The Effect of Byproduct Application from the Semi Dry Process to Alkali Soil

Using soil samples classified as alkali soil (Table 10.5), pot cultivation experiments were conducted. Air dried alkali soils were mixed thoroughly with the byproduct from wet process at levels of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 wt %, and with the byproduct from semi-dry process at the levels of 0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 wt %, respectively. These eleven mixtures were placed in separate pots (1/5000a; "a" is

Table 10.4. Chemical properties of the by-products
















equivalent to 100m2, so 1/5000a is 0.02 m2.) and wheat grains were sown in the upper layer of each pot. The pot cultivation experiments were undertaken by triple repeat tests in the green house using to the normal cultivation method. After harvesting, wheat grains obtained from each pot were measured by weight; the results are shown in Figures 10.3 and 10.4. The productivity of alkali soil was increased at each level by the addition of the byproduct from wet process; an effect of increasing additive was not recognized. On the other hand, an amelioration effect to alkali soil by byproducts from the semi-dry process was recognized only at the level of 0.5 wt % addition, and addition of byproduct over 0.5 wt % showed much lower productivity of wheat than that of alkali soil. This result seems to be attributable to the fact that the pH level was

Table 10.5. Chemical Properties of the soil used ph


Exchangeable cation (cmol(+)/kg soil)


EC: electric conductivity; CEC: cation-exchangeable capacity; ESP: exchangeable sodium percentage increased with the addition of calcium hydroxide included in the byproducts from the semi-dry process. Therefore, I evaluate that in the case of amelioration of alkali soil by byproducts from the semi-dry process, the maximum addition should be 0.5 wt %.

Results of soil analyses after harvesting the wheat are shown in Table 10.6. In the table, data of two 0.5 wt % plots in the pot experiment are given to show the amelioration effect by the byproduct from the semi-dry process, and the lasting effect of the amendment as well. The table gives us the facts that the byproduct from wet process have decreasing effects over time on pH and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) of alkali soil, and that the addition of an amount over 0.5 wt % of the byproduct from semi-dry process has little decrease over time in effects on pH and ESP of alkali soil. The persistence of the amendments increased remarkably over the cultivation period.

Fig. 10.3. Effect of calcium sulfate (wet process by product).
Fig. 10.4. Effect of byproducts from the semi-dry process.

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