Figure 4 Diagram depicting the development of urban areas into oxbow cities (1 to 3) and then, we hope, into a modern, sustainable agro-urban landscape. We argue that the modern landscape must be increasingly based on the ecological/economic management of suburban areas as natural linkages between urban and agricultural systems.
values will likely define future landscape boundaries and resources, especially those values that relate to ecosystem/landscape sustainability.
The present challenge for agrolandscape management is to minimize the infringement of urbanization on agricultural land, to restore biological diversity (genetic niche, species, and landscape) at greater temporal and spatial scales, to establish linkages (ecological and economic) between urban and rural (heterotrophic and autotrophic) patch elements, and to achieve sustainable productivity (P/R = 1) at agro-urban (regional) scales. Goals for achieving sustainable agrolandscape management should focus on (1) achieving stability regarding P/R ratios among het-erotrophic and autotrophic systems at these scales; (2) creating both natural corridor and human transport linkages between rural and urban systems; (3) protecting the integrity of ecosystem/watershed processes, such as nutrient recycling and primary productivity; and (4) establishing management policies for optimal land use within transition suburban areas that ecologically and economically form an interface between urban and agricultural landscape systems. As previously noted, sustainable agriculture is based on the coupling of agricultural ecosystems with natural ecosystems (Barrett et al., 1990). Here, we stress the need to integrate natural, agricultural,
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