Agroforestry

Agroforestry, where it has been practiced traditionally, such as in the damar agroforests of Sumatra and Jungle Rubber on Kalimantan (Michon and de Foresta, 1996) and in the home gardens of Sri Lanka (Jacob and Alles, 1987), Nigeria (Okafor and Fernandes, 1987), and Tanzania (Fernandes et al. 1984), is a mixed and often apparently haphazard polyculture of indigenous trees and crops that form a complex, multistrata system somewhat like a natural forest. Interestingly, recent findings in the damar agroforests of Sumatra show that these complex multistrata agroforests contain over 50% of all the regional pool of resident tropical forest birds, most of the mammals, and about 70% of the plants (Table 1). They are also a major source of resins, fruits, and timber for domestic use and for export. Thus, these agroforests are potentially a sustainable resource, a valuable compromise between conservation

Figure 1 The impact of agricultural intensification on an agroecosystem. (From Swift, M. J.

and Anderson, J. M., 1993. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function, Schulze, E.-D. and Mooney, H. A., Eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin. With permission.)

Figure 1 The impact of agricultural intensification on an agroecosystem. (From Swift, M. J.

and Anderson, J. M., 1993. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function, Schulze, E.-D. and Mooney, H. A., Eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin. With permission.)

Figure 2 The relationship between the two functions of trees and the three goals of agroforestry to meet three global challenges. (Modified from ICRAF 1997, Int'l Centre for Research in Agroforestry Medium Term Plan 1998-2000. With permission.)

Table 1 Biodiversity in Indonesia Agroforests: Observed Numbers of Species

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