produced by it is not economical as the photovoltaic material used to produce solar cells are costly and for off sunshine period the energy needs to be stored in a storage device like battery. In this section we will discuss both the non-conventional and conventional sources for electricity generation.

Restricted number of suppliers

The distribution of fossil fuel reserves throughout the world, expressed in billions of toe, is represented on the map in Figure 1.3. Figure 1.3 Distribution of fossil fuel reserves (Gtoe) (Source BP Statistical Review 2008) Figure 1.3 Distribution of fossil fuel reserves (Gtoe) (Source BP Statistical Review 2008)

Who would reliably manage geoengineering projects for the world community over a century or two

Fortunately, the seemingly staggering costs - trillions of dollars - of mitigation that substitutes non-carbon-emitting sources for conventional fossil-fuel-burning devices represent a mere year or so delay in being some 500 per cent richer a century from now with 450 ppm CO2 with stringent climate mitigation versus a potentially dangerous 900 ppm concentration if there are no significant mitigation policies deployed (see Azar & Schneider 2002). Thus, repeated assertions that society will not invest in mitigation - and thus geo-engineering will be needed -seem as premature as arguing for near-term deployment of still-untested geo-engineering schemes. Moreover, the potential for climate policy to be implemented will probably intensify as severe climate impacts occur and people become more However, critics have asked, is it not one's reluctance to embrace manipulations of nature at a large scale, ignoring the potential consequences of 'geosocial engineering', implicit in changing the...

Humaninduced Climate Change

Human sources of CO2 fall into roughly two major classes fossil fuel combustion and open fires. Use of fossil fuels by humans contributes to three-quarters of the increase in CO2 over the past 25 years. The fossil fuel sources are industry, power plants, automobiles, and households the developed countries are the principal contributors. The open-fire sources are associated with the clearing of tropical forests, forest fires in general, grassland fires, household cooking and heating, and wars. The rate of increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide approximates that of global economic growth, about 2 percent annually. Current carbon dioxide levels are about 30 percent above the 18th century (pre-industrial) level.

Energy and globalisation of the economy

4 Carbon dioxide (CO2) is emitted during combustion. The fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas, represent the main human sources of CO2 emissions. Globalisation of the economy has led to greater dependency on oil, due to the ever-increasing demand for petroleum fuels and more generally fossil fuels. We have recently seen that the global economy could cope reasonably well with an increase in the cost of energy. In contrast however, an interruption, even temporary, in oil supplies would cause a major crisis.

Solar Energy and the Environment

The attributes of solar energy technologies (e.g., modularity, flexibility, low operating costs) differ considerably from those for traditional, fossil fuel-based energy technologies. Solar energy technologies can provide cost-effective and environmentally beneficial alternatives to conventional power systems. Some of the benefits that make solar energy systems attractive follow (e.g., Dincer, 2000 and McGowan, 1990) Relatively independent of rising oil and other fossil fuel costs. The following parameters are introduced by Dincer and Rosen (2005) to demonstrate solar energy technology's contribution to decreases in fossil fuel utilization and to correlate the sustainability of solar (and other renewable) technology with associated investment. The fossil fuel utilization ratio is defined below Rf Ef Ep (4.1) Based on Midilli et al. (2006), the solar energy utilization ratio is shown in terms of the fossil fuel utilization ratio, namely Rs 1 - Rf. Figure 4.1(a) presents sents the...

Sources Of Reactive Nitrogen

Unlike most trace species that are emitted only at the surface, NO, sources exist both at the surface and in the free troposphere. Surface sources include both natural and anthropogenic sources e.g., soil microbial emission, fossil fuel combustion, and biomass burning. In the free troposphere, NO, sources include lightning, aircraft emissions, and stratosphere-troposphere exchange. Table 1 gives estimated source strengths and uncertainties for each of these sources. While there are still substantial uncertainties in these sources, the global NO, source strength is clearly dominated by surface sources with anthropogenic use of fossil fuels having the greatest contribution. The smaller sources in the free troposphere, however, cannot be trivialized since they are localized in a region of the atmosphere where NO, lifetimes are maximized. Thus, their proportional impact is greater than their absolute source strengths would imply.

Future energy crises Peak oil

For several years, a small group of ex-oil industry geologists has forecast an imminent peak and subsequent terminal decline in the global production of conventional oil (Bentley, 2002 Campbell, 2004). This peak is expected by some to cause massive economic dislocation, with alternative and non-conventional sources being unable, at least in the short term, to 'fill the gap' (Campbell, 2004 Deffeyes, 2005 Strahan, 2007). This issue, known as 'peak oil', would have serious implications for lifestyles in wealthy countries, compounding popular fears about wider dependence on fossil fuels associated with climate change. Higher oil prices will undoubtedly encourage new discoveries and improve recovery from existing fields, but experience suggests that this could simply slow the rate of decline rather than delay the timing of the peak. Higher oil prices will also provide incentives for exploiting non-conventional oil resources such as oil shales and sands, converting coal and gas to liquid...

Recent Changes in the Terrestrial Carbon Sink

Over the last 200 years the terrestrial carbon cycle has undergone profound direct and indirect changes. Direct changes have been driven by the interaction between an increasing global population and agrarian as well as industrial changes in land use. Indirect changes have been consequences of these economic and social changes. In particular, the rise in Ca from 280 to 380 ppm has been caused by the addition of 400 Pg C to the atmosphere, primarily through the burning of fossil fuels and land-use change (Sabine et al., 2004). The rate of input of nitrogen into the terrestrial nitrogen cycle has doubled due to humans (Vitousek et al., 1997a), with extreme inputs of up to 60 kg ha year recorded in some European ecosystems (MacDonald et al., 2002). Our understanding of the relative roles that direct land-use change and indirect climate changes have played in changing terrestrial productivity in the recent past has important implications for our ability to predict the future, and is the...

General Rules For Identification Of Key Categories

The results of the key category identification will be most useful if the analysis is done at the appropriate disaggregation level of categories. Table 4.1, Suggested aggregation level of analysis for Approach 1, lists the source and sink categories that are recommended and identifies special considerations related to the disaggregation of the analysis, where relevant. For example, the combustion of fossil fuels is a large emission source category that can be broken down into subcategories of 1st, 2nd or 3rd order, and even to the level of individual plants or boilers. Countries may adapt the recommended level of analysis in Table 4.1 to their national circumstances. In particular countries using Approach 2 will probably choose the same level of aggregation that was used for the uncertainty analysis. In some cases, disaggregation to very low levels should be avoided since it may split an important aggregated category into many small subcategories that are no longer key. The following...

Nitrogen is thought to be in the form of molecular nitrogen with the remainder

Possibly representing mineralized ash (10 ) and high-molecular-weight compounds containing substantial amounts of nitrogen (Lobert et al., 1991 Yokelson et al., 1996). It is unclear whether these latter compounds might act as a source of NO or NOx to the remote troposphere. Of the known fixed nitrogen compounds, NOx is the dominant species (54 ), having an estimated emission factor of approximately 2.1 gN kgC (carbon fuel). This is significantly smaller than the emission factors reported for higher temperature fossil fuel combustion sources. Reduced nitrogen compounds such as NH3 (emission factors of approximately 1.3 gN kgC) comprise the remaining 46 .

Mitigation Options for Agriculture

What agriculture can do to mitigate GHG emissions has been estimated by Cole et al. (1997), whose estimates of potential reduction of radiative forcing by the agricultural sector range from 1150 to 3300 MMTCE year-1. Of the total potential global reduction in GHG emissions, approximately 32 could result from reduction in CO2 emissions, 42 of the C offsets from biofuel production on 15 of the existing croplands, 16 from reduced CH4 emissions and 10 from reduced emissions of N2O. Agriculture can contribute to mitigation of climatic change by adopting practices that promote stashing CO2 as C in soil, crop biomass and trees, and by displacing the use of fossil fuels required for tillage, chemical manufacture equipment manufacture, and grain handling operations (Cole et al, 1996 Paustian et al, 1998). For the farm sector, the GHG mitigation potential through reduced fuel consumption is relatively small when compared with the rest of society however, further reductions can be achieved. By...

Biomass and Coal Plus Biomass to Power

Burning fossil fuels for power generation and for transportation releases carbon that has been stored for millions of years as CO2 into the atmosphere, resulting in the build-up of atmospheric CO2. Using biomass as a fuel releases carbon removed as CO2 from the atmosphere in a recent plant growth cycle and does not contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration if done sustainably. Thus, using biomass in power generation reduces the life-cycle emissions of CO2 per unit of power generated. Biomass can be burned directly or co-fired with coal in a boiler. The major issues are effective size reduction of the biomass in order to feed it into the boiler and its lower energy density. Today, most biomass power plants burn demolition wood wastes, forest product wastes or agricultural wastes to produce steam for power generation. The U.S. has 11 GW of installed biomass-only plant capacity 30 , with an average size of 20 MWe. The industry average generating efficiency is of order 20 ....

Europe A leading power in climate protection

To achieve this target the EU has decided that by 2020, 20 per cent of Europe's energy consumption will be covered by climate-friendly renewable energies, with biofuels having at least a 10 per cent share in petrol and diesel. At the same time, energy efficiency will be increased in order to achieve the objective of saving 20 per cent of the EU's energy consumption compared to projections for 2020. As a long-term objective, the European Council has specified a 60 to 80 per cent reduction of greenhouse gases in Europe by 2050 compared to 1990.

Evolution And Extinction

The goal of biodiversity does not prevent conservation biologists from seeking to preserve evolution, a process that does not a priori favor biodiversity. Species compete for resources. The winners leave offspring to populate an ecosystem. The losers become extinct. Conservation biologists live with extinction as one outcome of evolution. However, they regret the current wave of extinction and pinpoint climate change as one cause of extinction. Humans are causing the current wave of extinction by warming the climate, acidifying rainfall, and thinning the ozone layer. The burning of fossil fuels, the cutting down of forests, the depletion of fisheries, and the overgrazing of ranchland are warming the climate and threatening the biota. of the dangers of global warming. Biologists acknowledge the difficulty of stopping global warming. People in the developed world must find an alternative to the burning of fossil fuels. People in the developing world must find an alternative to cutting...

Global Carbon Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Mitigation

The carbon cycle is one of the biogeochemical cycles and describes the movement of carbon, in its many forms, within the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans and geosphere. The global carbon cycle involves the earth's atmosphere, oceans, vegetation and soils of the terrestrial ecosystem and fossil fuels. Carbon in the form of inorganic and organic compounds, notably carbon dioxide (CO2), is cycled between different components of a system. For example, green plants absorb CO2 from the atmosphere during photosynthesis, also called primary production, and release CO2 back into the atmosphere during respiration. Another channel of exchange of CO2 is between the oceans and the atmosphere CO2 dissolved in the oceans is used by marine biota in photosynthesis. Two important anthropogenic processes that contribute CO2 to the atmosphere are burning of fossil fuels and changes in land use. Fossil fuels, namely coal, oil and natural gas, are burnt in industries, power plants and automobiles. Land use is...

Policy Considerations

Total CO2 Fossil Fuel Emission CO2 Concentration Total CO2 Fossil Fuel Emission CO2 Concentration global greenhouse gas emissions, most developing nations are already moving towards industrialization. If their relationship between greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel use and industrialization follow the paths of other developed nations, emissions from currently developing nations are projected to equal emissions from currently developed nations by 2020 and far surpass them by the end of the century. Thus, emissions from developed nations will make up a smaller and smaller part of the climate change problem as we proceed further into the coming century. For this reason, Kyoto controls on currently developed countries are not enough if we want to prevent dangerous climate change impacts. At the same time, countries in the process of industrialization have the right to be allowed to develop into industrialized nations with higher standards of living and greater wealth. The challenge...

Bosnia and Herzegovina

One of the least developed countries in Europe, Bosnia-Herzegovina has one of the lowest rates of carbon dioxide emissions only 1.2 metric tons per capita in 1992. However, in 1997 the per capita rate rose dramatically to 3.6 metric tons, and then 4.6 metric tons by 1998. Most of these emissions come from electricity production (63 percent), as 37.6 percent of the country's electricity production is generated from fossil fuels. The remainder comes from hydropower. Transportation accounts for 33 percent of carbon dioxide emissions. These figures are reflected in the fact that the use of solid fuels, primarily wood and coal, account for 47 percent of carbon dioxide emissions. Liquid fuels account for 38 percent. The manufacture of cement also has a role in the country's carbon emissions.

Required Storage Period

If it is to make a contribution to reducing CO2 levels in the atmosphere, it would be desirable to retain any CO2 stored underground permanently. After the end of the fossil fuel era, atmospheric CO2 levels might begin a slow decline as ocean atmosphere CO2 levels re-equilibrate 98 . Clearly it would not be desirable for stored CO2 to be released until there has been a significant decline in atmospheric CO2 levels. Thus the next most desirable time frame for storage might be at least thousands of years 46 . Nevertheless, short-term storage of a few hundred years could be valuable in shaving the expected peak levels of CO2 in the atmosphere that might occur towards the end of the fossil fuel era.

Interrelationships between adaptation and mitigation can exist at each level of decisionmaking

Adaptation actions can have (often unintended) positive or negative mitigation effects, whilst mitigation actions can have (also often unintended) positive or negative adaptation effects 18.4.2, 18.5.2 . An example of an adaptation action with a negative mitigation effect is the use of air-conditioning (if the required energy is provided by fossil fuels). An example of a mitigation action with a positive adaptation effect could be the afforestation of degraded hill slopes, which would not only sequester carbon but also control soil erosion. Other examples of such synergies between adaptation and mitigation include rural electrification based on renewable energy sources, planting trees in cities to reduce the heat-island effect, and the development of agroforestry systems 18.5.2 .

The Current Global Carbon Cycle and the Terrestrial Carbon Sink

Terrestrial biomass represents a dynamic and therefore important carbon pool, turning over relatively quickly compared with other carbon pools with an average residence time of 10 years (Gruber et al., 2004). Estimates of the amount of carbon stored globally in terrestrial vegetation and in specific biomes vary significantly (Table 2.1). Two recent estimates are 466 Pg C (Watson et al., 2000) and 652 Pg C (Saugier et al., 2001), amounts broadly similar to that found in the atmosphere, but only 25 of that stored in soils. Regardless of the estimate, 80 of the carbon is stored in the world's forests, with 45-50 in tropical forests alone. Set against these carbon stocks the biosphere and the atmosphere exchange 120 Pg C annually. Sabine et al. (2004) estimated annual global NPP of 57 Pg C averaged throughout the 1990s ( 40 of GPP). This figure was almost balanced by 55.5 Pg C year lost from terrestrial ecosystems through respiration, fire and land-use change. The small difference between...

Climate Change Mitigation with Renewable Energy Geothermal

Abstract On a global scale, there is increasing evidence that climate is changing and of a discernible human influence. Many of scientists are confident that if current emissions of greenhouse gases continue, the world will be warmer, sea levels will rise and regional climate patterns will change. According to some scientist, global temperatures are expected to rise faster over the next century than over any time during the last 10,000 years. From this token, geothermal energy is now considered to be one of the most important alternative energy sources to minimize climate change. Geothermal technologies for power generation or direct use operate with little or no greenhouse gas emissions. Geothermal energy is generally accepted as being an environmentally-friendly energy source, particularly when compared to fossil fuel energy sources. Geothermal resources have long been used for direct heat extraction for district urban heating, industrial processing, domestic water and space...

Health impacts from heat stress and air pollution

Weather extremes tied to overall climate change will affect both mortality and morbidity, including hospital admissions and sick days away from work due to air pollution. We should also recognize that the combustion of fossil fuels, which generates greenhouse gases and contributes to climate warming, is also the principal source of air pollution. Even though the US has one of the most stringent sets of air pollution control regulations on the planet, it is estimated that at least 30,000 Americans die prematurely each year from exposure to air pollution, especially fine particulate matter (Ali et al, 2004). Control strategies to lower greenhouse gas emissions are likely to also produce lowered mortality from air pollution (Davis, 1997 Cifuentes, 2001). Conversely, without emission controls, the warming itself is likely to have several adverse effects. Although the situation will vary across air quality regions, warming will change and generally accelerate the photochemical reactions...

Broecker Wallace 1931

While researching changes in the Earth's climate in the past 200,000 years, Broecker discovered that major climate shifts actually occurred much more rapidly than was previously thought. Focusing on the Younger Dryas, an event dating back 11,000 years when temperatures in northern Europe suddenly plummeted and remained low for about 1,000 years, Broecker concluded that the transition periods from warm to cold and back again may have taken as little as 20 years. This cold spell, Broecker explains, was due to a temporary disturbance in the global circulation of the world's oceans. Because this global current is linked to the atmosphere, the emission of greenhouse gases through fossil fuel combustion could cause a major interference in today's climate.

Food Availability and Climate Change

Furthermore, expanding cropped area, which is the alternative to increasing yield, is either difficult or unappealing throughout much of the world, either because of urban encroachment on agricultural land or because of the environmental costs of bringing new land into production. The FAO, which periodically assesses trends in crop demand and supply, envisages a significant expansion of cropland area in Africa and Latin America but little growth elsewhere, mainly because so little land in Asia remains uncultivated (Bruinsma 2003). Overall, most global assessments project that (1) crop demand will grow considerably over the next few decades, given the additive pressures of population growth (estimated to peak at 9.1 billion mid-century), higher incomes resulting in shifting food preferences, and potential development of large-scale biofuel production and the additional crop demand it represents (2) the rate of demand growth, however, will be slower than observed in the past few...

Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions

The emissions of CO2 have increased continuously during the recent decades (Fig. 1.1). Global average annual CO2 emissions from fossil fuels increased from 5.4 0.3 GtC in the 1980s to 7.2 0.3 GtC during 2000-2005 (Table 2.1) those from land-use change increased from 1.4 GtC during the 1980s to 1.6 GtC during the 1990s. It is important to note that the range of estimated emissions from land-use change is very wide, as much as 0.5-2.7 GtC for the 1990s, indicating the high level of uncertainty. Since the 1980s, natural processes of CO2 uptake by the terrestrial biosphere (the residual land sink) and by the oceans have removed about 50 of anthropogenic emissions from fossil fuel combustion and land-use change. Carbon uptake and storage in the terrestrial biosphere arise from the net difference between uptake due to growth of vegetation that is changes in afforestation and reforestation leading to carbon sequestration, and emissions due to heterotrophic respiration, harvest,...

The Global Carbon Budget

Over the past 200 years humans have introduced 400 petagrams of carbon (PgC) to the atmosphere through deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels. Part of this carbon was absorbed by the oceans and terrestrial biosphere. Table 2.1, section 1, shows the global budget recently compiled by the IPCC Third Assessment Report (Prentice et al. 2001). The global carbon budget quantifies the relative importance of these two reservoirs today, and the budget uncertainty reflects our understanding of the exchanges between these reservoirs. The IPCC assessment partitions the uptake into net terrestrial and oceanic components based primarily on observations of the concurrent global trends of atmospheric CO2 and oxygen. Since the compilation of the IPCC report, new evidence from model studies and oceanographic observations shows that this budget should be slightly revised to account for a previously ignored oceanic oxygen flux. This flux is the result of enhanced oceanic mixing, as inferred from...

Comparisons of national estimates

Applying lower tier methods Lower tier IPCC methods typically are based on 'top-down' approaches that rely on highly aggregated data at a summary category level. Inventory compilers using higher tier, 'bottom-up' approaches may consider using comparisons to lower-tier methods as a simple verification tool. As an example, for carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel combustion, a reference calculation based on apparent fuel consumption per fuel type is specified as a verification check in the Energy Sector procedures (see Volume 2 Energy). This reference approach estimate can be compared to the sum of sectoral-based estimates from a Tier 1, 2, or 3 approach. While the quality of the reference approach is typically lower than that of the sectoral approach, it remains useful as a simple approximation method. It is less sensitive to errors due to its simplicity and can be used as a top-down completeness check. Another example, where emissions are calculated as the sum of sectoral activities...

CO2 Concentration in the Atmosphere

According to the latest estimates, the concentration of atmospheric CO2 increased from a pre-industrial level of about 280 to 380 ppmv in 2006. Whereas over 8,000 years prior to industrialization the concentration had increased only by 20 ppmv, since 1750 it has risen by nearly 100 ppmv. The annual CO2 growth rate during the last 10 years has been higher (1.9 ppmv was the annual average during 1995-2005) than it had ever been since continuous direct atmospheric measurements began (1.4 ppmv annually during 1960-2005). Use of fossil fuels and effects of land use and land-use change on plant and soil carbon are the primary sources of increased atmospheric CO2, their estimated respective shares since 1750 being 65 and 35 (IPCC 2007a). Depending on the scenario, by 2100 the concentration is projected to increase to 540-970 ppmv (Fig. 1.2), which is 90-250 above that in 1750. It is very important to understand the contribution of different countries and sectors to the increasing CO2...

Surface Radiation Measurements

Several explanations for the observed global dimming and global brightening have been offered, including trends in cloud cover and cloud optical thickness. The most plausible general cause, however, is a rise followed by a decline in anthropogenic aerosol burden. According to this scenario, haze from fossil fuel and biomass burning has increased since the middle of the 20th century and has, as a result, enhanced atmospheric reflection and absorption of solar radiation (global dimming). Air pollution control laws enacted during the 1980s and later in certain countries reduced this haze, thus allowing more solar radiation to reach the surface (global brightening). Another likely factor contributing to brightening in Europe was the shutdown of fossil fuel combustion sources following the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe. In certain developing countries such as India, global dimming continues and there has been no reversal to brightening (Wild et al. 2005).

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

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