Start Making Your Own Fuel

Free Power Secrets

Free Power Secrets is a step-by-step guide that will teach you the art of producing fuel at your place. You'll learn how to make your fuel generator through this product. This program will give you a PDF blueprint as well as video guides so that you can achieve what you want. This program was designed by Reggie Hamel. He was able to produce a system that helped him to make gasoline. The program has various components, including a fuel generator, PDF blueprint, video guide, list of tools, instructions, and strategies. The working of this incredible product is simple. On the purchasing, you'll get instructions to build a system that will help you produce fuel. You'll need some tools to get your fuel-generating machine ready. You can save a lot of cash with the support of this product. Also, The program has no harm to the environment, which is another reason to try it. The only disadvantage of this program is that it is an eBook, which means that you can only use it on devices that support the format. More here...

Free Power Secrets Summary

Rating: 4.7 stars out of 14 votes

Contents: Video Guide
Author: Reggie Hamel
Official Website: freepowersecret.com
Price: $17.00

Access Now

My Free Power Secrets Review

Highly Recommended

I started using this book straight away after buying it. This is a guide like no other; it is friendly, direct and full of proven practical tips to develop your skills.

All the testing and user reviews show that Free Power Secrets is definitely legit and highly recommended.

Table 41 Alternatives to Fossil Fuels for Heating and Cooling

Fossil fuels to biomass for district heating, reducing associated emissions to less than one third their 1980 level. Austria and Den heating needs. Biomass can directly replace fossil fuels, and modern wood burners can convert biomass to heat at efficiency rates of up to 90 percent.39 Because buildings generally require heat as well as electricity, combined heat and power units can be designed to supply both. CHP plants generate electricity and capture remaining heat energy for use in industries, cities, or individual buildings. They convert about 75-80 percent of fuel into useful energy, with efficiencies exceeding 90 percent for the most advanced plants. As a result, even traditional fossil fuel CHP systems can reduce carbon emissions by at least 45 percent. These systems can also make use of absorption chillers for space cooling to lower electricity demand even further. Residential-scale CHP units have been widely available in Japan and Europe for years and were recently introduced...

Hydrogen Production from Fossil Fuels

Auto Thermal Reforming

Hydrogen production from fossil fuels such as natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, coal, tar and petroleum coke are well established industrial processes. The principle reaction mechanisms are shown in Figure 5. Hydrogen is produced on a very large scale, principally for ammonia and me- A preheated mixture of steam and hydrocarbon, usually natural gas, is passed through tubes containing a nickel-based catalyst, which are heated in a furnace primarily by radiant heat transfer. Typical conditions would be 30 bar pressure, a 3 to 1 steam-to-carbon ratio and a tube outlet temperature of about 900 C. The reaction products are primarily CO and H2 together with steam, CO2 and a little unconverted methane. The gas mixture is passed through a waste heat boiler, which cools the gas to about 350 C to 400 C. The gases then pass through a catalytic reactor where the shift reaction converts CO and steam to CO2 and H2. The gases are cooled and H2 is separated in a pressure swing adsorber (PSA). The CO2...

The Inorganic Carbonate Carbon Sedimentary Sink for Fossil Fuel CO2

Fossil Fuel Nitrogen

To see where carbonate rocks come into the greenhouse sink picture, we recap on the sequence of different fates that befall CO2 released to the atmosphere through anthropogenic activities such as the burning of fossil fuels and cement production (Fig. 6.4). Some of the added CO2 may be relatively quickly removed from the atmosphere and taken up by the terrestrial biosphere as a result of 'CO2 fertilization' of plant productivity (although nutrient limitation may limit the importance of this effect see Hymus and Valentini, Chapter 2, this volume) as well as forest regrowth and changes in land use practice. Current estimates suggest that 100-180 Pg C may already have been removed in this way, equivalent to 28-50 of total emissions from fossil fuels and cement production (Sabine et al., 2004). The timescale for this CO2 sink to operate is years to decades (for the aboveground vegetation response) to centuries (for the soil carbon inventory to adjust). At the same time, CO2 dissolves in...

Endogenous technological progress in fossil fuel demand

Fossil Fuel Price

This chapter reports on work to develop energy demand sectors for the Global Econometric Model (GEM), maintained jointly by the London Business School and the National Institute for Economic and Social Research. We have derived data for the total fossil fuel energy consumption, energy prices, GDP and general prices for the main OECD countries (Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Japan, the UK and the United States). We then apply multivariate cointegration tests to test for the presence of cointegration between this set of variables. We find remarkably similar relationships in terms of price elasticities and in terms of trend increases in energy efficiency across all the countries. We then go on to estimate full dynamic models for all the countries. Finally in this chapter we consider the relationship between long-term growth, increasing energy efficiency and energy prices and calculate some illustrative trade-offs which leave CO2 emissions unchanged. In recent...

Natural Gas as a Fuel

Natural gas, which is primarily methane, is an excellent fuel for combustion, either in open-flame burning to produce heat or in controlled circumstances within fuel cells, for a number of reasons. In comparison with other natural gases, methane contains the highest H C ratio. That is, there is more hydrogen with respect to carbon in methane than in all the other hydrocarbon gases. When methane is burned it produces less C02 per mole than any other fossil fuel. Methane also produces less C02 per mole than alcohols, where OH substitutes for one molecule of H, and much less than in liquid petroleum gasoline and oil based fuels. The recent attention given to global warming, as enshrined in the internationally recognized Kyoto accords, have focused considerable attention upon the volume of C02 emissions and the need to curtail or reduce them. An aim of the U.S. government is to achieve a 15 energy efficiency savings goal within the next five years (by 2005) and a reduction of energy use...

Climate impacts of bioethanol

Typical Gasoline Co2

For bioethanol, in figure 13.7 five variants of feed-stocks are shown with results ranging from minus 30 to 110 percent. The worst case is corn. Grain and sugar beet follow. Sugar cane and wood are best suited. The positive results using wood as a feedstock are for the gasification of wood and the transformation of the resulting process gas into ethanol by a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (2nd generation biofuels - see table 13.5). On average about 60 percent as compared with fossil-fuel generated CO2 emissions would result if bioethanol is applied. Figure 13.7 GHG effects of biofuel production (Bauen, 2005) Figure 13.7 GHG effects of biofuel production (Bauen, 2005) Bioethanol production from corn as a feed-stock is connected with high inputs of agrochemicals and pesticides, but also with high power needs for the production. Wheat and sugar beet are in the medium range. Sugar cane is the basic feed-stock for the Brazilian Pro lcool bioethanol programme. This is due to favourable...

Is Greenhouse Gas Abatement Achieved By Biofuels

A major benefit claimed for the replacement of fossil fuels by biofuels is their potential to reduce (GHG) emissions. This claim needs to be subject to rigorous analysis because GHG savings depend on whether a simple life-cycle approach is taken to their estimation or a wider approach that recognizes the fact that the markets for biofuels are global. This analysis divides GHG emissions from biofuels into direct the savings incurred by replacing fossil fuels by growing and processing crops to deliver biofuels at the pump in the US and EU, and indirect the impacts on GHG emissions elsewhere of US and EU biofuels policies. A comprehensive analysis by Wang et al. (2007) in the case of corn ethanol in the US shows that GHG savings are profoundly influenced by the method of production and in particular by how the process is fuelled. If the plant is fired by coal then there is net increase in emissions compared with gasoline. Using natural gas together with by-products such as distillers'...

Climate impacts of biodiesel

With biodiesel the improvements relative to fossil fuel even in the worse case are in the range of more than 50 percent (see figure 13.7). The best result, with effects of more than 100 percent, would be reached if biodiesel was produced from wood as a feedstock, via the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, where byproducts of the process, such as electricity and heat, are considered. For rapeseed as a feedstock of biodiesel (as RME) the life cycle assessment comes down with benefits for the greenhouse gas balance. Under German conditions, in the case of a 100,000 t plant, the benefit in GWP is 162 g CO2-eq. per kWh compared to fossil diesel (BMELV, 2008). Figure 13.10 displays the distance related effect of the use of biodiesel instead of fossil based diesel. In the case of the greenhouse gas potential the emissions of about 6 litres of diesel are avoided by application of RME at a distance of 100 km driven. In absolute numbers this amounts about 2.2 kg CO2-eq. l RME (not shown in the figure)....

Biofuels facts and definitions

As figure 13.4 displays energy from biogenic resources may be applied as direct heating material, as a transport fuel or as a source of electricity in power stations. The following chapter deals with biofuels in the transport sector. Types of biofuels are presented in table 13.5. Table 13.5 Biofuel types and market products Table 13.5 Biofuel types and market products Biofuel Synthetic biofuels 2nd generation biofuels Biofuels such as bioethanol and biodiesel derived from lingo-cellulosic biomass by chemical or biological processes, especially by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis via gasification of biomass Liquid biofuels Bioethanol Ethanol produced from biomass and or from the biodegradable fraction of waste, for use as biofuel. Most ethanol used for fuel is being blended into gasoline at concentrations of 5 to 10 percent. Fuel specification E x contains x percent ethanol and (100-x) percent petrol, e.g. E5 and E85 with 5 and 85 percent of ethanol, respectively. E100 is non-blended...

The Role Of Fossil Fuels In The 21st Century

Abstract According to a widely accepted forecast the global energy consumption, which is roughly 400 EJ today, will quadruple by the end of the century and the use of fossil fuels will probably increase until the middle of the century. Hence, the energy scenario definitely implies that the emission of greenhouse gases will also increase by a minimum 30 , leveling off at that value for the coming decades. Unfortunately, a simplified idea is that the use of fossil fuels is solely responsible for global warming, and hence climatic changes. Although the anthropogenic impact on climate is represented by only 15 of carbon dioxide emissions, this is the area where science and engineering can focus all efforts to influence its detrimental effects. The small anthropogenic effect on climate, however, clearly proves that the earth is extremely vulnerable to even marginal changes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Key words energy scenario, fossil fuels, emission of greenhouse gases,...

Alternatives To Fossil Fuels

The phrase Alternative energy implies that these energy sources are alternatives to nuclear and traditional fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, or natural gas. Alternative energy, therefore, is a catchall category of energy sources that proponents argue can replace traditional fossil fuels in daily life, while causing less harm to the environment. Alternative energy is increasingly important for at least three reasons. First, fossil fuels are nonrenewable eventually, they will be exhausted. The United States is already witnessing a decline in its petroleum production. In 1950, the United States was largely self-sufficient in fossil fuels, producing 32,562,667 billion Btus of energy. At the same time, Americans consumed 31,631,956 billion Btus of fossil fuels. The United States therefore enjoyed a slight fossil fuel surplus. Now, fossil fuel consumption in the United States far outstrips production. In 2006, the United States produced 56,032,329 billion Btus of fossil fuels, but...

Bioethanol and Bioethylene

Biomass- based ethanol currently substitutes around 3 of the global gasoline consumption. It has a higher octane rate compared with gasoline (98 vs. 80), but has a lower volumetric energy content (67 of gasoline). Therefore, per kilometer driven, around 20 more ethanol is required - 15 , Favorable political conditions for biofuels have stimulated a significant increased in global production. Currently, the major producers are Brazil (sugarcane) and the USA (corn). In Brazil, the integrated production of sugar and ethanol provides a certain degree of flexibility, depending on market demand. The production may be shifted from 55 45 sugar ethanol to 45 55 sugar ethanol. At the standard 50 50 ratio, roughly 67 kg sugar and 47 l ethanol is obtained per ton sugar cane. Most production plants are energy self- sufficient due to the use of the internal by-product bagasse. One ton of sugar cane yields between 240 and 280 kg bagasse (humidity ca. 50 ) with an energy content that can replace 580...

Introduction fermentation biogas and biohydrogen production from food waste

Food processing waste has significant potential to pollute land, air, and water because of its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and sheer volume. The COD concentration can be 90 000 mg L or more, which is more than 100 times greater than common domestic sewage. It may also have a moderately high salt or acidity content and it might be contaminated with pathogens. Generally, food processing waste does not contain significant amounts of toxic chemicals. Most of the research and development on hydrogen production from organic materials has focused on the use of photosynthetic and fermentative bacteria. The latter is preferred, because it does not rely on the availability of a solar conversion process with a large surface area and transparency of the media (Zaborsky, 1998). An advantage of the anaerobic fermentative route is the fact that hydrogen can be produced directly from organic wastewater as raw material. This has considerable potential as an environmentally friendly process that...

Biomass energy and biofuels potentialities and risks

Production of biofuels currently represents the main alternative to petroleum fuels in the field of transport. The production of biofuels has grown very rapidly, generating strong controversies about its negative impact on food supply. The world production in 2006 reached 24.4 Mtoe, as compared with 10.3 Mtoe in 2000. Biofuels offer the advantage of reducing the dependence of the consumer countries on oil while at the same time improving the CO2 balance. The CO2 emitted by combustion of biomass is seen as neutral with respect to the greenhouse gas balance since it can be considered as being recycled during photosynthesis, as indicated earlier. We must nevertheless take into account all emissions generated during the production, transport and transformation of biomass (life cycle analysis), which may in some cases significantly reduce, or even completely cancel out, this advantage. The European Union member states have set an initial goal of incorporating at least 5.75 of biofuels in...

Natural Gas and Gas Hydrate Eruptioninduced Tsunamis

The continental shelves and slopes around most continents are the sites of deposition of very thick piles of sediments. River deltas such as the Mississippi delta may add even more sediments to these environments, in some cases forming piles of sediment that are 10 miles (16 km) thick, deposited over many millions of years. Natural gas is produced in submarine sediments by the anaerobic decay of organic matter that becomes buried with the sediments. The gas produced by the decay of these organic particles may escape or become trapped within the sediments. When the gas gets trapped between the pore spaces of the sediments, it causes the pressure to build up within the seafloor sediments this process is called underconsol-idation. These pressures may become quite large and even be greater than the pressure exerted by weight of the overlying water. The pressure from the weight of the water is called hydrostatic pressure. When the gas pressure within a layer or larger section of sediments...

Fossil Fuel Use in Agriculture

Energy is required for all agricultural operations. Modern intensive agriculture requires much more energy input than did traditional farming methods, since it relies on the use of fossil fuels for tillage, transportation and grain drying, for the manufacture of fertilizers, pesticides and equipment used as agricultural inputs, and for generating electricity used on farms (Frye, 1984). Early estimates suggested that fossil fuel usage by agriculture, primarily of liquid fuels and electricity, constitute only 3-4 of the total consumption in developed countries (CAST, 1992 Enqu te Commission, 1995). To provide a reference for agriculture's contribution, C emissions from fossil fuel use in the USA in 1996 were reported to be 286.7, 229.9, 477.5 and 445.5 MMTCE for residential, commercial, industrial and transportation sectors, respectively (EPA, 1998). The total amount of C emitted as CO2 in the USA in 1996 from fossil fuels was 1450.3 MMTCE, a value that has steadily increased with time....

Current policies promoting biofuels

Most biofuels are still more costly than fossil fuels and thus production has to be encouraged e.g. by financial and organisational support. On the other hand measures are necessary to control negative environmental and social consequences such as shortage of nutritional crops, change in agricultural structures, or eradication of primeval forests. Most stimulating for biofuels was the Brazil Proalcool bioethanol programme, launched after the energy crisis of 1973. An extra aim was to use surplus sugar production. Sugar cane is the main source of bioethanol in Brazil. About two-thirds of the sugar cane biomass is processed into bioethanol. The commercial capacity is 400 facilities which currently produce a total of about 14 Mio t a. This is now second largest national production in the world after decades in front-runner position. The costs of the ethanol production are in the range of 250 US m3 which is less than half the costs of bioethanol in Europe (450 to 500 EUR m3). In Brazil...

Growing New Forests for Biofuels

Analysis by the author suggests that unharvested plantations are much more effective in saving GHG emissions over a 34-year period than if they are harvested for ethanol production. Using the carbon sequestration model of the Australian Government (2007) the comparison was made between the amount of CO2 removed from the atmosphere by a hectare of hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii) grown in north Queensland and the carbon dioxide savings of a plantation that was clear felled, with the resulting biomass being used for ethanol production. Forest thinnings prior to harvest were also used for ethanol production. A similar result was obtained by Johnson and Heinen (2007) in comparing the GHG implications of growing trees or growing rapeseed for biodiesel. Replacing biodiesel with petroleum diesel and devoting the land to forest was twice as effective, in terms of reducing GHG emissions, as producing biodiesel to replace petroleum diesel. Despite the likelihood that the GHG benefits of...

Why Does Climate Vary From One Place To Another

If you climb up a mountain, the air usually gets colder. The temperature tends to decline by about 0.5 C for every hundred meters ascended, although this does vary. The rate of decrease of temperature w ith altitude is callcd the lapse rate '. Lapse rate tends to be less if the air is moist, and more if the air is dry. Generally, every 10 meters higher up a mountain is the climatic equivalent of traveling about 15 km towards the poles. Unlike the decline in temperature with latitude, sun angle docs not explain why higher altitudes are generally colder. The relative coldness of mountains is a byproduct of the way that the atmosphere acts as a blanket, letting the sun's light in but preventing heat from being lost into space (sec Box Section 1.1 on the greenhouse At present there is a lot of concern about an ongoing increase in the atmospheric levels of certain greenhouse gases due to human activities. For instance, carbon dioxide is building up at around 1 a year due to it being...

Biodiesel and bioethanol

Ambitious biofuels targets have been agreed in major automobile markets. In the US, a goal of 35 billion gallons of biofuels, replacing approximately one fifth of oil-based transport fuels, is proposed by 2017. Current production is just 4.2 billion gallons. The European Union (EU) Biofuels Directive demands that 5.75 per cent of European fuel comes from biomass by 2010, increasing to 10 per cent by 2020. Even more ambitious targets are being discussed (Doornbosch and Steenblik, 2007). Bioethanol is the most widely used biofuel for transport and accounts for more than 94 per cent of global biofuel production, the rest being mostly biodiesel from various oil plants such as palm oil, soy and rapeseed (IEA, 2008, p 161). About 60 per cent of the world's bioethanol comes from sugarcane and 40 per cent from other crops. Germany is the market leader in biodiesel where bioethanol is insignificant. With sales at approximately 1.5 million tonnes, biodiesel currently supplies more than 4 per...

Emissions from fossil fuel combustion

There are three Tiers presented in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for estimating emissions from fossil fuel combustion. In addition a Reference Approach is presented. It can be used as an independent check of the sectoral approach and to produce a first-order estimate of national greenhouse gas emissions if only very limited resources and data structures are available to the inventory compiler. Since CO2 emissions are independent of combustion technology whilst CH4 and N2O emissions are strongly dependent on the technology, this chapter only provides default emission factors for CO2 that are applicable to all combustion processes, both stationary and mobile. Default emission factors for the other gases are provided in subsequent chapters of this volume, since combustion technologies differ widely between source categories within the source sector Combustion and hence will vary between these subsectors.

Consequences for biofuels application

A hundred percent reduction of greenhouse gas emissions will not be possible if biofuels of the first generation are applied. Better results would occur if, besides biofuel production, also power production during a combined process is envisaged. Thus instead of the simple replacement of fuels combined technological developments are to be supported. If a replacement is envisioned in a first approach, it will be best to focus on such feed-stocks which result in a more than 50 percent emission reduction throughout the total supply chain. In future 80 percent reduction should be envisaged as the target. Moreover, the production of biofuels should also fulfill criteria concerning the origin, the production chain, and social aspects, especially when imported from less developed countries (EEB, 2005), as well as a full LCA. Only with 2nd generation biofuels is a mostly greenhouse gas free fuel-supply possible which also does not need fossil fuel inputs (Picard, 2006).

Non Fossil Fuel Power Plants

Last, but not least, zero-CO2 emission technologies such as nuclear and renew-ables, need to account for a larger fraction of new capacity in order to reduce GHG emissions. The emphasis on these technologies needs to be paramount, and wherever possible substitute for fossil fuel based plants. Nuclear power can play a key role in meeting the electricity demand without CO2 emissions. While operating and safety performance of nuclear plants have improved, and new designs offer safer and competitive generation options, public perception of risk and safety of nuclear power, and ultimate disposal of nuclear waste still remain key challenges facing the nuclear industry. Developing countries, China and India in particular, have continued to make additions to their nuclear generation capacity. While China and India will continue to add to their existing nuclear generation capacity, share of nuclear power in Mexico is likely to continue to decline. Mexico's Laguna Verde plant has two units...

Fossil Fuel Combustion

NO is formed by high-temperature chemical processes during combustion of fossil fuels, both from nitrogen present in fuel and from the oxidation of atmospheric N2 in the presence of 02. The distribution for this source is heavily weighted toward the Northern Hemisphere where most of the industrialized world resides. Detailed inventories are available for Canada, the United States, and western Europe describing the spatial patterns of NO, emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes Wagner et al., 1986 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 1986 Fossil fuels NO( emissions due to maritime shipping have been estimated to contribute as much as 3 TgN yr to the global NO, budget (Corbett et al, 1999) with half of these emissions occurring in the North Atlantic. While small compared to the overall fossil fuel contribution of 22TgN yr, NO, emissions from seagoing vessels could prove important over the open ocean in and around shipping lanes far removed from major continental...

CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use

In mechanized farming, fossil fuel is used both to power farm implements and to manufacture and transport fertilizers, pesticides and machinery. Adopting NT usually conserves energy by eliminating energy-intensive tillage and reducing the wear on tillage equipment. The amount of energy saved depends on the previous tillage intensity. For a subhumid site in western Canada, Zentner et al. (2004) found that NT, compared to CT, reduced on-farm fuel and lubricants by 25-31 . In wetter regions where the intensity of CT systems is higher, NT may reduce tillage-related on-farm fossil energy use by up to 60 (West and Marland, 2002). If soil carbon increases upon adopting NT, higher nitrogen inputs might be needed, at least in the short-term, assuming that the carbon nitrogen ratio of organic matter is constant. The increased requirement for nitrogen inputs should diminish as soil carbon levels reach steady state. Many factors interact to determine how tillage affects yield, and an assumption...

Fossil fuel exploitation

For CH4 emissions from fossil fuel exploitation it is assumed that the most profitable measures would be taken first. Therefore, increased maintenance is assumed at a 'cost' of- 200 per tonne CH4 in 1990 and increased on-site use of otherwise vented gas at a cost of - 100 in 2000 and 2025. Other measures are taken later in time at a cost of 100 in 2050, 200 in 2075 and 300 in 2100. In 1990, the introduction of improved inspection and maintenance is assumed. In 2000 and 2025 extra measures are taken to increase on-site gas use from vents and flares. The more expensive measures are taken between 2050 and 2100. Cost estimates are based on AEAT (1998) and De Jager et al (1996). The cost development is based on my own assumptions. Fossil fuel exploitation

Indirect GHG Impacts of Biofuels Policies

Given the global nature of the market for agricultural commodities, global agricultural models are required to measure the indirect GHG implications of biofuels. The results of selected models are now reviewed. A study of impacts of US corn-based ethanol production found that, instead of generating 20 percent savings in GHG emissions, it nearly doubles them over a 30-year period. Forest and grassland conversion that released large quantities of GHGs was accelerated by the higher crop prices. Brazilian sugarcane ethanol is credited with high direct savings of GHGs because bagasse, the waste product of crushing, is used to fuel the process. Nevertheless, GHGs will increase if Brazilian ranchers displaced by sugarcane convert more forest to pasture (Searchinger et al., 2008). Another global study by Fargione et al. (2008) showed how carbon debts were incurred by the clearing of rainforests, peatlands, savannahs or grasslands to produce biofuel crops in Brazil, south-east Asia and the US....

Chemicals and biofuels production

Biotechnology, in particular the fermentation sector, has become more and more attractive in recent years for the production of chemicals and biofuels from organic wastes (Willke and Vorlop, 2004). In fact, there are numerous possibilities for replacing chemical techniques with biotechnological methods based on renewable resources. The most important biogenic sources of raw materials for industrial chemicals are oil plants (oil, fat, glycerol, celluloses) starch plants (starch, inulin, carbohydrates, celluloses) sugar beets and sugar cane (sucrose) wood (ligno-cellulose, cellulose) and waste and residues from agriculture and industry (biomass, fats, oils, whey, glycerol). The food industry is probably the main source for these materials. Fermentative processes can be used for both production of biofuels (methane, hydrogen, ethanol, biodiesel) and building blocks, such as lactic acid, succinic acid, ascorbic acid, isomalt, cyclodextrines and polyamino-acids (Wilke, 1995 Gavrilescu and...

Low Carbon Fuels for Electricity Production

Energy systems that do not rely on fossil fuels and will ultimately be needed to limit the magnitude of future climate change. Switching from one fossil fuel to another having lower emissions (e.g., from coal to natural gas for power generation) also remains an important near-term option. Increasing the efficiency of power generation (for example, by adding combined-cycle technology to natural gas-fueled plants) can also contribute to lower carbon emissions per unit of energy produced. However, greater use of technologies with low or zero emissions would be needed to dramatically reduce emissions. These technologies include nuclear energy which currently provides about 20 percent of U.S. electricity generation and technologies that exploit energy from renewable resources, including solar, wind, hydropower, biomass, and geother-mal energy.

The Rising Tide Of Biofuels

The sustained rise in world oil prices has made renewable energy more cost-competitive. Previous oil price increases have tended to spike but then subside without having provided sufficient stimulus for large-scale private and public capital investments in plant and equipment for the production of biofuels. The rise in oil prices and the attendant increase in the production of biofuels from 1999 to 2006 are illustrated in Figure 6.2. The higher oil prices coincided with maturing technology for the production of biofuels. The increase in world biofuel production in 2006 over 2005 was 27.6 percent (Table 6.1). While in the short term, prices may continue to fluctuate, in the long term they are likely to do so around a higher average price. Other liquid biofuels Biodiesel Figure 6.2 World biofuels production, 2000-2006, and West Texas Intermediate oil spot price The 2005 Energy Policy Act established a renewable fuel standard that increased the mandated use of renewable 'efuels'...

Box 61 Us And Eu Targets For Biofuels

The President's 2007 State of the Union Address (Bush, 2007) urged Congress to agree to increase the supply of renewable and alternative fuels by setting a mandatory Renewable Fuels Standard requiring 35 billion gallons of renewable and alternative fuels in 2017. This was nearly five times the 2012 target already in law. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 already required 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022. In 2017, the President's plan would displace 15 percent of projected annual gasoline use. A 10 percent substitution of petrol and diesel is estimated to require 43 percent of current cropland area of the US (International Energy Agency, 2004). It has been estimated (Perlack et al., 2005 US Department of Energy, 2008a) that there will be sufficient biofuel feedstock to meet the projected demand from several sources In the case of Europe, the European Council has agreed to a target of 20 percent share of renewable energies in overall European Community fuel...

Forests as a source of biofuels

For thousands of years wood has been a major energy source. But in developed countries fossil fuels have become dominant, with renewables making up only 3.9 percent of all fuels in terms of oil equivalents in 2007 (International Energy Agency, personal communication, 2008). In contrast, in many developing countries wood remains the predominant household fuel for cooking and heating. Of the renewables, wood is second only to hydropower in importance globally (see Table 6.1). One of the ways that biomass, provided by plants or forests, can contribute to tackling climate change is as a source of liquid fuel to replace fossil fuels used in transport. Before undertaking an investigation of what might be the specific future role for forests in providing renewable energy, it is necessary to examine in some depth the global trends in overall biofuel production, presently dominated by annual crops. Biofuels cost more than other forms of renewable energy but they are the only form that can...

Sustainable Forestry as a Source of Bioenergy for Fossil Fuel Substitution

Abstract In tropical countries, anthropogenic pressures have led to deforestation and degradation of forests and pasture lands. Realising the large potential and also the importance of producing biomass for energy as a substitute for fossil fuel, using degraded land for plantation forestry has been emphasised in recent years and could become one of the most important counter-agents to deforestation. In India, the area under forests has been reported to be stable at 65 Mha since 1982, although the area under dense forests ( 40 tree crown cover) has been increasing, which suggests an increase in carbon stocks sequestered by Indian forests. The current rate of afforestation in India is one of the largest in the world (about 2 Mha per annum). However, rural households in India depend largely on forests for their basic biomass needs such as medicines, fuelwood, livestock feed and raw materials for various products. Looking to the future needs of biomass in the country and the extent of...

Global Scenarios In Biofuels Production

The OECD has forecast rising prices for agricultural commodity prices, particularly vegetable oils (OECD, 2008). While the world financial crisis of 2008 will slow demand for commodities in the near future, world economic growth will in time regain its former momentum. Given constraints on domestic supply, a likely scenario is that much of the developed world's needs for vegetable oils for biodiesel and human consumption and for ethanol to replace petroleum fossil fuels will be outsourced. Production is likely to come from existing low-cost countries in south-east Asia and Brazil. The OECD (2008) expects palm oil production to increase by 40 percent by 2017, for example, and Brazilian sugarcane production to increase by 75 percent over the same period. This growth will entail the clearing of tropical forests and savannah lands unless drastic measures are taken to modify the economic drivers. Third is the removal of distorting subsidies by the US and the EU for biofuels and instead...

Fossil Fuel Consumption

The main source of all the extra carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is the burning of fossil fuels. These include coal, oil in all its refined forms, and natural gas. All these fuels contain a lot of carbon. This chart shows that the annual consumption of fossil fuels varies by region and by country. The biggest consumers of fossil fuels are the United States, China, and the European Union. Coal produces far more carbon dioxide per unit of energy than the other fuels, so countries that burn a lot of coal, such as China, have a bigger impact on the climate than countries that burn more gas.

Energy Fugitive Biofuel

The data sources for fugitive CO2 emissions and CH4 and N2O from energy are listed below. Data for fossil fuel production and use for 138 countries were taken from the IEA energy statistics for OECD and non-OECD countries 1970-2005 (extended energy balances, in energy units) (IEA, 2007). This dataset comprises 94 sectors and 64 fuel types. For the countries of the Former Soviet Union and Former Yugoslavia a modified dataset was used to achieve a complete time series for the new countries for 19702005 of which the sum converges to the older dataset for the total Former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. For another 62 countries, the aggregated IEA data for the regions 'Other America', 'Other Africa' and 'Other Asia' have been split using the sectoral IEA data per region and total production and consumption figures per country of coal, gas and oil from energy statistics reported by the US Energy Information Administration (EIA, 2007). the IEA uses the default CO2 emission factors from the...

The role of fossil fuels

While our aim is to reduce as rapidly as possible the share of fossil fuels in the world primary energy supply, substantially reducing the amount of energy consumed and deploying renewable energy sources will take time. What can the role of fossil fuels be during this transition period and how can they contribute to help in achieving a transition aimed at their disappearance Furthermore, is the objective to widen and diversify fossil fuel sources reconcilable with the need to reduce CO2 emissions Considering only coal, its proven reserves presently amount to around 900 billion tonnes, which means that 3700 billion tonnes of CO2 will be produced, if this coal is consumed. This is much more than the total emissions of carbon which might be acceptable during the next fifty years, if we want to keep to the objective of a mean temperature increase below 2 C. Three reasons have to be taken into account for maintaining substantial efforts in the area of fossil fuels - As has already been...

Nature Of Nonenergy Uses Of Fossil Fuels

As explained in Section 1.1 some CO2 emissions from fossil fuels arise from uses that are not primarily for energy purposes and, in this section, the principles are described which have guided their estimation and reporting. The methods used to estimate emissions are described in the specific IPPU source category chapters (Chapters 3, 4 and 5). This section provides important and additional background information for the use of data relating to non-energy use and the links between these data and the fossil fuel use. Non-energy use is widespread, diverse and the correct reporting of its emissions is conceptually difficult. It is good practice to ensure that all fossil fuels supplied for non-energy purposes can be linked to uses covered by the inventory and the reported emissions are consistent with the carbon supplied. Accordingly, Section 1.4 provides guidance for assessing consistency and completeness of carbon emissions from feedstock use of fuels by (a) checking that feedstock...

What needs to be done Policy measures to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and to encourage diversification of energy

Fossil fuels should bear the full cost of the burden that the emission of carbon dioxide is imposing on the world. This requires either taxation of carbon products (such as gasoline), or a system for rationing and trading permits to release carbon dioxide, or both. The European Union (EU) already has comparatively high levels of taxation of oil and oil products, but may still need to go further in this direction. It has also pioneered a system for rationing and trading permits to release carbon but this system still contains a number of anomalies and loopholes and has not yet established a clear and stable market signal in favour of reducing fossil-fuel consumption and diversifying to other fuels. Anomalies need to be fixed, and Some commentators have suggested that carbon trading systems might be developed in such a way that a floor price for carbon is established to give greater certainty to the market. The floor price might then be driven steadily upwards over the next three...

Production of Biofuels

The Environmental Defense Fund has determined that a key factor in how effective biofuels are in fighting global warming is the energy efficiency of their production methods. These include everything from running plows and harvesters to manufacturing pesticides and fertilizer to converting the material into fuel and transporting it. Improving land use through sustainable practices such as no-till farming, and boosting energy efficiencies make biofuels more effective at reducing heat-trapping pollution. biodiesel transportation There are advantages to farmers for producing biofuels. As energy prices rise, farms that reduce their energy use increase efficiency. Those that produce fuels will be more financially stable in the country's currently unstable fossil fuels market. In addition, producing and selling biofuels provides additional income to farmers. Biofuel production also supports and strengthens the local economy rather than foreign economies.

Budgeting of climate consequences of biofuels

Ecological budgeting of bioethanol and biodiesel covers a wide range of GHG emissions according to the specific conditions on site. Figure 13.7 represents the results of a literature survey (Bauen, 2005). The difference between biofuels and fossil based petrol or diesel is displayed. Maximum and minimum values are given GHG emissions of actual cases would lie between the two extremes. In general the results elucidate that the GHG emissions range is between negative values and more than 100 percent improvement. Negative values indicate that more GHG emissions would occur compared to fossil fuel production. A value of more than 100 percent means that not only the GHG emissions from fossil fuels are compensated but a bonus results from benefits of by-products such as renewable energy generated during fuel production. In some cases there is more energy transformed into power than into resulting biofuel.

Technologies for New Fossil Fuel Plants

In the three countries discussed in this chapter, domestic fossil fuel will continue to remain a key element of power sector. Many developing countries with ready access to such cheap domestic fuel will use them for future development, and therefore it is important to consider potential GHG mitigation options for these new fossil fuel-based plants. A key first option, especially for China and India, is to focus on advanced combustion technologies, such as supercritical (SC) and ultra-supercritical (USC) PC technologies. Some of these plants can help replace retire older inefficient plants from the existing fleet. China has already made substantial progress in this direction, and installed 8.8 GWe indigenous USC PC generation capacity. Further, China has embarked on significant future capacity addition based on USC and SC PC combustion technology. According to the IEA, as a result of the introduction of advanced steam cycle plants and the closure of smaller inefficient plants, carbon...

Contribution Of Fossil Fuels To Co2 Emissions

Based on the energy scenario forecast to the end of the 21st century the probable and necessary demand of fossil fuels can be calculated (BP, 2005 WEC, 1995 Skov, 2003 ExxonMobil, 2004 Shell, 2001 US-DOE, 2005). The absolute and relative contribution of coal, oil and gas to energy production, per decade, are shown in Figs 5 and 6. The data in these diagrams suggest that the global role of fossil fuels, in contrast to various information in the world media, will increase until the middle of the century and then decrease monotonously until 2100. Technological improvements in the energy sector had already started well before the Kyoto accord. Significant efforts have been made to increase the efficiency of power stations and to decrease their air pollution. As far as the utilization of fossil fuels is concerned oil, and later natural gas, have Figure 5. Absolute contribution of fossil fuels to energy production (2000-2100). Figure 5. Absolute contribution of fossil fuels to energy...

Methane emissions by oil and natural gas extraction

Production, processing, transmission, and distribution of oil and natural gas are the second largest anthropogenic methane source globally. About 88 billion m3 are released annually. In Russia and Ukraine, in 2000 an equivalent of 69.1 and 16.4 Mio t CO2, respectively, was set free. In the U.S. oil industry by petroleum systems in 2005 methane emissions were about 28 Mio t CO2-eq. (EPA, 2007b). In petroleum systems methane emissions are primarily associated with crude oil production, transportation, and refining operations. Methane is released as fugitive emissions, vented emissions, from operational upsets, and from fuel combustion. Production field operations account for over 97 percent, from which vented emissions are 90 percent. Most dominant are offshore oil platforms, field storage tanks, and natural gas powered pneumatic devices. Methane losses from natural gas systems account for 15 percent of total worldwide methane emissions. Emissions vary greatly from facility to facility...

Biofuels and Other Non Petroleum Fuels

The environmental impacts of switching from petroleum-based fuels to those from other feedstocks must include the impacts across the complete life cycle of primary For biofuels, the feedstock production and logistics impacts are the same as those discussed for biomass above impacts on land use (and the potential for GHG emissions due to such changes), water quality and quantity issues, potential impacts to soil quality, air emissions from feedstock collection and transport, and potential ecosystem impacts due to changes in the biomass being grown and the disruption during production and harvest. A significant increase in the ethanol content of fuel for motor vehicles will result in environmental impacts during the distribution and storage phase of the full biofuel life cycle. Increased transport of ethanol, either through pipelines or by truck or rail will result in increased spills of the fuel. The impacts of such spills include potential major fish kills if spilled into open water...

Sources of methane emissions from natural gas and oil infrastructure

Natural gas and oil infrastructure accounts for over 20 per cent of global anthropogenic CH4 emissions. Methane gas emissions occur in all sectors of the natural gas and oil industries, from drilling and production, through to processing and transmission, to distribution and even end use as a fuel. The natural gas infrastructure is composed of five major segments production, processing, transmission, storage and distribution. The oil industry CH4 emissions occur primarily from field production operations, such as venting gas from oil wells, oil storage tanks and production-related equipment. Table 13.1 provides a summary of country-specific CH4 emissions from oil and gas for 1990 and 2000 and expected emissions for 2010 for some of the largest producers.

THE INcReasing vALuE of NATuRAL GAS

Most of the natural gas produced is trapped in rock formations that are millions of years old and at depths much deeper than the shallow-biogenic type. The market for natural gas has developed recently, relative to the history of the oil industry. For many years, it was regarded as a nuisance because necessary pipelines did not exist and could not be justified financially. Therefore, discoveries of gas in the search for oil were abandoned, and when gas was produced as a co-product from oil wells, it was ignited and flared for safety reasons. Natural gas is now regarded as a valuable commodity and only minor amounts are flared or lost to the atmosphere. Markets have developed and demand is strong and growing. The primary transportation of natural gas is by pipeline, and because of higher prices, smaller deposits of gas can justify drilling and laying a pipeline. In addition, a rapidly-developing transportation mode for natural gas is by tanker in liquefied form. Large volumes can be...

Displacing Natural Gas from Transportation

Eliminating carbon emissions from electric generation is only a partial step in the transition to carbonless energy systems. Further carbon reductions will require renewable fuel production, most likely hydrogen, given its universal applicability to all sectors of transportation. Fundamental energy balance indicates, however, that the overall costs of reducing emissions from transportation will likely be higher than reducing emissions from the utility sector. A kWh of renewable electricity delivered for end-use displaces at least 1.75 kWh of fossil fuel (natural gas). Alternatively that kWh of electricity would displace only 0.63 - 0.83 kWh of gas use though electrolytic hydrogen substitution in transportation. This basic factor is the underlying reason for the higher cost of carbon reduction in the transportation sector. Using solar electrolytic hydrogen, fueling 250 million passenger vehicles can reduce carbon emissions from 248 to 182 mmtC yr at a cost of 850 tonneC. Displacing...

Globalization Biofuels and GHGs

The major feedstocks of biofuels are maize in the United States and rape-seed in the EU. All grains and oilseeds (or cooking oil) are storable and easily transported, and the large global market has been traditionally supplied by EU and US exporters. The other characteristic of the market is the ready substitution that takes place between grains and oilseeds. If one of the major export crops such as maize is scarce and rises in price then more of the close substitutes such as wheat and rice will be used and their price may also rise triggering increases in supplies. Steady productivity gains have tended to keep grain prices low, even in the face of an increase in world population. The key to understanding the social and environmental impacts of an increase in subsidies for biofuels production from annual crops in the US Table 6.2 Impacts of subsidizing biofuels production in the US and EU Subsidies in the US and EU raise the price of corn and rapeseed oil and divert production to...

Methane emission reductions from natural gas

Methane emissions from fossil fuel exploration could potentially increase in the near future. While looking for unconventional fossil fuel resources, CH4 hydrates have recently attracted increasing attention. As each cubic metre of During the production of natural gas the main CH4 emission sources are natural gas treatment operations, like drying of the gas with glycol and removal of H2S or CO2 with amine solutions separation of natural gas condensate and measurement of its volume operations in Norway (OLF, 1994). To reduce CH4 losses from such fossil fuel systems the following options are available (see also Table 13.4).

Natural gas and the future

Unless alternatives are pioneered, natural gas is set to become an increasingly important fuel in tomorrow's world. It is cleaner and more environmentally friendly than both coal and oil, emitting less sulphur, carbon and nitrogen and leaving behind almost no ash particles if it is burned. At the same time it can potentially be used just as extensively both in the home and workplace more than half of American houses already use natural gas as their main heating fuel and it is employed in all sorts of industrial processes to create all manner of different products. The raw statistics speak for themselves. In 2006 the world's consumption of natural gas already stood at around 105.5 trillion cubic feet, of which roughly one-fifth was taken up by the United States. But the annual United States government document International Energy Outlook predicts that by the year 2030 global consumption could jump by more than half. This is partly because many people will turn away from oil if its...

Preservation of samples containing natural gas hydrate

We have recovered natural gas hydrate from two field projects Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 164 conducted on the Blake Ridge off the coast of South Carolina (Paull et al., 1996) and the Mallik 2L-38 Gas Hydrate Research Well drilled in the Northwest Territories of the Canadian Arctic (Dallimore et al., 1999). Although both projects had pressurized coring systems, gas-hydrate samples preserved for later laboratory testing were recovered using conventional drilling techniques. During the ODP cruise samples containing gas hydrate in finer-grained sediment were brought up through a relatively warm column of water above the thermocline before recovery.

Fossil Fuels

Isopar Viscosity

Fossil fuels are the remains of living things that were buried underground before they had time to decay. Coal is made of plants, so it contains the remains of the carbohydrates they created using the energy of sunlight. So coal is stored solar energy, compacted over millions of years. For thousands of years, timber was the main fuel used for heating, cooking, and in the form of charcoal industrial processes like metalworking. But in the 1700s, people started mining coal, which is a more concentrated, abundant source of energy. Coal fueled the rise of modern industry, as well as the railroads and steamships of the 1800s. In the 1900s oil and natural gas were developed into fuels for road vehicles and aircraft, and both coal and gas are used to generate the electricity that powers our modern lives. All these are carbon-rich fossil fuels, created from long-dead organisms by processes that take millions of years. They are being burned far more quickly than they are formed, releasing...

Types Of Biofuels

The most common type of biofuel is bioethanol, made by fermentation and distillation of sugar and starch. No engine modifications are needed in cars for blends of petrol and 10 percent ethanol. In the US the main feedstock is corn, in the EU sugar beet, feed wheat and barley, while in Brazil it is sugarcane. While biodiesel makes up only 5 percent of biofuel production it is important in Europe where diesel is in increasingly short supply and where increasing the diesel gasoline ratio is costly for refineries. Biodiesel is made mainly from rapeseed in Europe and soybeans in the US. Figures 6.1a and 6.1b show the regional sources of ethanol and biodiesel production in 2006. The above biofuels are conventional or first generation types. The so-called second generation biofuels are made from any kind of biomass, including for example forest or crop residues, which are generally cheaper sources than dedicated energy crops. The principal advantage of second generation biofuels is the...

Natural gas

Natural gas forms naturally under normal conditions of temperature and pressure in the ground. Composed mostly of methane, natural gas also contains ethane, propane, butane, and pentane, with common impurities of inorganic gases including nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. Natural gas's origin is similar to that of other hydrocarbons, being derived from the decomposition of buried organic matter, but is simply the lighter end member of the spectrum of compositions of hydrocarbons. Being a gas, it contains only gaseous hydrocarbons having between one and five carbon atoms and no compounds with six or more carbon atoms. All types of organic matter can contribute to the formation of natural gas, when buried and heated to more than 320 F (160 C). Some natural gas is generated during the decomposition of coal and petroleum when they are heated above 320 F, whereas other gas is produced along with the generation of other hydrocarbons. An additional type of natural gas is...

Low Carbon Fuels

Brazil was the first country to make a significant shift to renewable, lower carbon fuels based on producing ethanol from sugar cane, but many countries around the world are now pursuing similar approaches with mixed success. California recently proposed carbon based fuels requirements and the EU is pursuing low carbon fuels standards (LCFS) 16 . However, to achieve significant global benefits from low carbon fuels it is increasingly clear that a full life cycle analysis13 is necessary which includes consideration of indirect land use effects. When such factors are taken into account, it is clear that moving to low carbon fuels that actually achieve significant benefits is a very difficult proposition. The goal of a LCFS is to promote investment and use of low carbon fuels (e.g., sustainable corn ethanol and biodiesel, CNG, renewable electrons14 hydrogen) and dampen demand for high carbon fuels (e.g. Canadian tar sands, Venezuelan shale oil, U.S. coal to liquids). The current U.S....

Biofuels

Biofuels (biogas, bioalcohol, biodiesel) are made from plant biomass, and are more or less carbon neutral, since in burning they do not increase the overall CO2 content of the atmosphere but set free just the amount of CO2 that was fixed before in photosynthesis of the plant (Schiermeier et al., 2008). Thus, in recent years, plant biomass has gained growing importance as an alternative energy source. Main current sources of bioalcohol (mostly bioethanol) are sugars of sugarcane and starch of corn and wheat. Today, about 20 of the US corn harvest is used to make bioethanol. This covers about 2 of the US demand for transportation fuels (Chisti, 2007). Biodiesel is made from plant oil, mainly from rapeseed, palm oil and jatropha. Biogas is produced from different kinds of biomass. However, a serious flaw in the ecobalance of traditional biofuels becomes obvious when the complete CO2 balance is calculated, i.e., when CO2 costs for seed, fertilisers, herbicides, irrigation, harvest and...

Biodiesel

Oil waste waters can be used for the production of biodiesel. Dmytryshyn et al. (2004) conducted the transesterification of four vegetable oils (canola oil greenseed canola oil heat-damaged seeds, processed waste fryer grease and unprocessed waste fryer grease) using methanol and KOH as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol, purified and characterized by various methods to evaluate their densities, viscosities, acid numbers, fatty acid and lipid compositions, lubricity properties and thermal properties. The fatty acid composition suggests that 80-85 of the ester was from unsaturated acids. A substantial decrease in density and viscosity of the methyl esters compared with their corresponding oils suggested that the oils were in mono- or di-glyceride form. The lubricity of the methyl esters, when blended 1 vol treat rate with ISOPAR M reference fuel, showed that the canola ester enhanced the fuel's lubricity number. From the...

Natural gas losses

With natural gas being composed of 90 per cent CH4, its loss to the atmosphere during extraction, processing and supply can represent a significant component of local and national CH4 emissions budgets. Globally, such natural gas-related CH4 emissions are estimated to result in the emission of 25-50Tg CH4 yr-1 (Wuebbles and Hayhoe, 2002) and on a par, if not greater than, losses due to coal mining. In 2007 in the US, CH4 emissions from natural gas systems totalled 104Tg CO 2-eq, making this source of anthropogenic CH4 the third largest after enteric fermentation and landfills (US EPA, 2009). Globally, emissions are projected to increase by 54 per cent between 2005 and 2020, with the largest increases occurring in Brazil ( 700 per cent) and China ( 600 per cent). It is estimated, that in the 1990s, around 6 per cent of the natural gas piped across Russia was lost due to leaks, with regional leakage rates reportedly ranging from between 1 and 15 per cent depending on the quality of the...

Introduction energy use in food processing

Cooling Curve Food Processing

The production of food, which sustains the human energy balance, requires a considerable and continuous supply of energy delivered from natural resources, principally in the form of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil and natural gas. For example, a typical energy requirement for the delivery of 1 J in the form of food consumes almost 10 J from natural resources. In the production of food for human consumption, the processing of food and drink requires a considerable part of this energy (see for example, Hufendiek and Klemes, 1997 Klemes et al., 1999a,b). The steady increase in the human population of the planet and its growing nutritional demands has produced an annual increase in the energy consumption of the food and drink industry of up to 40 in the last decade. In addition, the food processing industry has the potential for integrating the use of renewable energy sources in order to reduce pollution and waste generation, and so reduce overall costs. A typical example is the use of...

Choice of emission factors tier 1 method

The emission factor for pellet production is based on the IPPC I&S BAT Document which provides an emission factor range of 15.6 to 31.8 kg CO2 per tonne product. However, the CO2 emission factor for a specific process will depend on the characteristic of the raw materials and fuels used in the process. The emission factor would vary depending upon whether coal, natural gas, or coke oven gas was used as the primary fuel. The 'default' emission factor provided is at the high end of the range, 30 kg CO2 per tonne product, and should be used if the inventory compiler does not know anything about the fuels or raw materials used. If the inventory compiler knows the inputs used, CO2 emissions should be calculated using the Tier 2 method, accounting for the fuel consumption, heating value and carbon content of the fuel. For the purposes of Tier 1 emission calculations, it is assumed that the default fuel for production of Direct Reduced Iron is natural gas. Natural gas-based processes account...

S Wayne Rosenbaum Recontek

Unfortunately, pyrcmetallurgy has several distinct disadvantages. Greatest among these aire the environmental concerns regarding air quality and the disposal of potentially hazardous slags and residues. Further, pyrcmetallurgy has not been demonstrated to be particularly successful where the feed streams vary widely in chemical ccnposition or where more than a few metals are to be extracted for conmercial application. Hie First World War resulted in American economic dominance in extracting metallurgy and refining also provided pyronetadlurgy with a dominant market position over the carpeting hydranetallurgical techniques. This was primarily due to America's abundant sources of cheap fossil fuels. 1. land Disposal tax costs vary fran state to state fron 40 to 130 ton. A mean of 85.00 per ten was used for this exanple.

The Future Direct Co2 Effect A Good Or A Bad Thing For The Natural World

Some scientists, and groups supported by the fossil fuel lobby, have argued that C02 fertilization might turn out to be a very good thing for nature in general. By allowing plants to thrive on less water, it might enable tropical rainforests to spread into drier climates. This might help to counterbalance the damaging effects of humans in logging and clearing tropical forests, preserving many of the species that live within them against extinction. There is a general relationship between rainfall and species richness even within tropical forest regions, and rising C02 might tend to act rather like an increase in rainfall, maximizing species richness in areas that are already tropical rainforest.

Upgrading of the monooligomeric components

Extractive Ammonia Pretreatment

Fruit and vegetable by-products are rich in fermentescible sugars, and as such they can be used as raw material for ethanol production. Production of ethanol from agricultural and forestry residues or other sources of ligno-cellulosic biomass is of both economic and environmental interest. It could be a way to counter the inevitable depletion of the world's petroleum supply and to decrease air pollution. Ethanol can be produced from glucose and xylose fermentation, both originating from cell wall polysaccharide degradation. Sugar cane bagasse is the main raw material used for this purpose but other biomass is also used, such as hardwood and grasses. Some other wastes have been studied, e.g. chicory roots (Leplus, 2004). The biomass can be treated by a concentrated acid process that uses sulphuric acid (Fig. 16.4). In that case, very efficient acid recycling is required for the process to be economically acceptable. The second possibility to recover the monomers is to degrade the...

Need for Savings in Environmentally Relevant Resources 551 Fertilisers

Conventional Fertilisers Soil

Fertilisers cause not only eutrophication and an increase of environmentally harmful substances in biofuels but also emissions during their production as well as during the crop production. Thus, the demand for fertiliser is an evident indicator of the environmental sustainability of the crop production. Of the relevant nutrient fertilisers (N, P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, S), nitrogen (N), phosphate (P2O5) and potassium oxide (K2O) have the highest efficiencies, i.e. 33 , 20 and 60 , respectively (Engelstad 1968 Raun and Johnson 1999). However, these nutrients cause various environmental problems (Scholz and Ellerbrock 2002). Nitrogen is the most problematic nutrient. Its production requires a great deal of energy (Patyk and Reinhardt 1997) and its utilisation results in relevant emissions into air and water (Kaltschmitt and Reinhardt 1997). Phosphate is a globally limited raw material (Pradt 2003), and potassium is often used in the form of potassium chloride (KCl), which contains...

Primary production processes

In the sintering smelting process, the initial sintering blends lead concentrates with recycled sinter, lime rock and silica, oxygen, and high-lead-content sludge to remove sulphur and volatile metals via combustion (Metallurgical Industry, 1995). The process, which produces a sinter roast that consists of lead oxide and other metallic oxides, results in the emission of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) from the natural gas used to ignite the lead oxides (DOE, 2002). The sinter roast is then put in a blast furnace along with ores containing other metals, air, smelter by-products, and metallurgical coke (Metallurgical Industry, 1995). The coke burns as it reacts with air and produces carbon monoxide (CO) that actually performs the reduction of the lead oxide by chemical reaction (DOE, 2002). The smelting process occurs in either a traditional blast furnace or an Imperial Smelting Furnace, and it is the reduction of the lead oxide during this process that...

Optimizing fertilizer application with respect to nitrous oxide emission

Global N2o Emission

Agricultural systems serve for the production of food, fibre, feed and biofuel crops. Production input factors, such as N fertilizers, are used to estimate N2O emissions which can then be converted into GWP (IPCC, 2006 Stehfest and Bouwman, 2006). The conclusion could be drawn that reducing fertilizer input would be an adequate means of reducing N2O emissions from agriculture. However, as agricultural activity will always remain essential for mankind to survive, a more revealing parameter is the N2O emission per output factor such as grain yield, total N production or protein production. Evaluating conventional and no-tillage systems, Mosier et al (2006) calculated net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensities in irrigated maize

Indirect N2O emissions

Policy Factors

The first of these pathways is the volatilisation of N as NH3 and oxides of N (NOx), and the deposition of these gases and their products NH4+ and NO3- onto soils and the surface of lakes and other waters. The sources of N as NH3 and NOx are not confined to agricultural fertilisers and manures, but also include fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, and processes in the chemical industry (see Volume 1, Chapter 7, Section 7.3). Thus, these processes cause N2O emissions in an exactly analogous way to those resulting from deposition of agriculturally derived NH3 and NOx, following the application of synthetic and organic N fertilisers and or urine and dung deposition from grazing animals. The second pathway is the leaching and runoff from land of N from synthetic and organic fertiliser additions, crop residues 18, mineralisation of N associated with loss of soil C in mineral and drained managed organic soils through land-use change or management practices, and urine and dung deposition...

Agricultural Sequestration

Agriculture Greenhouse Gases

Carbon sequestration occurs in soils and agricultural crops mainly through the natural process of photosynthesis. Half of the agriculture biomass is composed of carbon. When the vegetation decays, the litter and roots also contribute carbon to the soil. When agricultural fields are plowed, CO2 can be released to the atmosphere. The amount of carbon in cropland soils can vary depending on types of crops, types of fertilizers used, and type of management practice (such as conventional or conservation tillage). These variables can also determine the presence of other greenhouse gases such as methane and nitrous oxide, which have greater global warming potentials than CO2. Biofuel substitution displacement of fossil fuels with biomass (agricultural and forestry wastes, or crops and trees grown for biomass purposes) in energy production, or in the production of energy-intensive products such as steel. Substitutes carbon for fossil fuel and energy-

Energy policy in context

Energy policy embraces diverse objectives and instruments and the mix changes over time. In the second half of the twentieth century, industrialised countries shifted from the public provision of adequate supply to a greater emphasis on competition, market forces and private initiatives. Before the late 1980s energy policy was government-led, embracing public ownership, long-range planning and direct control of markets. But in the last two decades of the twentieth century, governments became less concerned with supply issues, in part because of the apparent abundance of low-cost fossil fuels. Competition for resources and international power games involving energy are long-standing causes of national insecurities. In the early twenty-first century, energy security fears appear more acute than at any time since the 1970s and are being compounded by fears about the potential effects of climate change. For example, there are growing concerns about water shortages and cross-border...

Uncertainty assessment

Much of the uncertainty in emission estimates for methanol production is related to the difficulty in determining activity data including the quantity of methanol produced and, for higher tier methodologies, the amount of natural gas and other feedstocks consumed on an annual basis. Natural gas and other feedstock consumption may only be reported on an annual basis in national energy statistics, without any breakout of consumption for methanol production. If natural gas consumption activity data are not available then only an emission factor approach rather than a higher tier carbon balance approach is applicable. If activity data are not available for consumption of other feedstocks for methanol production, it may be assumed that all of the national methanol production is from natural gas feedstock. However, this assumption would introduce some uncertainty. Further, activity data may not be available for annual CO2 feedstock consumption in methanol production plants that utilise CO2...

Waste Management For Printed Circuit Board Manufacture

Solids from leaded as well as non-leaded products settle to the bottom of storage tanks, where they remain until they are removed. This accumulated sludge is removed whenever the tank service is changed, the sediment content of the stored product exceeds specifications, or the tank itself needs inspection or repair. The characteristics of the deposited sludge varies with the type of product stored in the tank. Leaded tank bottoms are considered RCRA hazardous and special handling methods are used when the sludge is removed. It is generally removed at intervals varying between once a year and once every five to seven years, and spread on special concrete pads for weathering. Weathered sludge is disposed of in a Class I landfill. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) occurs as a contaminant in many different refinery gas streams, including those from petroleum cracking and hydrodesulfurization, as well as natural gas and coal gasification streams. Sulfur recovery processes absorb H2S from these...

Conclusion Of Report On Solar Parabolic Collector

This chapter presents a review and analysis of solar-driven heat engines for power generation with relevance to residential applications. The impact of solar systems on sustainable development is quantified based on fossil fuel vs solar energy utilization factors predicted over the next decades and by sustainability factor as introduced also in other works, e.g., by Dincer and Rosen (2005). The established large-scale and small-scale systems are presented and analyzed based on their performance parameters. A case study is presented illustrating the benefits of solar system in CO2 mitigation and reducing global warming by relating to renewable sources rather than fossil fuels.

Strategic Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Food Industry

Energy resources are closely linked with the development of agriculture sector. Therefore, energy is a particularly significant input in the so-called 'industrial' food and farming systems, with farm systems based on synthetic external inputs and producing for the processing or global markets (i.e., several manufacturing stages and long transport distances) (Ziesemer, 2007). Agriculture and food processing systems play an important role to increase the fossil fuel consumption and climate change because of their significant energy use and agriculture's potential to serve as a sink for the negative externalities of energy use. In food industry, energy is used not only in planting, cultivating, and harvesting the agricultural products, but also in manufacturing and transporting the inputs, such as pesticides, fertilizers, and machinery and in processing, packaging, and distribution of final products. In terms of energy consumption, the food supply chain including production, processing,...

Steam Network Optimization by Utilizing Biomass and Solar Energy Sources in an Oil Refinery

Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel combustion in industrial processes contribute significantly to global warming. A reduction in GHG emissions can only be achieved by a conversion to renewable energy sources and a simultaneous increase in energy efficiency therefore, the application of renewable energies for evaluating the site utility systems and environmental aspects should be considered. Site utility systems involve complex interactions. For improving the systems, a structured approach is needed. Steam generators are important components of site utility systems that affect the thermal performance of chemical and petrochemical industry processes. In an oil refinery, steam is available at different pressures and temperatures. Some processes use steam while others generate steam. There are interactions between the processes and the utility system via steam use and generation. There are also interactions between the processes on the site through the steam mains (Smith,...

Choice of emission factors

Natural Gas Carbon black feedstock and natural gas Emissions of CO2 from methanol production from the steam reforming and partial oxidation processes may be estimated by applying the default process feedstock emission factors, or the feedstock-specific and process-specific emission factors in Table 3.12, to activity data for methanol production, process configuration and process feedstock. The default emission factors are based on the average of plant-specific CO2 emissions data reported for four methanol plants using the conventional steam reforming process without primary reformer and using natural gas feedstock. Emissions data used in developing the default CO2 emission factor were reported for conventional process methanol plants in New Zealand, Chile, and Canada and in the Netherlands. Emission factors in the table include both the CO2 emissions arising from the process feedstock and the CO2 emissions arising from feedstock combusted within the steam reforming process. Table 3.13...

Capitalisation of Land and Real Estate

Prestige and (to a lesser degree) ecology are factors to be considered partly subjective and concerning people who have a high property qualification. The middle class, different in every country and having different incomes, pays more attention to comfort. The middle class buys houses, taking into consideration the income situation of the household and the expenses, which the housekeeping will provoke. For the majority of countries the main expenses are hut taxes and public utilities (electricity, gas, water, sewage, heating). It is well-known that these public utilities are power-consuming, and thus strongly energy-related, in every country. Hence, the cost of housekeeping and the cost of life in a house depend emphatically on the cost of energy. The oil component plays a huge role in electric power production and regulates also the price of the other important resource for electric power production - natural gas. This regulation will remain until an independent mechanism of gas...

Into a Less Peopled Less Hostile Planet

Tangible steps to reduce any of these factors will lessen their product and help produce a more hospitable future for biodiversity. A current example that integrates all three factors is the drive to produce biofuel (T) to satisfy the expanding energy consumption (A) of a growing population (P). Unchecked biofuel production has the potential to destroy all moist-tropical biodiversity that lacks conservation status. Biologically impoverished monocultures of oil palm, soybeans, and sugarcane for biodiesel and ethanol are devouring swaths of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado, Indonesian, and Malaysian tropical rainforests and other vast reservoirs of biodiversity (Fearnside, 2001 Klink and Machado, 2005). However, the production of biofuels from native grassland perennials on agriculturally degraded lands has the potential to reduce carbon emissions without displacing food production or converting native habitats (Tilman et al. , 2006). In this case, an innovative Technological adjustment...

Historical DevElopment Of The Greenhouse Effect Concept

Carbon dioxide can vary naturally in the atmosphere through a variety of driving mechanisms, including changes in volcanism, erosion and plate tectonics, and ocean-atmosphere interactions. The modern concept of linking greenhouse gases with the burning of fossil fuels by humans was formulated by steam engineer and amateur meteorologist Guy Stewart Callendar (1898-1964) in 1938, who calculated that a doubling of atmospheric CO2 by burning fossil fuels would result in an average global temperature increase of about 3 F (2 C), with more heating at the poles. Callendar made prescient predictions that humans are changing the composition of the atmosphere at a rate that is exceptional on geological timescales, and he sought to understand what effects these changes might have on climate. His prediction was that the principal result of increasing carbon dioxide will be a gradual increase in the mean temperature of the colder regions of the Earth. These predictions were first confirmed in 1947...

Reservoir Connections

Fossil Fuel-Atmosphere Connections The world energy system delivered approximately 380 exajoules (EJ 1018 J ) of primary energy in 2002 (BP 2003). Of this, 81 percent was derived from fossil fuels, with the remainder derived from nuclear, hydroelectric, biomass, wind, solar, and geothermal energy sources (Figure 2.1). The fossil-fuel component released 5.2 PgC in 1980 and 6.3 PgC in 2002 (CDIAC 2003). Cement production is the other major industrial source of carbon, and its release increased to 0.22 PgC in 1999. The combined release of 5.9 PgC shown in Colorplate 1a represents an average emission for the 1980s and 1990s. Underground coal fires, which are poorly known and only partly industrial, may be an additional as yet unaccounted for source of carbon to the atmosphere as large as cement manufacturing (Zhang et al. 1998). In terms of energy released, the current mix of fossil fuels is approximately 44 percent oil, 28 percent coal, and 27 percent natural gas (Figure 2.1). At current...

Forest Carbon Storage

Of carbon back to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide through plant and soil respiration. By comparison, humans release approximately 6 Pg of carbon to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide through fossil fuel combustion. Forests also modify weather patterns and local- to regional-hydrologic cycles, and higher rates of plant productivity in forests translate to larger export of products, including biomass feedstock for paper, dimension lumber, and biofuels.

Impacts of Ground Level Ozone on Crop Production in a Changing Climate

Fourth Grade Grammar Worksheets

Comparisons of the mean global tropospheric O3 concentrations with those measured over a century ago indicate that current levels have increased by approximately two times due to enhanced emissions associated with fossil fuel and biomass burning (Gauss et al. 2006 Denman et al. 2007). Long-distance and even intercontinental transport has resulted in a steady increase in O3 concentration in rural areas hundreds and thousands of kilometers from the original sources of pollution (Prather et al. 2003). Nearly one-quarter of the Earth's surface is currently at risk from the mean tropospheric O3 in excess of 60nll-1 during mid-summer with even greater local concentrations occurring (Fowler et al. 1999a, b). This is well above the mean concentration of 40nll-1 that has been determined for damage to sensitive plant species (Fuhrer et al. 1997 Mills et al. 2000 LRTAP Convention 2007). Several scenarios indicate that concentrations of tropospheric O3 might further increase throughout the 21st...

The current renewables boom

In an absolute sense, the world is heavily dependent on fossil fuels, which currently provide over 80 per cent of the energy on which global society depends. However, the annual growth rates of various energy sources show that change is on the way (see Figure 19.1). Since 2001, the growth rates of the solar photovoltaic (30 per cent), wind (26 per cent) and biofuel (17 per cent) sectors have been much larger than for the traditional sectors of coal (4.4 per cent), oil (1.6 per cent), natural gas (2.5 per cent) and even nuclear (1.1 per cent). This trend is characteristic of a new dynamic, namely the growing role that renewable energy sources are playing globally and in the US. Many of the new technologies that harness renewables are, or soon will be, economically competitive with fossil fuels. Although renewable energy currently provides only about 6 per cent of total US energy, there are compelling reasons to put these technologies to Production of fuel ethanol from crops more than...

Steam Electric Power Generation Industry

In the operation of a power plant, combustion of fossil fuels coal oil, or gas supplies heat to produce steam, which is used to generate mechanical energy in a turbine. This energy is subsequently converted by a generator to electricity. Nuclear fuels, currently uranium, are used in a similar cycle except that the heat is supplied by nuclear fusion wastewater discharge. A number of different operations by steam electric power plants discharge chemical wastes. Many wastes are discharged more or less continuously as long as the plant is operating. These include wastewaters from the following sources cooling water systems, ash handling systems, wetscrubber air pollution control systems, and boiler blowdown. Some wastes are produced at regular intervals, as in water treatment operations, which include a cleaning or regenerative step as part of their cycle (ion exchange, filtration, clarification, evaporation). Other wastes are also produced intermittently but are generally associated with...

Policies for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation REDD

Under the Kyoto Protocol (United Nations, 1998, Article 2), Annex I countries with quantified emissions limitations and reductions are bound to promote sustainable forest management practices, afforestation and reforestation. Land use and forestry practices within Annex I countries can contribute substantially to reducing the costs of achieving national emissions caps, as discussed in theory in Chapter 1 and in relation to in-country policy in Chapter 7. Annex I countries also have the option of using the Clean Development Mechanism to mount forestry projects in developing countries to reduce their costs of compliance. However, deforestation takes place almost exclusively in non-Annex I tropical developing countries that are not subject to limits on their emissions (Figure 8.1), and is responsible for global carbon emissions of some 1.35 Gt per year, equal to about a fifth of global emissions generated by the burning of fossil fuels (Figure 8.2). Property rights with respect to land...

Energetic and Cost Parameters

In Table 5.2 we compare ammonia as hydrogen source with other fuels (gasoline, compressed natural gas CNG ) and pure hydrogen based on the following energetic and economic indicators specific energy per mass and per volume, respectively, and gravimetric, volumetric and, respectively energetic costs. Gasoline, stored in non-pressurized tank in liquid phase with a density of 736 kg m3, is listed in Table 5.2 as a reference fuel. Compressed natural gas (CNG) also represents an interesting path toward hydrogen economy. Usually, CNG, which is formed mainly from CH4, is combusted directly in internal combustion engines. The combustion products are cleaner than the gasoline products lower CO2 emissions and no SOx emissions. We take here the opportunity to comment on a recently promoted solution by Wesley (2008) that is suitable for future CH4 zero-emission transportation. That is to decompose methane into carbon and hydrogen according to the following reaction The current cost of natural gas...

Impacts Of Deforestation

Coffee Distrubution Map

When a forest is cut and replaced by pastures or cropland, the carbon that was stored in the tree trunks joins with the oxygen and is released into the atmosphere as CO2. Because the wood in a tree is about 50 percent carbon, deforestation has a significant effect on global warming and the global carbon cycle. In fact, according to the Tropical Rainforest Information Center, from the mid-1800s to 1990, worldwide deforestation released 134 billion tons (122 billion metric tons) of carbon into the atmosphere. Currently, 1.8 billion tons (1.6 billion metric tons) is released to the atmosphere each year. As a comparison, all of the fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas) release about 6 billion tons (5 billion metric tons) per year. Tropical deforestation is the largest source of emissions for many developing countries.

Control Of Particles

The use of alternate fuels in heavy-duty vehicles has also been the subject of many studies, and it appears that a significant reduction in emissions of particles can be obtained using such fuels. For example, Wang et al. (1997) measured the emissions of particles, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons from more than 300 buses and heavy-duty trucks operating on either diesel fuel, natural gas, or alcohol fuels in 17 different states in the United States. Figure f6.42 shows their measurements of emissions of particulate matter and NOx. Particle emissions using compressed natural gas were reduced by more than an order of magnitude compared to those using diesel fuels improvements, although not as dramatic, were also seen with the alcohol fuels. On the other hand, only the alcohol fuels gave significant reductions in NOx emissions.

Reporting and Documentation

It may not be practical to include all supporting documentation in the inventory report. However, at a minimum, the inventory report should include summaries of the methods used and references to source data such that the reported emissions estimates are transparent and the steps in their calculation may be retraced. It is expected that many countries will use a combination of methodological tiers to evaluate the amount of fugitive greenhouse gas emissions from the different parts of their oil and natural gas systems. The specific choices should reflect the relative importance of the different subcategories and the availability of the data and resources needed to support the corresponding calculations. Table 4.2.9 is a sample template, with some example data entries, that may be used to conveniently summarize the applied methodologies and sources of emission factors and activity data. The issue of confidential business information will vary from region to region depending on the...

The Clean Energy New Deal

We have a limited supply of fossil fuels, especially oil. Our burning of fossil fuels is destroying a livable climate. The two key questions are, first, will we voluntarily give up fossil fuels in the next couple of decades, rather than being forced to do so helter-skelter after it is too late to stop the catastrophe Second, when we do give them up, will the United States be a global leader in creating jobs and exports in clean energy technologies or will we be importing them from Europe, Japan, and the likely clean energy leader in our absence, China. 5) He signed into law the tax credits needed to achieve his ambitious goal of 1 million plug-in hybrids by 2015 the key alternative fuel vehicle strategy needed to avert the worst consequences of three decades of successful conservative efforts to stop this country from dealing with the energy economic security threat of rising dependence on imported oil and the inevitably grim impacts of peak oil....

Will Human Civilization Face the Exhaustion of Water Resources Due to Global Change

The climate had always been changing and will continue to evolve in the future. So far the only acceptable conception has been based on the outputs of IPCC 12 , which declare that warming up of the Earth is caused by anthropogenic activities -specifically by emissions of carbon dioxide. But a series of scandals disclosed a specialized handling of the primary data so that the seriousness of the so far achieved results was challenged or even damaged. Nevertheless, the ever present question, which the public should ask with regard to climate change is, whether the planet will ever run out of water and similarly if fossil fuels would ever be exhausted. Therefore, to simply compare the exploitation of water resources with deposits of crude oil, coal and earth gas is evidently not correct. The volume of water existing on the Earth is stable and is estimated to attain 1,386,100,000 km3 13 , and has never changed. Nevertheless, due to great dynamics of water the spatial distribution of water...

CO2 transport by pipeline

To estimate emissions from pipeline transport of CO2, default emission factors can be derived from the emission factors for transmission (pipeline transport) of natural gas as provided in section 4.2 of this volume. The Tier 1 emission factors for natural gas pipeline transport, presented in, Tables 4.2.4 and 4.2.5 are provided on the basis of gas throughput primarily because pipeline length is not a national statistic that is commonly available. However, fugitive emissions from pipeline transport are largely independent of the throughput, but depend on the size of and the equipment installed in the pipeline systems. Since it is assumed that there exists a relationship between the size of the systems and natural gas used, such an approach is acceptable as Tier 1 method for natural gas transport. From this the default emission factors for CO2 pipeline transport are obtained by multiplying the relevant default emission factorsa in Table 4.2.8 for natural gas (is mainly CH4) by a factor...

Climate Change And Plant Disease Risk

The fact that agriculturalists have the ability to manipulate crop plant genetics makes plant disease management in agriculture much easier, in some respects, than human disease management. Problems can also arise from this ability, however, as particularly successful crop varieties become widespread. Thus, a common challenge for plant disease management is the general homogeneity of cropping systems in the United States and trends toward greater crop homogeneity in most regions of the world. This homogeneity makes it easier for plant pathogens adapted to the common crop varieties to spread rapidly throughout crop plant populations. Margosian et al. (in revision) have evaluated the connectivity of the four major crop plants in the United States in terms of availability of the crop host species. The connectivity of a landscape for a particular organism, in this case a plant pathogen, is a measure of the ease with which the organism can move through the landscape. Maize and soybean are...

Summary of Key Federal Environmental Statutes Enacted Since 19701

EPA is charged with implementing most of the environmental laws passed by Congress, although some functions still remain with other agencies. For example, the Department of Interior manages federally owned lands and the Occupational, Safety and Health Administration is responsible for workplace exposure to toxic chemicals. In general, EPA's job includes (1) developing the scientific and technical tools for assessing environmental impacts and risks that may accompany society's activities (e.g., disposal of manufacturing wastes, disposal of municipal sewage and solid waste, assessment of automobile and other air pollutants affecting urban populations), (2) publishing regulations that restrict actions that pose unacceptable risks to humans and the environment, and (3) enforcing its regulations through civil and criminal legal actions. Congress amended earlier air quality legislation with the Clean Air Act in 1972. These requirements, combined with amendments enacted in 1977 and 1990,...

Geoengineering Strategy Increasing the Emissivity of the Atmosphere by Direct GHG Capture

Co2 Flux Ocean Atmosphere

The capture of CO2 at its point of emission - typically at very large combustion sources such as coal-fired power plants - is a strategy under serious consideration by energy systems analysts as a means of reducing further GHG emissions, while allowing the continued use of fossil fuel (Princiotta, this book). However, many anthropogenic sources of CO2 exist that are not amenable to carbon capture and storage (CCS), such as fossil-fueled mobile sources, and those emissions related to forest clearing and agriculture. In addition to its limitations concerning the types of sources it can effectively control, carbon capture at the point of emission does not affect the existing excess concentrations of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere. Several geoengineering proposals offer approaches for reducing overall atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

Integrating EVs and PHEVs into the electric grid longterm projections of electricity demand and CO2 emissions

In the IEA BLUE Map scenario, the IEA anticipates great numbers of electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles in use around the world by 2050 (IEA, 2010). This is part of a broader scenario to achieve very low carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions from transport through improvements in efficiency, alternative fuel use, and changes in travel patterns. Following the BLUE Map scenario, CO2 emissions from transport by the year 2050 are anticipated to be 5.4 gigatonnes (Gt) of CO2 lower than if a business-as-usual, or Baseline, scenario is followed. Both pure-electric vehicle (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technologies greatly improve efficiency and shift energy demand from petroleum fuels to electricity provided by the grid. The manner in which EVs and PHEVs eventually source electricity from the grid must be better analysed to determine the true CO2 emissions impact and technological considerations for climate policy. Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles recharging from the...

Scales of temporal variability and its mechanisms

The positive feedback between the greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide and the surface air temperature. An increase in C02 in the atmosphere arising from the burning of fossil fuel leads to a rise in temperature as a result of the greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide. In its turn the rise in surface air temperature accompanying an increase in the downward flux of long-wave radiation, and a decrease in sensible and latent heat fluxes (temperature contrast of water-air decreases) contributes to the warming of the ocean surface. This enhances the vertical stability of the upper ocean layers, decreases the absorption of carbon dioxide and eventually favours an increase in C02 in the atmosphere.

Production of Various Products

OMWW has a sugar content of about 1.6-5 (w v) that can serve as a source for alcohol production (Fiestas Ros de Ursinos J.A., 1961a,b, 1967 Fernandez-Bolanos J. et al., 1983). A possibility for the utilization of sugars is their transformation to ethanol and recovery of the alcohol by distillation (Martinengri G.B., 1963 Oliveira de J.S., 1974). Oliveira de (1974) studied the effect of the yeasts Saccharomyces wine 31 B2, S. mollasses, bread yeast, Candida utilis and the natural fauna on ethanol production from OMWW and, with the exception of some reports (Martinengri G.B., 1963), no essential differences in the amounts of alcohol produced 0.5-0.57 (w v) were found. Some of early efforts extracted alcohol from OMWW by evaporation. The extracted alcohol was used in foods, fuels, cosmetics, etc. (PT69240, 1979 PT69785, 1979). The recent development of a new two-phase centrifugation process for extracting olive oil in Spain has substantially reduced water consumption, thereby minimizing...

Climate Change and Other Global Environmental Impacts The Sustainability Challenge

Geological Fossil Fuels H2O Materials The middle of the figure indicates that these human needs are met by means of a large array of industrial, agricultural, and energy technologies and practices. Although there are a multitude of inputs and outputs associated with humankind's Technologies and Practices, the major threats to long term sustainability for an advanced level of civilization are shown on the figure fossil fuel, mineral and water depletion and the emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Although air, water, and waste contamination are serious deleterious products of our current consumer oriented infrastructure, there appears to be a reasonable chance that we can modify our industrial infrastructure to maintain a tolerable impact of these contaminants over the long term. The U.S., EU, and Japan have been able keep such impacts at close to tolerable levels despite population (in the U.S.) and industrial growth in recent decades. That is why these impacts are shown in a...

Current Status and Past Trends of the Global Carbon Cycle

In a global, long-term perspective, the record of atmospheric CO2 content documents the magnitude and speed of climate-driven variations, such as the glacial-interglacial cycles (which drove CO2 variations of 100 parts per million ppm over 420,000 years). These observations also, however, document a remarkable stability, with variations in atmospheric CO2 of

More Products

Freedom Particle System
freedomparticlesystem.com
Hydrostar Hydrogen Fuel Conversion Guide
hydrostarguide.com