Introduction

Under accelerating extinctions within world biota and increasing invasion of exotics, consequent to the expansion of human populations and their increased demands for space devoted to producing their immediate needs and aspirations (Vitousek et al., 1997), numerous environmental interest groups have clamored for more consideration of natural biotic wealth of all kinds. In the past these efforts focused on creation of reserves. Activists, however, now realize that increasing the size of existing reserves and demarcation of new ones will not conserve all the biodiversity many would like. Furthermore, changing climates mean that fixed boundary reserves will not guarantee that suitable habitat will be available for organisms to migrate to (Harte et al., 1992). Conservation biologists (e.g., Noss and Cooperrider, 1994) are thus shifting some of their attention to nonreserve lands of all kinds and attempting to alter land-use policies such that biodiversity is provided for over a larger fraction of the Earth.

Rangelands, where native biota intermingle with humans and their domestic livestock, involve a huge fraction of the Earth's surface (about 70% by the estimate of Holechek et al., 1989). Increasing conflict between graziers and conservation biologists seems inevitable, especially in the developed world where people have at least the short-term luxury of considering wildlife and other amenities over production of food and fiber. The fact that the wildlife are owned by most states, whereas most habitats are owned by individuals or local communities (Cumming, 1993), is the major reason for biodiversity issues providing clashes between private rights and public values, particularly on publicly owned lands.

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