Biodiversity is described at three fundamental levels — ecosystem diversity, species diversity, and genetic diversity (Office of Technology Assessment, 1987). Changes in the diversity can be monitored by indicator species (Noss, 1990). Monitoring biodiversity in farmlands should account for biota both in the crops and in the soils. Apart from the common crops and livestock in agriculture, some 200,000 other species of plants and animals are involved in agricultural production and perform many essential functions, such as nutrient recycling, waste decay, plant protection, pollination (Pimentel et al., 1989).
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