Making Your Own Fuel

Free Power Secrets

The Free Power Secrets program, developed by Reggie Hamel is a complete step-by-step guide showing you everything you need to know in order to start powering your car, tractor, truck, or anything else that has a motor on homemade alcohol fuel by the end of the week. You'll get video and PDF guides that will teach you step-by-step how to setup your own consistent gas source in the comfort of your home. It doesn't matter if you've never tried DIY projects before. Everything you need to learn can be find in this guide. You get access to a step by step free power secrets guide and video tutorials that allow you to make your own fuel for less than 70 cents a gallon. Although the system is simple and easy to implement, it may not be easy for everyone to do this, especially if you don't get the raw materials for alcohol production regularly. Therefore results may vary from case to case. More here...

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Globalization Biofuels and GHGs

The major feedstocks of biofuels are maize in the United States and rape-seed in the EU. All grains and oilseeds (or cooking oil) are storable and easily transported, and the large global market has been traditionally supplied by EU and US exporters. The other characteristic of the market is the ready substitution that takes place between grains and oilseeds. If one of the major export crops such as maize is scarce and rises in price then more of the close substitutes such as wheat and rice will be used and their price may also rise triggering increases in supplies. Steady productivity gains have tended to keep grain prices low, even in the face of an increase in world population. The key to understanding the social and environmental impacts of an increase in subsidies for biofuels production from annual crops in the US Table 6.2 Impacts of subsidizing biofuels production in the US and EU Subsidies in the US and EU raise the price of corn and rapeseed oil and divert production to...

Table 41 Alternatives to Fossil Fuels for Heating and Cooling

Fossil fuels to biomass for district heating, reducing associated emissions to less than one third their 1980 level. Austria and Den heating needs. Biomass can directly replace fossil fuels, and modern wood burners can convert biomass to heat at efficiency rates of up to 90 percent.39 Because buildings generally require heat as well as electricity, combined heat and power units can be designed to supply both. CHP plants generate electricity and capture remaining heat energy for use in industries, cities, or individual buildings. They convert about 75-80 percent of fuel into useful energy, with efficiencies exceeding 90 percent for the most advanced plants. As a result, even traditional fossil fuel CHP systems can reduce carbon emissions by at least 45 percent. These systems can also make use of absorption chillers for space cooling to lower electricity demand even further. Residential-scale CHP units have been widely available in Japan and Europe for years and were recently introduced...

Hydrogen Production from Fossil Fuels

Noncatalytic Partial Oxidation Reactor

Hydrogen production from fossil fuels such as natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, coal, tar and petroleum coke are well established industrial processes. The principle reaction mechanisms are shown in Figure 5. Hydrogen is produced on a very large scale, principally for ammonia and me-

The Inorganic Carbonate Carbon Sedimentary Sink for Fossil Fuel CO2

Fossil Fuel Nitrogen

To see where carbonate rocks come into the greenhouse sink picture, we recap on the sequence of different fates that befall CO2 released to the atmosphere through anthropogenic activities such as the burning of fossil fuels and cement production (Fig. 6.4). Some of the added CO2 may be relatively quickly removed from the atmosphere and taken up by the terrestrial biosphere as a result of 'CO2 fertilization' of plant productivity (although nutrient limitation may limit the importance of this effect see Hymus and Valentini, Chapter 2, this volume) as well as forest regrowth and changes in land use practice. Current estimates suggest that 100-180 Pg C may already have been removed in this way, equivalent to 28-50 of total emissions from fossil fuels and cement production (Sabine et al., 2004). The timescale for this CO2 sink to operate is years to decades (for the aboveground vegetation response) to centuries (for the soil carbon inventory to adjust). At the same time, CO2 dissolves in...

Endogenous technological progress in fossil fuel demand

This chapter reports on work to develop energy demand sectors for the Global Econometric Model (GEM), maintained jointly by the London Business School and the National Institute for Economic and Social Research. We have derived data for the total fossil fuel energy consumption, energy prices, GDP and general prices for the main OECD countries (Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Japan, the UK and the United States). We then apply multivariate cointegration tests to test for the presence of cointegration between this set of variables. We find remarkably similar relationships in terms of price elasticities and in terms of trend increases in energy efficiency across all the countries. We then go on to estimate full dynamic models for all the countries. Finally in this chapter we consider the relationship between long-term growth, increasing energy efficiency and energy prices and calculate some illustrative trade-offs which leave CO2 emissions unchanged. In recent...

Climate impacts of bioethanol

Typical Gasoline Co2

For bioethanol, in figure 13.7 five variants of feed-stocks are shown with results ranging from minus 30 to 110 percent. The worst case is corn. Grain and sugar beet follow. Sugar cane and wood are best suited. The positive results using wood as a feedstock are for the gasification of wood and the transformation of the resulting process gas into ethanol by a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (2nd generation biofuels - see table 13.5). On average about 60 percent as compared with fossil-fuel generated CO2 emissions would result if bioethanol is applied. Figure 13.7 GHG effects of biofuel production (Bauen, 2005) Figure 13.7 GHG effects of biofuel production (Bauen, 2005) Bioethanol production from corn as a feed-stock is connected with high inputs of agrochemicals and pesticides, but also with high power needs for the production. Wheat and sugar beet are in the medium range. Sugar cane is the basic feed-stock for the Brazilian Pro lcool bioethanol programme. This is due to favourable...

Is Greenhouse Gas Abatement Achieved By Biofuels

A major benefit claimed for the replacement of fossil fuels by biofuels is their potential to reduce (GHG) emissions. This claim needs to be subject to rigorous analysis because GHG savings depend on whether a simple life-cycle approach is taken to their estimation or a wider approach that recognizes the fact that the markets for biofuels are global. This analysis divides GHG emissions from biofuels into direct the savings incurred by replacing fossil fuels by growing and processing crops to deliver biofuels at the pump in the US and EU, and indirect the impacts on GHG emissions elsewhere of US and EU biofuels policies. A comprehensive analysis by Wang et al. (2007) in the case of corn ethanol in the US shows that GHG savings are profoundly influenced by the method of production and in particular by how the process is fuelled. If the plant is fired by coal then there is net increase in emissions compared with gasoline. Using natural gas together with by-products such as distillers'...

Climate impacts of biodiesel

With biodiesel the improvements relative to fossil fuel even in the worse case are in the range of more than 50 percent (see figure 13.7). The best result, with effects of more than 100 percent, would be reached if biodiesel was produced from wood as a feedstock, via the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, where byproducts of the process, such as electricity and heat, are considered. For rapeseed as a feedstock of biodiesel (as RME) the life cycle assessment comes down with benefits for the greenhouse gas balance. Under German conditions, in the case of a 100,000 t plant, the benefit in GWP is 162 g CO2-eq. per kWh compared to fossil diesel (BMELV, 2008). Figure 13.10 displays the distance related effect of the use of biodiesel instead of fossil based diesel. In the case of the greenhouse gas potential the emissions of about 6 litres of diesel are avoided by application of RME at a distance of 100 km driven. In absolute numbers this amounts about 2.2 kg CO2-eq. l RME (not shown in the figure)....

Biofuels facts and definitions

As figure 13.4 displays energy from biogenic resources may be applied as direct heating material, as a transport fuel or as a source of electricity in power stations. The following chapter deals with biofuels in the transport sector. Types of biofuels are presented in table 13.5. Table 13.5 Biofuel types and market products Table 13.5 Biofuel types and market products Biofuel Synthetic biofuels 2nd generation biofuels Biofuels such as bioethanol and biodiesel derived from lingo-cellulosic biomass by chemical or biological processes, especially by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis via gasification of biomass Liquid biofuels Bioethanol Ethanol produced from biomass and or from the biodegradable fraction of waste, for use as biofuel. Most ethanol used for fuel is being blended into gasoline at concentrations of 5 to 10 percent. Fuel specification E x contains x percent ethanol and (100-x) percent petrol, e.g. E5 and E85 with 5 and 85 percent of ethanol, respectively. E100 is non-blended...

The Role Of Fossil Fuels In The 21st Century

Abstract According to a widely accepted forecast the global energy consumption, which is roughly 400 EJ today, will quadruple by the end of the century and the use of fossil fuels will probably increase until the middle of the century. Hence, the energy scenario definitely implies that the emission of greenhouse gases will also increase by a minimum 30 , leveling off at that value for the coming decades. Unfortunately, a simplified idea is that the use of fossil fuels is solely responsible for global warming, and hence climatic changes. Although the anthropogenic impact on climate is represented by only 15 of carbon dioxide emissions, this is the area where science and engineering can focus all efforts to influence its detrimental effects. The small anthropogenic effect on climate, however, clearly proves that the earth is extremely vulnerable to even marginal changes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Key words energy scenario, fossil fuels, emission of greenhouse gases,...

Alternatives To Fossil Fuels

The phrase Alternative energy implies that these energy sources are alternatives to nuclear and traditional fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, or natural gas. Alternative energy, therefore, is a catchall category of energy sources that proponents argue can replace traditional fossil fuels in daily life, while causing less harm to the environment. Alternative energy is increasingly important for at least three reasons. First, fossil fuels are nonrenewable eventually, they will be exhausted. The United States is already witnessing a decline in its petroleum production. In 1950, the United States was largely self-sufficient in fossil fuels, producing 32,562,667 billion Btus of energy. At the same time, Americans consumed 31,631,956 billion Btus of fossil fuels. The United States therefore enjoyed a slight fossil fuel surplus. Now, fossil fuel consumption in the United States far outstrips production. In 2006, the United States produced 56,032,329 billion Btus of fossil fuels, but...

Bioethanol and Bioethylene

Biomass- based ethanol currently substitutes around 3 of the global gasoline consumption. It has a higher octane rate compared with gasoline (98 vs. 80), but has a lower volumetric energy content (67 of gasoline). Therefore, per kilometer driven, around 20 more ethanol is required - 15 , Favorable political conditions for biofuels have stimulated a significant increased in global production. Currently, the major producers are Brazil (sugarcane) and the USA (corn). In Brazil, the integrated production of sugar and ethanol provides a certain degree of flexibility, depending on market demand. The production may be shifted from 55 45 sugar ethanol to 45 55 sugar ethanol. At the standard 50 50 ratio, roughly 67 kg sugar and 47 l ethanol is obtained per ton sugar cane. Most production plants are energy self- sufficient due to the use of the internal by-product bagasse. One ton of sugar cane yields between 240 and 280 kg bagasse (humidity ca. 50 ) with an energy content that can replace 580...

Biomass energy and biofuels potentialities and risks

Production of biofuels currently represents the main alternative to petroleum fuels in the field of transport. The production of biofuels has grown very rapidly, generating strong controversies about its negative impact on food supply. The world production in 2006 reached 24.4 Mtoe, as compared with 10.3 Mtoe in 2000. Biofuels offer the advantage of reducing the dependence of the consumer countries on oil while at the same time improving the CO2 balance. The CO2 emitted by combustion of biomass is seen as neutral with respect to the greenhouse gas balance since it can be considered as being recycled during photosynthesis, as indicated earlier. We must nevertheless take into account all emissions generated during the production, transport and transformation of biomass (life cycle analysis), which may in some cases significantly reduce, or even completely cancel out, this advantage. The European Union member states have set an initial goal of incorporating at least 5.75 of biofuels in...

Fossil Fuel Use in Agriculture

Energy is required for all agricultural operations. Modern intensive agriculture requires much more energy input than did traditional farming methods, since it relies on the use of fossil fuels for tillage, transportation and grain drying, for the manufacture of fertilizers, pesticides and equipment used as agricultural inputs, and for generating electricity used on farms (Frye, 1984). Early estimates suggested that fossil fuel usage by agriculture, primarily of liquid fuels and electricity, constitute only 3-4 of the total consumption in developed countries (CAST, 1992 Enqu te Commission, 1995). To provide a reference for agriculture's contribution, C emissions from fossil fuel use in the USA in 1996 were reported to be 286.7, 229.9, 477.5 and 445.5 MMTCE for residential, commercial, industrial and transportation sectors, respectively (EPA, 1998). The total amount of C emitted as CO2 in the USA in 1996 from fossil fuels was 1450.3 MMTCE, a value that has steadily increased with time....

Current policies promoting biofuels

Most biofuels are still more costly than fossil fuels and thus production has to be encouraged e.g. by financial and organisational support. On the other hand measures are necessary to control negative environmental and social consequences such as shortage of nutritional crops, change in agricultural structures, or eradication of primeval forests. Most stimulating for biofuels was the Brazil Proalcool bioethanol programme, launched after the energy crisis of 1973. An extra aim was to use surplus sugar production. Sugar cane is the main source of bioethanol in Brazil. About two-thirds of the sugar cane biomass is processed into bioethanol. The commercial capacity is 400 facilities which currently produce a total of about 14 Mio t a. This is now second largest national production in the world after decades in front-runner position. The costs of the ethanol production are in the range of 250 US m3 which is less than half the costs of bioethanol in Europe (450 to 500 EUR m3). In Brazil...

Growing New Forests for Biofuels

Analysis by the author suggests that unharvested plantations are much more effective in saving GHG emissions over a 34-year period than if they are harvested for ethanol production. Using the carbon sequestration model of the Australian Government (2007) the comparison was made between the amount of CO2 removed from the atmosphere by a hectare of hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii) grown in north Queensland and the carbon dioxide savings of a plantation that was clear felled, with the resulting biomass being used for ethanol production. Forest thinnings prior to harvest were also used for ethanol production. A similar result was obtained by Johnson and Heinen (2007) in comparing the GHG implications of growing trees or growing rapeseed for biodiesel. Replacing biodiesel with petroleum diesel and devoting the land to forest was twice as effective, in terms of reducing GHG emissions, as producing biodiesel to replace petroleum diesel. Despite the likelihood that the GHG benefits of...

Biodiesel and bioethanol

Ambitious biofuels targets have been agreed in major automobile markets. In the US, a goal of 35 billion gallons of biofuels, replacing approximately one fifth of oil-based transport fuels, is proposed by 2017. Current production is just 4.2 billion gallons. The European Union (EU) Biofuels Directive demands that 5.75 per cent of European fuel comes from biomass by 2010, increasing to 10 per cent by 2020. Even more ambitious targets are being discussed (Doornbosch and Steenblik, 2007). Bioethanol is the most widely used biofuel for transport and accounts for more than 94 per cent of global biofuel production, the rest being mostly biodiesel from various oil plants such as palm oil, soy and rapeseed (IEA, 2008, p 161). About 60 per cent of the world's bioethanol comes from sugarcane and 40 per cent from other crops. Germany is the market leader in biodiesel where bioethanol is insignificant. With sales at approximately 1.5 million tonnes, biodiesel currently supplies more than 4 per...

Emissions from fossil fuel combustion

There are three Tiers presented in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for estimating emissions from fossil fuel combustion. In addition a Reference Approach is presented. It can be used as an independent check of the sectoral approach and to produce a first-order estimate of national greenhouse gas emissions if only very limited resources and data structures are available to the inventory compiler.

Consequences for biofuels application

A hundred percent reduction of greenhouse gas emissions will not be possible if biofuels of the first generation are applied. Better results would occur if, besides biofuel production, also power production during a combined process is envisaged. Thus instead of the simple replacement of fuels combined technological developments are to be supported. If a replacement is envisioned in a first approach, it will be best to focus on such feed-stocks which result in a more than 50 percent emission reduction throughout the total supply chain. In future 80 percent reduction should be envisaged as the target. Moreover, the production of biofuels should also fulfill criteria concerning the origin, the production chain, and social aspects, especially when imported from less developed countries (EEB, 2005), as well as a full LCA. Only with 2nd generation biofuels is a mostly greenhouse gas free fuel-supply possible which also does not need fossil fuel inputs (Picard, 2006).

Non Fossil Fuel Power Plants

Last, but not least, zero-CO2 emission technologies such as nuclear and renew-ables, need to account for a larger fraction of new capacity in order to reduce GHG emissions. The emphasis on these technologies needs to be paramount, and wherever possible substitute for fossil fuel based plants. Nuclear power can play a key role in meeting the electricity demand without CO2 emissions. While operating and safety performance of nuclear plants have improved, and new designs offer safer and competitive generation options, public perception of risk and safety of nuclear power, and ultimate disposal of nuclear waste still remain key challenges facing the nuclear industry. Developing countries, China and India in particular, have continued to make additions to their nuclear generation capacity. While China and India will continue to add to their existing nuclear generation capacity, share of nuclear power in Mexico is likely to continue to decline. Mexico's Laguna Verde plant has two units...

Fossil Fuel Combustion

NO is formed by high-temperature chemical processes during combustion of fossil fuels, both from nitrogen present in fuel and from the oxidation of atmospheric N2 in the presence of 02. The distribution for this source is heavily weighted toward the Northern Hemisphere where most of the industrialized world resides. Detailed inventories are available for Canada, the United States, and western Europe describing the spatial patterns of NO, emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes Wagner et al., 1986 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 1986 Fossil fuels NO( emissions due to maritime shipping have been estimated to contribute as much as 3 TgN yr to the global NO, budget (Corbett et al, 1999) with half of these emissions occurring in the North Atlantic. While small compared to the overall fossil fuel contribution of 22TgN yr, NO, emissions from seagoing vessels could prove important over the open ocean in and around shipping lanes far removed from major continental...

CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use

In mechanized farming, fossil fuel is used both to power farm implements and to manufacture and transport fertilizers, pesticides and machinery. Adopting NT usually conserves energy by eliminating energy-intensive tillage and reducing the wear on tillage equipment. The amount of energy saved depends on the previous tillage intensity. For a subhumid site in western Canada, Zentner et al. (2004) found that NT, compared to CT, reduced on-farm fuel and lubricants by 25-31 . In wetter regions where the intensity of CT systems is higher, NT may reduce tillage-related on-farm fossil energy use by up to 60 (West and Marland, 2002). If soil carbon increases upon adopting NT, higher nitrogen inputs might be needed, at least in the short-term, assuming that the carbon nitrogen ratio of organic matter is constant. The increased requirement for nitrogen inputs should diminish as soil carbon levels reach steady state. Many factors interact to determine how tillage affects yield, and an assumption...

Fossil fuel exploitation

For CH4 emissions from fossil fuel exploitation it is assumed that the most profitable measures would be taken first. Therefore, increased maintenance is assumed at a 'cost' of- 200 per tonne CH4 in 1990 and increased on-site use of otherwise vented gas at a cost of - 100 in 2000 and 2025. Other measures are taken later in time at a cost of 100 in 2050, 200 in 2075 and 300 in 2100. In 1990, the introduction of improved inspection and maintenance is assumed. In 2000 and 2025 extra measures are taken to increase on-site gas use from vents and flares. The more expensive measures are taken between 2050 and 2100. Cost estimates are based on AEAT (1998) and De Jager et al (1996). The cost development is based on my own assumptions. Fossil fuel exploitation

Indirect GHG Impacts of Biofuels Policies

Given the global nature of the market for agricultural commodities, global agricultural models are required to measure the indirect GHG implications of biofuels. The results of selected models are now reviewed. A study of impacts of US corn-based ethanol production found that, instead of generating 20 percent savings in GHG emissions, it nearly doubles them over a 30-year period. Forest and grassland conversion that released large quantities of GHGs was accelerated by the higher crop prices. Brazilian sugarcane ethanol is credited with high direct savings of GHGs because bagasse, the waste product of crushing, is used to fuel the process. Nevertheless, GHGs will increase if Brazilian ranchers displaced by sugarcane convert more forest to pasture (Searchinger et al., 2008). Another global study by Fargione et al. (2008) showed how carbon debts were incurred by the clearing of rainforests, peatlands, savannahs or grasslands to produce biofuel crops in Brazil, south-east Asia and the US....

Chemicals and biofuels production

Biotechnology, in particular the fermentation sector, has become more and more attractive in recent years for the production of chemicals and biofuels from organic wastes (Willke and Vorlop, 2004). In fact, there are numerous possibilities for replacing chemical techniques with biotechnological methods based on renewable resources. The most important biogenic sources of raw materials for industrial chemicals are oil plants (oil, fat, glycerol, celluloses) starch plants (starch, inulin, carbohydrates, celluloses) sugar beets and sugar cane (sucrose) wood (ligno-cellulose, cellulose) and waste and residues from agriculture and industry (biomass, fats, oils, whey, glycerol). The food industry is probably the main source for these materials. Fermentative processes can be used for both production of biofuels (methane, hydrogen, ethanol, biodiesel) and building blocks, such as lactic acid, succinic acid, ascorbic acid, isomalt, cyclodextrines and polyamino-acids (Wilke, 1995 Gavrilescu and...

Low Carbon Fuels for Electricity Production

Energy systems that do not rely on fossil fuels and will ultimately be needed to limit the magnitude of future climate change. Switching from one fossil fuel to another having lower emissions (e.g., from coal to natural gas for power generation) also remains an important near-term option. Increasing the efficiency of power generation (for example, by adding combined-cycle technology to natural gas-fueled plants) can also contribute to lower carbon emissions per unit of energy produced. However, greater use of technologies with low or zero emissions would be needed to dramatically reduce emissions. These technologies include nuclear energy which currently provides about 20 percent of U.S. electricity generation and technologies that exploit energy from renewable resources, including solar, wind, hydropower, biomass, and geother-mal energy.

The Rising Tide Of Biofuels

The sustained rise in world oil prices has made renewable energy more cost-competitive. Previous oil price increases have tended to spike but then subside without having provided sufficient stimulus for large-scale private and public capital investments in plant and equipment for the production of biofuels. The rise in oil prices and the attendant increase in the production of biofuels from 1999 to 2006 are illustrated in Figure 6.2. The higher oil prices coincided with maturing technology for the production of biofuels. The increase in world biofuel production in 2006 over 2005 was 27.6 percent (Table 6.1). While in the short term, prices may continue to fluctuate, in the long term they are likely to do so around a higher average price. Other liquid biofuels Biodiesel Figure 6.2 World biofuels production, 2000-2006, and West Texas Intermediate oil spot price The 2005 Energy Policy Act established a renewable fuel standard that increased the mandated use of renewable 'efuels'...

Box 61 Us And Eu Targets For Biofuels

The President's 2007 State of the Union Address (Bush, 2007) urged Congress to agree to increase the supply of renewable and alternative fuels by setting a mandatory Renewable Fuels Standard requiring 35 billion gallons of renewable and alternative fuels in 2017. This was nearly five times the 2012 target already in law. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 already required 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022. In 2017, the President's plan would displace 15 percent of projected annual gasoline use. A 10 percent substitution of petrol and diesel is estimated to require 43 percent of current cropland area of the US (International Energy Agency, 2004). It has been estimated (Perlack et al., 2005 US Department of Energy, 2008a) that there will be sufficient biofuel feedstock to meet the projected demand from several sources In the case of Europe, the European Council has agreed to a target of 20 percent share of renewable energies in overall European Community fuel...

Forests as a source of biofuels

For thousands of years wood has been a major energy source. But in developed countries fossil fuels have become dominant, with renewables making up only 3.9 percent of all fuels in terms of oil equivalents in 2007 (International Energy Agency, personal communication, 2008). In contrast, in many developing countries wood remains the predominant household fuel for cooking and heating. Of the renewables, wood is second only to hydropower in importance globally (see Table 6.1). One of the ways that biomass, provided by plants or forests, can contribute to tackling climate change is as a source of liquid fuel to replace fossil fuels used in transport. Before undertaking an investigation of what might be the specific future role for forests in providing renewable energy, it is necessary to examine in some depth the global trends in overall biofuel production, presently dominated by annual crops. Biofuels cost more than other forms of renewable energy but they are the only form that can...

Sustainable Forestry as a Source of Bioenergy for Fossil Fuel Substitution

Abstract In tropical countries, anthropogenic pressures have led to deforestation and degradation of forests and pasture lands. Realising the large potential and also the importance of producing biomass for energy as a substitute for fossil fuel, using degraded land for plantation forestry has been emphasised in recent years and could become one of the most important counter-agents to deforestation. In India, the area under forests has been reported to be stable at 65 Mha since 1982, although the area under dense forests ( 40 tree crown cover) has been increasing, which suggests an increase in carbon stocks sequestered by Indian forests. The current rate of afforestation in India is one of the largest in the world (about 2 Mha per annum). However, rural households in India depend largely on forests for their basic biomass needs such as medicines, fuelwood, livestock feed and raw materials for various products. Looking to the future needs of biomass in the country and the extent of...

Global Scenarios In Biofuels Production

The OECD has forecast rising prices for agricultural commodity prices, particularly vegetable oils (OECD, 2008). While the world financial crisis of 2008 will slow demand for commodities in the near future, world economic growth will in time regain its former momentum. Given constraints on domestic supply, a likely scenario is that much of the developed world's needs for vegetable oils for biodiesel and human consumption and for ethanol to replace petroleum fossil fuels will be outsourced. Production is likely to come from existing low-cost countries in south-east Asia and Brazil. The OECD (2008) expects palm oil production to increase by 40 percent by 2017, for example, and Brazilian sugarcane production to increase by 75 percent over the same period. This growth will entail the clearing of tropical forests and savannah lands unless drastic measures are taken to modify the economic drivers. Third is the removal of distorting subsidies by the US and the EU for biofuels and instead...

Fossil Fuel Consumption

The main source of all the extra carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is the burning of fossil fuels. These include coal, oil in all its refined forms, and natural gas. All these fuels contain a lot of carbon. This chart shows that the annual consumption of fossil fuels varies by region and by country. The biggest consumers of fossil fuels are the United States, China, and the European Union. Coal produces far more carbon dioxide per unit of energy than the other fuels, so countries that burn a lot of coal, such as China, have a bigger impact on the climate than countries that burn more gas.

Energy Fugitive Biofuel

The data sources for fugitive CO2 emissions and CH4 and N2O from energy are listed below. Data for fossil fuel production and use for 138 countries were taken from the IEA energy statistics for OECD and non-OECD countries 1970-2005 (extended energy balances, in energy units) (IEA, 2007). This dataset comprises 94 sectors and 64 fuel types. For the countries of the Former Soviet Union and Former Yugoslavia a modified dataset was used to achieve a complete time series for the new countries for 19702005 of which the sum converges to the older dataset for the total Former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. For another 62 countries, the aggregated IEA data for the regions 'Other America', 'Other Africa' and 'Other Asia' have been split using the sectoral IEA data per region and total production and consumption figures per country of coal, gas and oil from energy statistics reported by the US Energy Information Administration (EIA, 2007). the IEA estimates CO2 emissions from carbon released in...

The role of fossil fuels

While our aim is to reduce as rapidly as possible the share of fossil fuels in the world primary energy supply, substantially reducing the amount of energy consumed and deploying renewable energy sources will take time. What can the role of fossil fuels be during this transition period and how can they contribute to help in achieving a transition aimed at their disappearance Furthermore, is the objective to widen and diversify fossil fuel sources reconcilable with the need to reduce CO2 emissions Considering only coal, its proven reserves presently amount to around 900 billion tonnes, which means that 3700 billion tonnes of CO2 will be produced, if this coal is consumed. This is much more than the total emissions of carbon which might be acceptable during the next fifty years, if we want to keep to the objective of a mean temperature increase below 2 C. Three reasons have to be taken into account for maintaining substantial efforts in the area of fossil fuels - As has already been...

Nature Of Nonenergy Uses Of Fossil Fuels

As explained in Section 1.1 some CO2 emissions from fossil fuels arise from uses that are not primarily for energy purposes and, in this section, the principles are described which have guided their estimation and reporting. The methods used to estimate emissions are described in the specific IPPU source category chapters (Chapters 3, 4 and 5). This section provides important and additional background information for the use of data relating to non-energy use and the links between these data and the fossil fuel use. Non-energy use is widespread, diverse and the correct reporting of its emissions is conceptually difficult. It is good practice to ensure that all fossil fuels supplied for non-energy purposes can be linked to uses covered by the inventory and the reported emissions are consistent with the carbon supplied. Accordingly, Section 1.4 provides guidance for assessing consistency and completeness of carbon emissions from feedstock use of fuels by (a) checking that feedstock...

What needs to be done Policy measures to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and to encourage diversification of energy

Fossil fuels should bear the full cost of the burden that the emission of carbon dioxide is imposing on the world. This requires either taxation of carbon products (such as gasoline), or a system for rationing and trading permits to release carbon dioxide, or both. The European Union (EU) already has comparatively high levels of taxation of oil and oil products, but may still need to go further in this direction. It has also pioneered a system for rationing and trading permits to release carbon but this system still contains a number of anomalies and loopholes and has not yet established a clear and stable market signal in favour of reducing fossil-fuel consumption and diversifying to other fuels. Anomalies need to be fixed, and Some commentators have suggested that carbon trading systems might be developed in such a way that a floor price for carbon is established to give greater certainty to the market. The floor price might then be driven steadily upwards over the next three...

Production of Biofuels

The Environmental Defense Fund has determined that a key factor in how effective biofuels are in fighting global warming is the energy efficiency of their production methods. These include everything from running plows and harvesters to manufacturing pesticides and fertilizer to converting the material into fuel and transporting it. Improving land use through sustainable practices such as no-till farming, and boosting energy efficiencies make biofuels more effective at reducing heat-trapping pollution. biodiesel transportation There are advantages to farmers for producing biofuels. As energy prices rise, farms that reduce their energy use increase efficiency. Those that produce fuels will be more financially stable in the country's currently unstable fossil fuels market. In addition, producing and selling biofuels provides additional income to farmers. Biofuel production also supports and strengthens the local economy rather than foreign economies.

Budgeting of climate consequences of biofuels

Ecological budgeting of bioethanol and biodiesel covers a wide range of GHG emissions according to the specific conditions on site. Figure 13.7 represents the results of a literature survey (Bauen, 2005). The difference between biofuels and fossil based petrol or diesel is displayed. Maximum and minimum values are given GHG emissions of actual cases would lie between the two extremes. In general the results elucidate that the GHG emissions range is between negative values and more than 100 percent improvement. Negative values indicate that more GHG emissions would occur compared to fossil fuel production. A value of more than 100 percent means that not only the GHG emissions from fossil fuels are compensated but a bonus results from benefits of by-products such as renewable energy generated during fuel production. In some cases there is more energy transformed into power than into resulting biofuel.

Technologies for New Fossil Fuel Plants

In the three countries discussed in this chapter, domestic fossil fuel will continue to remain a key element of power sector. Many developing countries with ready access to such cheap domestic fuel will use them for future development, and therefore it is important to consider potential GHG mitigation options for these new fossil fuel-based plants. A key first option, especially for China and India, is to focus on advanced combustion technologies, such as supercritical (SC) and ultra-supercritical (USC) PC technologies. Some of these plants can help replace retire older inefficient plants from the existing fleet. China has already made substantial progress in this direction, and installed 8.8 GWe indigenous USC PC generation capacity. Further, China has embarked on significant future capacity addition based on USC and SC PC combustion technology. According to the IEA, as a result of the introduction of advanced steam cycle plants and the closure of smaller inefficient plants, carbon...

Contribution Of Fossil Fuels To Co2 Emissions

Based on the energy scenario forecast to the end of the 21st century the probable and necessary demand of fossil fuels can be calculated (BP, 2005 WEC, 1995 Skov, 2003 ExxonMobil, 2004 Shell, 2001 US-DOE, 2005). The absolute and relative contribution of coal, oil and gas to energy production, per decade, are shown in Figs 5 and 6. The data in these diagrams suggest that the global role of fossil fuels, in contrast to various information in the world media, will increase until the middle of the century and then decrease monotonously until 2100. Technological improvements in the energy sector had already started well before the Kyoto accord. Significant efforts have been made to increase the efficiency of power stations and to decrease their air pollution. As far as the utilization of fossil fuels is concerned oil, and later natural gas, have Figure 5. Absolute contribution of fossil fuels to energy production (2000-2100). Figure 5. Absolute contribution of fossil fuels to energy...

Biofuels and Other Non Petroleum Fuels

The environmental impacts of switching from petroleum-based fuels to those from other feedstocks must include the impacts across the complete life cycle of primary For biofuels, the feedstock production and logistics impacts are the same as those discussed for biomass above impacts on land use (and the potential for GHG emissions due to such changes), water quality and quantity issues, potential impacts to soil quality, air emissions from feedstock collection and transport, and potential ecosystem impacts due to changes in the biomass being grown and the disruption during production and harvest. A significant increase in the ethanol content of fuel for motor vehicles will result in environmental impacts during the distribution and storage phase of the full biofuel life cycle. Increased transport of ethanol, either through pipelines or by truck or rail will result in increased spills of the fuel. The impacts of such spills include potential major fish kills if spilled into open water...


Oil waste waters can be used for the production of biodiesel. Dmytryshyn et al. (2004) conducted the transesterification of four vegetable oils (canola oil greenseed canola oil heat-damaged seeds, processed waste fryer grease and unprocessed waste fryer grease) using methanol and KOH as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol, purified and characterized by various methods to evaluate their densities, viscosities, acid numbers, fatty acid and lipid compositions, lubricity properties and thermal properties. The fatty acid composition suggests that 80-85 of the ester was from unsaturated acids. A substantial decrease in density and viscosity of the methyl esters compared with their corresponding oils suggested that the oils were in mono- or di-glyceride form. The lubricity of the methyl esters, when blended 1 vol treat rate with ISOPAR M reference fuel, showed that the canola ester enhanced the fuel's lubricity number. From the...

Fossil Fuels

Isopar Viscosity

Fossil fuels are the remains of living things that were buried underground before they had time to decay. Coal is made of plants, so it contains the remains of the carbohydrates they created using the energy of sunlight. So coal is stored solar energy, compacted over millions of years. For thousands of years, timber was the main fuel used for heating, cooking, and in the form of charcoal industrial processes like metalworking. But in the 1700s, people started mining coal, which is a more concentrated, abundant source of energy. Coal fueled the rise of modern industry, as well as the railroads and steamships of the 1800s. In the 1900s oil and natural gas were developed into fuels for road vehicles and aircraft, and both coal and gas are used to generate the electricity that powers our modern lives. All these are carbon-rich fossil fuels, created from long-dead organisms by processes that take millions of years. They are being burned far more quickly than they are formed, releasing...

Types Of Biofuels

The most common type of biofuel is bioethanol, made by fermentation and distillation of sugar and starch. No engine modifications are needed in cars for blends of petrol and 10 percent ethanol. In the US the main feedstock is corn, in the EU sugar beet, feed wheat and barley, while in Brazil it is sugarcane. While biodiesel makes up only 5 percent of biofuel production it is important in Europe where diesel is in increasingly short supply and where increasing the diesel gasoline ratio is costly for refineries. Biodiesel is made mainly from rapeseed in Europe and soybeans in the US. Figures 6.1a and 6.1b show the regional sources of ethanol and biodiesel production in 2006. The above biofuels are conventional or first generation types. The so-called second generation biofuels are made from any kind of biomass, including for example forest or crop residues, which are generally cheaper sources than dedicated energy crops. The principal advantage of second generation biofuels is the...

Low Carbon Fuels

Brazil was the first country to make a significant shift to renewable, lower carbon fuels based on producing ethanol from sugar cane, but many countries around the world are now pursuing similar approaches with mixed success. California recently proposed carbon based fuels requirements and the EU is pursuing low carbon fuels standards (LCFS) 16 . However, to achieve significant global benefits from low carbon fuels it is increasingly clear that a full life cycle analysis13 is necessary which includes consideration of indirect land use effects. When such factors are taken into account, it is clear that moving to low carbon fuels that actually achieve significant benefits is a very difficult proposition. The goal of a LCFS is to promote investment and use of low carbon fuels (e.g., sustainable corn ethanol and biodiesel, CNG, renewable electrons14 hydrogen) and dampen demand for high carbon fuels (e.g. Canadian tar sands, Venezuelan shale oil, U.S. coal to liquids). The current U.S....


Biofuels (biogas, bioalcohol, biodiesel) are made from plant biomass, and are more or less carbon neutral, since in burning they do not increase the overall CO2 content of the atmosphere but set free just the amount of CO2 that was fixed before in photosynthesis of the plant (Schiermeier et al., 2008). Thus, in recent years, plant biomass has gained growing importance as an alternative energy source. Main current sources of bioalcohol (mostly bioethanol) are sugars of sugarcane and starch of corn and wheat. Today, about 20 of the US corn harvest is used to make bioethanol. This covers about 2 of the US demand for transportation fuels (Chisti, 2007). Biodiesel is made from plant oil, mainly from rapeseed, palm oil and jatropha. Biogas is produced from different kinds of biomass. However, a serious flaw in the ecobalance of traditional biofuels becomes obvious when the complete CO2 balance is calculated, i.e., when CO2 costs for seed, fertilisers, herbicides, irrigation, harvest and...

The global atmosphere

Although CO2 is well mixed in the global atmosphere, it is not perfectly mixed, and there are small horizontal gradients in CO2 concentration that are driven by the spatial pattern of sources and sinks for carbon dioxide. For example, CO2 concentrations are higher in the northern hemisphere (the source of most fossil fuel combustion) than in the southern hemisphere. In principle, if the transport of CO2 in the atmosphere can be accurately simulated by atmospheric transport models, it should be possible to use observations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations to derive the spatial pattern of CO2 sources and sinks. As the spatial pattern of CO2 sources from fossil fuel combustion can be accurately predicted from economic data, the remainder will be the spatial pattern of biosphere CO2 sources and sinks (including the effects of land use change). Further information can be derived by also including observations of the stable isotopes of CO2 (biosphere exchange has a different isotopic...

Who would reliably manage geoengineering projects for the world community over a century or two

Fortunately, the seemingly staggering costs - trillions of dollars - of mitigation that substitutes non-carbon-emitting sources for conventional fossil-fuel-burning devices represent a mere year or so delay in being some 500 per cent richer a century from now with 450 ppm CO2 with stringent climate mitigation versus a potentially dangerous 900 ppm concentration if there are no significant mitigation policies deployed (see Azar & Schneider 2002). Thus, repeated assertions that society will not invest in mitigation - and thus geo-engineering will be needed -seem as premature as arguing for near-term deployment of still-untested geo-engineering schemes. Moreover, the potential for climate policy to be implemented will probably intensify as severe climate impacts occur and people become more However, critics have asked, is it not one's reluctance to embrace manipulations of nature at a large scale, ignoring the potential consequences of 'geosocial engineering', implicit in changing the...

Health impacts from heat stress and air pollution

Weather extremes tied to overall climate change will affect both mortality and morbidity, including hospital admissions and sick days away from work due to air pollution. We should also recognize that the combustion of fossil fuels, which generates greenhouse gases and contributes to climate warming, is also the principal source of air pollution. Even though the US has one of the most stringent sets of air pollution control regulations on the planet, it is estimated that at least 30,000 Americans die prematurely each year from exposure to air pollution, especially fine particulate matter (Ali et al, 2004). Control strategies to lower greenhouse gas emissions are likely to also produce lowered mortality from air pollution (Davis, 1997 Cifuentes, 2001). Conversely, without emission controls, the warming itself is likely to have several adverse effects. Although the situation will vary across air quality regions, warming will change and generally accelerate the photochemical reactions...

The Climate Change as a Global Environmental Problem

The first IPCC report submitted in 1990 confirmed the legacy of the climate change phenomenon with human activities, and essentially identified two main causes the use of fossil fuels related to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the reduction of principal reservoirs of carbon in the planet, especially forests. The report highlighted the need to develop a comprehensive strategy to tackle climate change and its consequences, drawing up the following key principles on which to base a possible international convention

Capture of CO2 from Flue Gases

The most obvious places to capture CO2 are at large industrial point sources such as power plants, cement plants and oil and gas refineries. Fossil fuel-fired power plants are the dominant industrial point sources in most countries. The CO2 may be captured by pre-combustion techniques, such as the steam reforming of methane into CO2 and H2, with the H2 being combusted and the CO2 sent for storage 1 . Alternatively the fossil fuel may be combusted in an oxygen CO2 atmosphere, which results in a very CO2-rich flue gas 52 , or it may be captured post-combustion, from the flue gases of the industrial plant 4 , for example by amine stripping. Even in coal-fired power plants the flue gases contain only a maximum of about 15 CO2 and in natural gas-fired plant they commonly contain 3 CO2 or less. It is necessary to separate CO2 from the other components of flue gas before storing it because the available storage space beneath the ground would not be big enough to cope with the vast quantities...

What needs to be done Diversifying away from oil

Direct burning of fossil fuels in fires, boilers or for cooking will need to be phased out, and electricity (increasingly drawing on locally based renewable generation as well as the grid) or sustainably grown wood will have to become the standard household fuels. It would be useful to establish a timetable for this transition. Coal (and, to a lesser extent, other fossil fuels) will remain an important fuel for power generation for several decades ahead. Carbon capture and storage should be developed as soon as possible. It should then be mandated for any remaining oil-fuelled power stations as well.

Biomass to Liquid Fuels

Fuels LC GHG emissions from equivalent petroleum-based fuels is -0.14 for the CO2 vented case, and the ratio is -1.35 in the CCS case (Table 3.5). With CO2 venting, the LC GHG emissions for the biomass FT fuels are slightly negative because of unconverted carbon in the char which is returned to the land and effectively stored there, offsetting fossil-based emissions associated with growing, harvesting and transporting the biomass. With CCS, the LC GHG emissions are highly negative because CO2 is being removed from the atmosphere with each growth cycle and geologically stored. If methanol MTG is used, instead of FT, the economics are more favorable, and the LC GHG emissions are similar. The cost of CO avoided

Synthetic View of Chemical Processes in the Troposphere

During the 20th century, the chemical composition of the atmosphere has been altered, sometimes in a major way, by human activities. For example, in the troposphere, the atmospheric concentrations of ozone precursors have increased substantially primarily as a result of industrialization and land-use changes. Intensification of biomass burning, mostly in the tropics, and increase in fossil fuel consumption have profoundly modified the source strengths of volatile organic carbon, carbon monoxide, and reactive nitrogen oxides. As a result, the level of ozone and the concentration of OH, and hence the oxidizing potential of the atmosphere, have been modified and are expected to continue to change in the future. An important scientific issue is to quantify the magnitude of these changes and to assess their impact on climate and on the biosphere. Today, the anthropogenic emissions of SO,, primarily from fossil fuel combustion, largely dominate the sulfur flux into in the atmosphere on the...

Oil in the business sector

A similar transition will be needed in the industrial and business sector of the economy for all general heating and other purposes. Where industrial processes currently rely on the use of fossil fuels as a feedstock, sector-by-sector analysis will be needed to identify how far carbon emissions from such processes can be captured and stored or where such uses can be substituted by non-fossil fuel processes.

Environmental Benefits

Environment protection is one of our most important obligations, whose goals were defined during some key UN Summits in Rio (1991), Kyoto (1997), and Johannesburg (2001). Any type of energy production, transportation, transformation, conversion, and consumption has some impact on the environment, and the magnitude of such an impact will depend closely on the technologies and methods used. The typical CO2 emissions from fossil-fueled electrical power plants become 915 g kWh for coal at a 35 power plant efficiency, 760 g kWh for fuel oil at a 35 power plant efficiency, and 315 g kWh for natural gas at a 60 power plant efficiency. The emission of air pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide, will be greatly reduced if we manage to limit our consumption of fossil fuels (Oktay et al., 2007c and Bertani et al., 2002). Fossil fuels emissions are given in Table 7.6. Table 7.6 Fossil fuels emissions. Table 7.6 Fossil fuels emissions.

The Greenhouse Effect And Global Warming

Per million) to over 380 ppm since pre-industrial times. This is as a consequence of the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas. Thus carbon that was stored in the ground is released in the form of CO2. An aerosol is a colloidal suspension of either liquid or solid particles in the gas phase. Aerosols are created in the atmosphere by the action of the winds suspending dust, sea salt, and organic matter, and from biogenic sources such as plant pollen, as well as from anthropogenic sources such as fossil fuel burning. Aerosols are of interest, as one of the key areas of uncertainty in climate change predictions involves the role of aerosols.

Climate change in Europe

Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution (between about 1750 and 1800), emissions of greenhouse gases have been rising as a result of increased industrial and agricultural production and greater use of fossil fuel for domestic heating. The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas, has increased by 30 since pre-industrial times (3). Ice-core studies indicate that the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is now higher than at any other time in the past 160 000 years, that is, most of the lifetime of the modern human species.

CO2 capture and storage

According to the IPCC Third Assessment Report, over the 21st century substantial amounts of CO2 emissions need to be avoided to achieve stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. CO2 capture and storage (CCS) will be one of the options in the portfolio of measures for stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations while the use of fossil fuels continues. Chapter 5 of this volume presents an overview of the CCS system and provides emission estimation methods for CO2 capture, CO2 transport, CO2 injection and underground CO2 storage. It is good practice for inventory compilers to ensure that the CCS system is handled in a complete and consistent manner across the entire Energy Sector.

Chemical Forms Sources And Concentration Levels

Combustion of fossil fuel Combustion of fossil fuel For DMS, the data indicate that 97 of the global flux of 15 to 26 Tg S yr results from emissions from the ocean (Berresheim et al., 1995). Of this marine total, 61 is from the SH and 39 from the NH. The next largest contributor is split between wetland sulfur releases and those from anthropogenic industrial emissions. By contrast, for S02 the global flux is largely defined by NH emissions (e.g., 88 ). This reflects the major contribution made from fossil fuel burning in the highly industrialized NH for details see Spiro et al. (1992) and Hameed and Dignon (1992) . Anthropogenic emissions from the SH make up still another 9 of the global total for S02 with volcanic emissions making up most of the remainder. This means that volcanic emissions define the second largest primary S02 global source but comprise, on average, only 7 of the total. (Note, during years involving major eruptions, this source is substantially larger.) As noted...

Activity data uncertainties

If no further data are available, the recommended default uncertainty range for fossil fuel combustion data should be assumed to be plus or minus 5 percent. In other words Since data on biomass as fuel are not as well developed as for fossil fuels, the uncertainty range for biomass fuels will be significantly higher. A value of plus or minus 50 percent is recommended.

Hybridization ofTaxation and Trading

There are certain sectors of the economy, such as transportation, that are difficult to incorporate into an emissions trading scheme. These types of sectors are largely managed through taxation measures on liquid fuels aimed to promote conservation along with biofuels such as ethanol. Governments can promote other initiatives to reduce emissions, such as the investment in public transportation, and redistribute revenue collected by such schemes.

Applying Carbon Pricing to the Chemical Production Chain

Certain aspects of the chemical industry are particularly vulnerable to cost increases attributed to carbon since the industry relies heavily on fossil fuels as feedstock and for process energy. A study conducted by the UK based Centre for Economic and Business Research (CEBR) on the impact on UK and EU chemical industry suggests that even at a carbon price of 20 per tonne of CO2, the percentage of the chemical industry' s value at stake relative to value added could be as For the purpose of this analysis, carbon pricing is applied to direct emissions from the production process as well as indirect emissions from upstream products such as electricity and naphtha with a high likelihood of carbon cost pass-through. The next section also touches on indirect impacts of carbon pricing such as competition for low carbon fuels and cost of compliance for direct emissions associated with combustion installations.

Feedstock Extraction Transportation and Preparation

In addition to the increased energy costs driven by the power sector, the preparation of feedstock used for chemical production is also energy intensive which results in a high level of direct emissions associated with the refinery cracking process. Approximately 4 of the world's oil and equivalent fossil fuels are used as feedstock for plastics and chemicals 19 .

The Role Of Forestry In Complying With Targets

Separate rules for GHG emissions and removals from the atmosphere have been designed under the Kyoto Protocol for land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) activities because of their unique characteristics. LULUCF can remove CO2 from the atmosphere but the removal can also be reversed to emit an equal amount. This contrasts with the reduction achieved by a cut in the use of fossil fuels, where the cut can be more confidently said to remain permanent. The removals and emissions of CO2 by forests may take place over many years, and moreover removals are difficult to measure compared with the instantaneous emissions from burning, or the saving of emissions from not burning, fossil fuels.

Carbon dioxide capture

There are three main approaches for capturing CO2 arising from the combustion of fossil fuels and or biomass (Figure 2.5). Post-combustion capture refers to the removal of CO2 from flue gases produced by combustion of a fuel (oil, coal, natural gas or biomass) in air. Pre-combustion capture involves the production of synthesis gas (syngas), namely the mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, by reacting energy feedstocks with steam and or oxygen or air. The resulting carbon monoxide is reacted with steam by the shift reaction to produce CO2 and more hydrogen. The stream leaving the shift reactor is separated into a high purity CO2 stream and H2-rich fuel that can be used in many applications, such as boilers, gas turbines and fuel cells. Carbon dioxide capture has some energy requirements with a corresponding increase in fossil fuel consumption. Also the capture process is less than 100 percent efficient, so a fraction of CO2 will still be emitted from the gas stream. Chapter 3 of the...

Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends

International negotiations and domestic policy debates have focused largely on reducing CO2 emissions from fossil fuels, both because these emissions account for a large fraction of total GHG emissions and because they can be estimated fairly accurately based on fuel-use data. This report follows suit by focusing primarily on energy-related CO2 emissions. It is important to recognize, however, that there are other important sources of CO2 (such as tropical deforestation), and there are other compounds in the atmosphere that affect the earth's radiative balance and thus play a role in climate change.

A major risk for the planet

When fossil fuels are burned, the carbon extracted from the ground as oil, gas and coal is discharged into the atmosphere as CO2. As a result, the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere increases progressively. Despite being present in relatively low amounts, the CO2 modifies the transparency of the air with respect to infrared radiation, acting like the glazing on a greenhouse.

Extending the Cambridge model

As noted above, the model has been extended by the incorporation of an energy sub-model and a set of equations for environmental emissions. The solution for the economic variables yields changes in economic activity and general price levels to the energy sub-model. The sub-model then calculates energy demand by sector and the use of primary fuels in electricity generation. These results can be expressed as changes in the input-output coefficients for the electricity and other industries, thus providing a feedback to the main model. Finally the burning of fuels implies emissions of CO2 and various pollutants such as SO2 and CO into the atmosphere these add to other emissions, not directly associated with the burning of fossil fuels, which are generated by agriculture, industry and other human activities, and which are calculated from changes in variables in the economic model.

Soil Carbon Stocks and Land Management

The annual fluxes of CO2 from atmosphere to land - global Net Primary Productivity (NPP) - and land to atmosphere (respiration and fire) are each of the order of 60 billion tonnes C year (IPCC, 2000a). During the 1990s, fossil fuel combustion and cement production emitted 6.3 1.3 Pg C year to the atmosphere, whilst land-use change emitted 1.6 0.8 Pg C year (IPCC, 2001 Schimel et al., 2001). Atmospheric carbon increased at a rate of 3.2 0.1 Pg C year, the oceans absorbed 2.3 0.8 Pg C year with an estimated terrestrial sink of 2.3 1.3 Pg C year (IPCC, 2001 Schimel et al., 2001).

Methodological issues

This section deals with the direct greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O. The source category is set out in detail in Table 3.5.1. The methods discussed can be used also to estimate emissions from military water-borne navigation (see section For the purpose of the emissions inventory, a distinction is made between domestic and international water-borne navigation. Any fugitive emissions from the transport of fossil fuels (e.g., by tanker) should be estimated and reported under the category Fugitive emissions as set out in Chapter 4 of this Volume.

Converging Challenges

The first challenge is that posed by climate change driven by the combustion of fossil fuels and changes in land management. The Fourth Assessment Report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007), the Stern Review (Stern, 2007), the research on the effects of global change on the United States headlines of the future will likely include the use of fossil fuels and land abuses decades before. We are already committed to a substantial warming of the Earth, by as much as i.8 C above pre-industrial levels (Lynas, 2007, p. 246). The end of the era of cheap oil has been apparent at least since the first oil embargo in 1973, but we failed to take effective action commensurate with the scale of the challenge and with the opportunities created by rapidly improving technology. In November of 1976 I helped organize an effort to inform the newly elected Carter administration about the largest environmental challenge he would likely face. We chose to focus on energy policy, which...

Emissions de CO 2 par kWh pour le secteur de llectricit et de la chaleur

* CO2 emissions from fossil fuels consumed for electricity, combined heat and power and main activity heat plants divided by the output of electricity and heat generated from fossil fuels, nuclear, hydro (excl. pumped storage), geothermal, solar and biomass. Both main activity producers and autoproducers have been included in the calculation of the emissions. Due to missing data for heat in 1990, the ratio for some countries and regions is not available.

Factors Favoring Increased Use of Nuclear Power

Given these concerns, what is driving the recent renewed interest in the construction and operation of new nuclear reactors The current generation of reactors has demonstrated a very high capacity factor, upwards of 94 15 and low generating costs compared to nearly all other forms of electricity generation. Typical generating costs for a nuclear station are about 0.018- 0.02 per kWh, the lowest of any source 16 . Further, since fuel costs are relatively stable and low compared to fossil fuels, there is some certainty that the cost of generation will increase much more slowly for nuclear fuel than for gas or coal fired power plants.

Congo Democratic Republic of

Only two percent of electricity production comes from fossil fuels, with 98 percent produced from hydropower. Most of the hydropower is generated from the hydroelectric plants at the Inga Dams, located on the Congo River. The two plants Inga I and Inga II provide electricity for the Shaha province, with plans to build Inga III and the Grand Inga plants, which would generate 4,500 megawatts and 39,000 megawatts, respectively. Grand Inga provides more hydroelectric power than is currently consumed by the entire African continent.

Capture and Storage of CO2 During or After Combustion

Fossil fuels will probably remain an important part of the U.S. energy system for the near future, in part because of their abundance and the legacy of infrastructure investments. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology could be used to remove CO2 from the exhaust gases of power plants fueled by fossil fuels or biomass (as well as exhaust gases from industrial facilities) and sequester it away from the atmosphere in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, coal beds, or deep saline aquifers. Research to evaluate the technical, economic, and environmental impacts, and legal aspects, of CCS is a key research need. A number of methods and strategies have also been proposed to capture and sequester CO2 from ambient air. Some of these, such as iron fertilization of the oceans, were mentioned above. Other direct carbon capture technologies, such as air filtration, are in early phases of study.

Geoengineering techniques

Physical means of amelioration, such as changing the planetary albedo, are the subject of other chapters in this volume and I thought it would be useful here to describe physiological methods for geo-engineering. These include tree planting, the fertilization of ocean algal ecosystems with iron, the direct synthesis of food from inorganic raw materials and the production of biofuels. I will also briefly Tree planting would seem to be a sensible way to remove CO2 naturally from the air, at least for the time it takes for the tree to reach maturity. But in practice the clearance of forests for farm land and biofuels is now proceeding so rapidly that there is little chance that tree planting could keep pace. Forest clearance has direct climate consequences through water cycling and atmospheric albedo change and is also responsible for much of the CO2 emissions. Agriculture in total has climatic effects comparable to those caused by fossil fuel combustion. For this reason, it would seem...

Reynald L Lemke1 and H Henry Janzen2

No-till (NT) farming has been widely advocated as a way to enhance soil carbon stores (e.g. Lal, 2004a,b Pacala and Socolow, 2004). Because the carbon in soil organic matter ultimately comes from photosynthesis, building soil carbon withdraws CO2 from the air, helping to slow the accumulation of atmospheric CO2 from fossil fuel burning and land-use change.

Political Motivations

The world will consume increasing volumes of natural gas well into the 21st century if reliable, low cost supplies can be discovered and exploited. In the near term, natural gas is expected to take on a greater role in power generation and transportation because of increasing pressure for cleaner fuels and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Gas demand is also expected to grow throughout the first half of the next century because of the expanding role of gas as a competitive transportation fuel due to the commercial development of gas-to-liquids technology. The drive to increased reliance on natural gas will only be in part based on economics. Government regulatory and taxation policy may also dictate the viability of a particular energy

Department of Defense uS

More than 2,000 of the world's foremost experts on the global environment, internationally recognized scientists, are telling us that there is ample evidence that for the first time in history, pollution from human activities is, in fact, changing the Earth's climate. Modern industrial activity, particularly the burning of fossil fuels, coal, petroleum products, is filling the atmosphere with carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases. These gases trap the sun's heat in the atmosphere and cause the steady, gradual warming of the earth's surface temperature. The average surface temperature is slowly rising, and the scientists tell us that there will be devastating consequences to our environment within the next 100 years. They're predicting more frequent, more intense heat waves thousands more heat-related deaths severe droughts floods will become more

Greenhouse Gases from Crop Fields

A rapid increase in atmospheric concentrations of the three main anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), like carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), is evident from measurements taken over the past few decades as well as ice-core records spanning many thousands of years (IPCC 2007). The global increases in CO2 concentration are due to fossil fuel and land-use change, while those of CH4 and N2O are primarily from agriculture (Cole et al. 1997 IPCC 2007). Despite large annual exchanges of CO2 between the atmosphere and agricultural lands, the net flux is approximately balanced (IPCC 2007). Arable and permanent crops occupy 1,540 Mha in 2003 which is about 12 of the Earth's land surface (FAOSTAT 2006). In 2005, agriculture contributes about 47 and 58 of total anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and N2O, respectively, with a wide range of uncertainty in the estimates of both the agricultural contribution and the anthropogenic total.

Other Uses of Nuclear Energy

Although this chapter has discussed the utilization of nuclear energy for the production of electricity, other ways to use nuclear energy to replace fossil fuels are also being considered. For example, it may be possible to use reactors that operate at very high temperatures to economically extract hydrogen from water for use in the transportation sector. However, such methods will require the development of very high temperature gas cooled reactors and associated chemical systems for the production of hydrogen.

Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors

It is difficult to see how nuclear energy in its present form can be used in the industrial sector to replace carbon-based fuels since much of the energy is used in the form of process heat. Process heat applications typically require temperatures well in excess of those that can be achieved with the current generation of light water reactors. Because of physical limitations inherent in light water reactors, it is unlikely that current light water reactor technology can be used to replace fossil fuels in these applications. However, very high temperature gas cooled reactors have the potential to replace carbon based fuels in some applications as these reactors are thought capable of producing temperatures of 900 C and above, sufficient

Nonenergy products use

Lubricating oil statistics usually cover not only use of lubricants in engines but also oils and greases for industrial purposes and heat transfer and cutting oils. All deliveries of lubricating oil should be excluded from the Reference Approach. This avoids a potential double count of emissions from combustion of waste lubricants covered in the Reference Approach under other fossil fuels but ignores the inclusion of emissions from lubricants in two-stroke engines. See the discussion under 'Simplifications in the Reference Approach' in Section 6.8. considered mainly a decorative purpose and not fuel combustion. Emissions from combustion of waxes in municipal waste plants with heat recovery are already included in the Reference Approach (under Other fossil fuels ) so the relevant wax quantities should be excluded. Data on the contribution from the remaining small source of energy are very difficult to obtain so, within the Reference Approach, these sources are excluded from fuel...

Natural gas and the future

The raw statistics speak for themselves. In 2006 the world's consumption of natural gas already stood at around 105.5 trillion cubic feet, of which roughly one-fifth was taken up by the United States. But the annual United States government document International Energy Outlook predicts that by the year 2030 global consumption could jump by more than half. This is partly because many people will turn away from oil if its price rises as much as many experts predict. But it is also because governments are likely to encourage the use of a substance that is less environmentally damaging than oil or coal. So natural gas will be increasingly used to generate electricity, the IEA report points out, because of 'its relative fuel efficiency and low carbon dioxide intensity' since it is the cleanest-burning fossil fuel for toxic air pollutants and it emits about half the greenhouse gases of coal.1

CO2 Absorption in a Minimodule Membrane Contactor

Undesirable species such as CO2 which is usually encountered in a coal upgrading process product gas is considered to be one of the major contributors to the global warming problem via the greenhouse effect. In fact, half of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions are produced by fossil fuels in industry and power plants (Desideri and Paolucci, 1999). Unless major policy changes and technological innovations take place, future concentrations of CO2 will continue to increase largely, mainly as a result of fossil fuel uses in transport, heating, and power generation (Wuebbles and Jain, 2001). Therefore, reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions has become an international priority, requiring the introduction of efficient and flexible technologies, capable of operating over a wide range of concentration levels and volumetric flows.

Quality control of completeness

The CO2 completeness check (Section starts from energy balance data and is designed to check that all significant emissions of CO2 from the first non-energy uses of fossil fuels are reported somewhere in the inventory, without double counting. The emissions are the sum of CO2 emissions from (a) fuels used as feedstock in the chemical industry, (b) fuels used as reductant in the metal industry, (c) fuel products oxidised during use (partly or fully direct emissions or emissions of carbon containing non-CO2 gases (NMVOC, CO and CH4) oxidised in the atmosphere). Subsequent CO2 emissions may occur in the waste phase if the waste oils or waste products are incinerated. However, the amount of fossil-carbon containing products disposed of annually as waste is not equal to the amount used annually for first uses because fossil-carbon containing products may be imported or exported or they may be used for several years before they are discarded. The complications which arise from...

Allocation of CO2 from nonenergy use

Table 1.6 can be used to document and report the following information, summarising the subcategories in which the sectoral CO2 emissions (other than those from fuel combustion) from the fossil fuels used are reported. The amounts of each fuel type consumed for non-combustion purposes (which correspond to excluded carbon in the CO2 Reference Approach) should be recorded as internal documentation. This relates to In the allocation reporting table (Table1.6) the 'Primary NEU fuel type' and 'Other NEU fuel types' should be entered for each category. The same CO2 emissions reported in the IPPU sectoral background table are entered into the IPPU emissions column (or the notation keys NE, NO, IE, where applicable). Then CO2 emissions related to the use of fossil fuels for non-energy purposes reported in source categories other than IPPU are added to the appropriate 1A subcategories. These are labelled in the IPPU source categories as (partly) included elsewhere in the IPPU reporting with a...

Arctic Sea Ice In The Next 100 Years

Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas concentrations are expected to continue increasing with the increased consumption of fossil fuels for power generation and transportation. While the rate of CO2 increase is not always constant, it has effectively been 1 per year when the effects of different gases (methane, CFCs, nitrous oxides, and ozone) are accounted for. At this rate, the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere will effectively double in about 70 years, to 720 ppm.

Technology Description and Status

Biomass encompasses a wide variety of feedstocks, including solid biomass, i.e., forest product wastes, agricultural residues and wastes, and energy crops, biogas, liquid biofuels, and biodegradable component of industrial waste and municipal solid waste. Feedstock quality affects the technology choice, while feedstock costs, including transportation costs determine the process economics. Bioelectric plants are an order of magnitude smaller than coal-fired plants based on similar technology. This roughly doubles investment costs and reduces efficiency relative to coal. Biomass-based electricity generation is a base load technology and, provided that adequate supplies are available, is considered one of the most reliable sources of renewable-based power. Co-firing. Fossil fuels can be replaced by biomass in coal power plants, achieving efficiencies on the order of 35-45 in modern plants. Because co-firing with biomass requires no major modifications, this option is economic and plays...

Costs and Potential for Cost Reductions

Table 5.3 provides an overview of European biomass plant efficiencies and cost characteristics. Co-combustion in coal-fired power plants is the least-cost option in the near term - USD 0.054 per kWh. All other systems need to see further cost reductions to be competitive. Costs are typically higher than USD 0.10 per kWh, or more than twice the cost for fossil-fuel power plants. The use of waster biomass will lower costs, but the potential is limited.

Emissions Cement Industry

Rather than concrete manufacture nearly one ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) is emitted for every ton of Portland cement made. Although generally well below the total CO2 emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants and motor vehicles, the cement industry is overall the world's largest single industrial source of CO2 emissions. There are four main strategies to reduce CO2 emissions from cement manufacturing. The first involves reducing overall fuel (heat) consumption by upgrading the kiln technology (for example, conversion or replacement of wet kilns with preheater-precalciner dry kilns). The second involves switching among fossil fuels and or incorporating a proportion of waste fuels the latter reduce primary fossil fuel consumption, commonly have lower carbon contents, and may offer carbon emissions credits. The third strategy is to source some of the requisite CaO from non-carbonate materials such as iron and steel slags, or coal combustion ashes these not only do not directly involve...

Challenges to Future Deployment

One of the most significant barriers to accelerated penetration of all biomass conversion technologies is that of adequate resource supply. In the long term, the potential for the sustainable use of biomass in the energy sector will be limited by factors such as competition with food production, the need for biodiversity, and competition between the use of feedstocks as fuels and using them for generating power.3 The negative effects of intensive farming and long transport distances can reduce the economic and environmental benefits of biopower. In this context, it will be attractive to convert biomass into an energy carrier with higher energy density. This can be achieved with flash-pyrolysis technologies that convert solid biomass into bio-oil, a liquid biofuel that can be transported economically over long distances.

Portfolio of Carbon Management Options

Continuation of current trends in fossil-fuel and land use is likely to lead to significant climate change, with important adverse consequences for both natural and human systems. This has led to the investigation of various options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or otherwise diminish the impact of human activities on the climate system. Here, we review options that can contribute to managing this problem and discuss factors that could accelerate their development, deployment, and improvement. Reducing sources of carbon (or carbon equivalents) to the atmosphere (e.g., reduce dependence on fossil fuels, reduce energy demand, reduce releases of other radiatively active gases, limit deforestation) Longer-term options that could make a significant contribution include separating carbon from fossil fuels and storing it in geologic reservoirs or the ocean developing large-scale solar and wind resources with long-distance electricity transmission and or long-distance H2 distribution and...

Other considerations in the geologic carbonate carbon sink

Bolic (energy) cost of making shells and skeletons will rise. The result is that organisms will precipitate less carbonate and or will be disadvantaged in the ecosystem. The implications of this for coral reef ecosystems and associated biodiversity and economic impacts are already being widely recognized (Kleypas et al., 2001 Hughes et al., 2003). There is also increasing evidence that calcifying plankton could also be affected by higher atmospheric CO2 (Bijma et al., 1999 Riebesell et al., 2000 Zondervan et al., 2001 Delille et al., 2005) as well as pteropods, which make aragonite shells (Orr et al., 2005). To understand the implications of this effect for geologic carbon sequestration one must first recognize that the precipitation of CaCO3 by calcifying plankton in the surface ocean and its subsequent removal through gravitational settling raises the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) at the surface (see Box 6.1). This acts to reduce the rate of fossil fuel CO2 uptake from the...

How Long Will The Greenhouse Last

The potential for climatic consequences with severe impact on humans resulting from the buildup of fossil-fuel CO2 has inevitably resulted in questions not only of how bad will it get and how fast, but also how long will it last The answer depends heavily on the global warming potential of the greenhouse gas release, which accounts not only for its immediate impact on the planetary radiative energy balance but also on the longevity of the greenhouse gas in the atmosphere (Archer et al., 2009). Economic forecasts suggest that conventional fossil fuel resources will be largely used up in the next 200-400 years, leading to atmospheric CO2 levels that could reach 2000 ppmv by 2300 to 2400 (Marland et al., 2002 Caldeira and Wickett, 2003). However, models of the global carbon cycle and the geologic record both show that CO2 produced from fossil fuels and other reservoirs will continue to impact global climate and atmospheric chemistry for tens to hundreds of thousands of years. Although...

Mechanisms of organic carbon burial peatlands and coal formation

During the late Holocene (the past few thousand years) there appears to have been a significant increase in carbon storage in peatlands, particularly in the boreal latitudes of the northern hemisphere (Gorham, 1991 Laine et al., 1996 Gajewski et al., 2001). The estimates that have been made suggest an average accumulation rate over the late Holocene of 0.096 Pg C year (Gorham, 1991). If true, this would make peatlands a potentially important additional long-term carbon sink. However, it is far from clear how much of this expansion of peatlands is in response to the retreat of the northern hemisphere ice sheets following the end of the last glacial period and the creation of new areas suitable for wetlands to develop, and what might have been a response to Holocene warming (and an increase in CO2). Although 'mining' and drainage in the recent past have probably reversed the global rate of peatland and carbon accumulation, an important contribution from this mechanism to fossil fuel CO2...

Payments for Watershed Protection The Case of Costa Rica216

Under the PSA, all participants must have a sustainable forest management plan that is certified by a licensed forester. Once the plans have been approved, land users begin implementing the different activities and receive payments over 5 years. FONAFIFO in cooperation with other institutions contracts the service providers and collects and manages the payments from service beneficiaries. The PSA programme is overseen by a governing board that consists of representatives of the public sector and the private sector. Most of the financing comes from a system that allocates one third of the revenues from a fossil-fuel sales tax to FONAFIFO. Other financial supporters of the PSA programme have been the World Bank and the Global Environment Facility (GEF). The idea is that eventually all beneficiaries of water services (irrigators, domestic users, power plants, and so on) would pay for the services they receive.

Recent Changes In The Atmosphere

Current ice-core data for atmospheric CO2 concentration goes back 650,000 years. These data show that during this time the present ecosystem of land mammals and flowering plants have never experienced CO2 concentrations above 300 ppmv (parts per million by volume) until very recent history. The concentration of CO2 has risen rapidly in the last 300 years, since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution and the dramatic increase in fossil fuel use. Isoto- pic analysis shows that the rise in CO2 concentration to its present value of more than 370 ppmv is largely due to human activities, chiefly fossil fuel burning.

The Enhanced Greenhouse Effect without Analogues in Climate History

Recently did such testing become possible, but mainly for Earth models of intermediate complexity (EMICs), because the computer time requests of higher spatial resolution models are still too high. As EMICs and first fully coupled higher resolution models with 3-D ice sheet representation have shown that bifurcations are close for business as usual scenarios of human behaviour in the 21st century, sustainability is threatened by further climate change or in other words a stringent global climate policy is needed to approach sustainability in the 21st century. As figure 6.1, taken from Vizcaino (2006), demonstrates, sea level rise up to several meters would follow the continuation of the present development path, where energy supply is based on fossil fuels. Many millions, living in marshlands at unprotected coastlines, would then become refugees. Strange as it may seem, a stop of the North Atlantic Drift (vulgo Gulf Stream) would, it occurs for scenario A2 and for some realisations...

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