Supply

The general policy of grain production in China is to stabilize the grain production area, adjust crop structure, raise per unit yield and increase the total output. The central and the local governments should encourage and

Table 2.5. Changes in China's

arable land (103 hectares)

Year

Land Areas Practically Used

Decreased Land Areas

Newly Increased Land Areas

Net Increased or Decreased Land Areas

1978

99,389.5

8GG.9

198G

99,305.2

94G.8

748.G

-192.8

1984

97,853.7

1,582.9

1,G77.G

-5G5.9

1988

95,721.8

644.7

477.8

-166.9

1989

95,656.0

517.5

451.7

-65.8

199G

95,672.9

467.4

484.3

+16.9

1991

95,653.6

488.G

468.7

-19.3

1992

95,425.8

738.7

51G.9

-227.8

1993

95,101.4

732.4

4G8.G

-324.4

1994

94,910.0

7G8.6

517.2

-191.4

support the main grain production areas to industrialize their management through giving favorable treatment for finance, credit, taxes, personnel utilization and technology. On the one hand, cultivated land area should be protected by law and the grain sown area should be maintained. On the other hand, preferential policies should be made to protect the initiative of grain producers. In addition, investment should be increased from various channels to ensure meeting the needs of grain production.

Strengthen the Development of Agricultural Infrastructure and Improve the Capacity of Comprehensive Grain Production

After more than 40 years' development, the agricultural infrastructure has been improved to a certain level. However some aspects still lag behind, especially the low flood control standard of farmland embankment, as well as the underdeveloped corresponding facilities of irrigation and drainage. Every year, Chinese people suffer from a number of flooding and drought disasters. Statistics show that the average area suffering from natural calami ties from 1980 to 1995 was 340.16 million mu (approximately 22.67 million hectares ). Calculating for an annual decrease of 30 percent in grain yield, we can figure out that the annual output will decrease 24,945,000 tons, which accounts for 4.2-9.0 percent of the total grain output and 6.05 percent of the average output of the year. Therefore it is urgent to set up and improve a number of large scale irrigation and drainage facilities. These will play a significant role, not only in strengthening the comprehensive capacity of grain production. Apart from this, there is a great potential in the reserve resources of agriculture, though the cultivated land resource is limited in China. China has 500 million mu ( approximately 26.7 million hectares ) grass land and grass hillsides which can be developed. Consequently, cultivating undeveloped land and ameliorating fields with moderate and low output in order to protect cultivated land area and increase the per unit area yield will play a decisive role in raising grain output.

Table 2.6. Prediction of grain yield

Year

Ton/ha

Grain gross

(O.1 billion ton)

2010

5.25-5.85

5.46-5.58

2030

6.45-7.05

6.49-6.54

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