Section I

Introduction to the Challenge: Guide for the Book 1

A. Komamine, T. Fujimura and K. N. Watanabe

Section II

Introduction—Prospects of Supply and Demand for Food:

Research Strategies for the Coming Century 3

H. Ikehashi

1. Food Shortage in the 21st Century and Its Implications for Agricultural Research 5

H. Tsujii

Introduction 5

Factors Determining Food Shortage in the Early 21st Century 7

Conclusion 23

2. Prospects for Grain Demand and Supply in the 21st Century 29

H. Zhai

Food Demand Analysis 29

Grain Supply Potential 32

Countermeasures Toward Making up the Balance Between

Grain Supply and Demand 34

3. Agricultural Science In India—Shaping for the Future 39

Indian Scenario 39

National Agricultural Research System 40

Challenges Ahead 41

Opportunities and Strategies 42

Agricultural Extension 48

Programs and Policies 48

Human Resource Development 49

Conclusion 50

4. Setting Priorities for Agricultural Research:

Theory and Experience 51

D. Gollin

Research Priority Setting: Theories and Models 52

Basic Principles 52

Congruence Rules 53

Supply-Driven Resource Allocation 53

Economic Approaches to Priority Setting 53

From Theory to Practice: A Case Study of the Rockefeller

Foundation's Decision to Prioritize Rice Biotechnology 55

Priority-Setting and the Rockefeller Investments 56

Some Shortcomings of Existing Methods and Lessons for the Future 58

Managing a Portfolio of Research 58

Pursuing Comparative Advantage 58

Taking Advantage of Research Spillovers 59

Realizing the Benefits of Delay 59

Conclusion 59

5. Sustainable Agriculture and Strategies in Rice Breeding 63

H. Ikehashi

Rice Cultivation as a Model for Sustainable Agriculture 63

Green Revolution 64

Problems and Tasks in the Post Green Revolution Era 65

Strategies for Enhanced Yield Level 65

Application of Molecular Biology to Rice Breeding 67

Section III

Introduction: The Present Situation of Biological Production and the Approach to the Sustainable Production in Arid Lands 71

Satoshi Matsumoto

6. Drylands and Global Change: Rainfall Variability and Sustainable Rangeland Production 73

Introduction 73

Drylands and Global Change 73

Climate Variability 76

Case Study 78

Integrating Ecological and Social Science Issues 82

Conclusion 85

7. Sustainable Water Management and Agriculture 87

W. Kinzelbach, D. McLaughlin and H. Kunstmann

Introduction 87

The Global Water Situation 87

Important Water Resource Issues 89

Conclusions 96

8. Crop and Resource Management for Improved Productivity in Dryland Farming Systems 99

Introduction 99

Agriculture in the Semi-Arid Tropics 100

Intercropping as One Cropping Option 100

Interaction Among Water, Nutrients and Roots 102

Crop and Resource Management in Low Input Farming

Systems 104

9. Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture in Arid Lands:

Kazakstan Case Study 1G7

Introduction 107

Present Situation of Salt Accumulation in the Study Area 107

Reclamation of Salt-Affected Soils 110

Permeability of Salt-Affected Soils 111

Conclusion 112

1G. Distribution and Amelioration of Alkali Soils in Northeast China ... 113

S. Matsumoto

Introduction 113

Alkali Soil Formation, Characterization and Its Distribution in China 114

Reclamation of Alkali Soils 115

Conclusion 119

Section IV

Introduction:Conservation and Contribution of Plant

Genetic Resources 123

Kazuo N. Watanabe

11. Integrated Plant Genetic Resources Management Systems for Sustainable Agriculture 125

M. Iwanaga, P. Eyzaguirre and J. Thompson

Introduction 125

Biodiversity: A Foundation for Food Security, Poverty

Elimination and Environmental Protection 125

Challenges of Agricultural Systems 127

Plant Genetic Resources Systems View: Avenues for Meeting

Agricultural Challenges 129

System View and Institutional Framework 131

Conclusions 136

12. Genebank Management of Crop Genetic Resources 139

M.Nakagahra, S. Miyazaki and D.A. Vaughan

Introduction 139

Features of Genebank Management in Japan 140

Success Stories in Management of Crop Genetic Resources 145

Evolving Issues Related to the Management of Crop

Genetic Resources 148

13. Biodiversity Conservation Ex Situ and In Situ Conservation:

A Case in Turkey 151

Introduction 151

Biodiversity Conservation Activities in Turkey 153

14. Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture:

Status and Future Prospects 159

K.V. Raman and K.N. Watanabe

Contribution and Value of PGRFA 159

Utilization of PGRFA Including Genetic Vulnerability and Genetic Erosion 161

Genetic Improvement and Use of Biotechnology Applications in PGRFA 162

Potato Late Blight as a Case Study 164

Conclusions 167

Section V

Introduction: Improvements of Plant Function with Conventional

Methods and Biotechnology 171

T. Fujimura

15. Engineering Carbohydrate Metabolism in Transgenic Plants 173

A.G. Heyer

Introduction 173

Source Capacity 173

Sink Capacity 174

Transport Processes 175

Altering Carbohydrate Composition: Starch 176

Altering Carbohydrate Composition: Fructan 177

16. Super-RuBisCO for Improving Photosynthesis 183

A. Yokota, S. Okada, C. Miyake, H. Sugawara, T. Inoue and Y. Kai

Introduction 183

Why is RuBisCO the Target? 183

Is Plant RuBisCO the Most Evolved Enzyme? 184

Structural Analysis 185

Physiological Implications 189

17. Molecular Physiology of Nitrogen Recycling in Rice Plants 191

T. Yamaya, S. Kojima, M. Obara, T. Hayakawa and T. Sato Introduction 191

Physiology and Biochemistry of Nitrogen Recycling in Rice Plants 192

Export of Glutamine from Senescing Leaves 192

Re-Utilization of the Transported Glutamine in Developing

Organs 194

Primary Assimilation of Ammonium Ions in Rice Roots 194

Variation in the Amounts of GS1 and NADH-GOGAT

Protein in Rice Plants 196

Conclusion 196

18. Agrobacterium-Mediated Cereal Transformation: Low Glutelin

Rice Development 199

T. Kubo, Y. Hiei, Y. Ishida, Y. Maruta, J. Ueki, N. Nitta and T. Komari

Introduction 199

Agrobacterium-Mediated Genetic Transformation of Cereals 199

Development of Low Glutelin Rice 201

Section VI

Introduction: Environmental Adaptation and Generation of Resistant Plants 205

H. Uchimiya

19. Stress Tolerance in Crops—How Many and Which Genes? 207

Introduction 207

Osmotic Adjustment 208

Functions of Compatible Solutes 210

Radical Oxygen Species are Unavoidable and Increase

During Stress Episodes 210

Manipulation of Reducing Power 212

Controlled Ion and Water Uptake 212

How Many and Which Genes for Stress Tolerance? 216

20. Improving Drought, Salt and Freezing Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Plants 223

K. Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, M. Kasuga, Q. Liu, Y. Sakuma, H. Abe, S. Miura and K. Shinozaki

Introduction 223

Function of Water Stress-Inducible Genes 224

Expression of Dehydration-Induced Genes in Response to Envitonmental Stresses and ABA 224

Identification of Cis-Acting Element, DRE, Involved in Drought

Responsive Expression 224

Important Roles of the DRE Binding Proteins During Drought and Cold Stresses 225

Analysis of the In Vivo Roles of DREB1A and DREB2A

by Using Transgenic Plants 227

Drought, Salt and Freezing Stress Tolerance in Transgenic

Plants 227

21. Characterization of Salt Inducible Genes from Barley Plants 231

T. Takabe, T. Nakamura, Y. Muramoto and S. Kishitani

Introduction 231

Nuclease 12 231

ATP-Dependent RNA Helicase 232

Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 233

Production of Transgenic Plants with Increased Salt

Tolerance 234

22. Transgenic Rice: Development and Products for Environmentally Friendly Sustainable Agriculture 237

S.K. Datta

Introduction 237

Case Study of Transgenic Rice 237

Environmentally Friendly Selectable Marker Genes 241

23. Plant Programmed Cell Death and Environmental Constraints—Adenylate Homeostasis and Aerenchyma

Formation 247

H. Uchimiya, P. K. Samarajeewa and M. Kawai

Introduction 247

Stimulation of Adenylate Kinase in Rice Seedlings

Under Submergence Stress Introduction 247

Sodium Chloride Stimulates Adenylate Kinase Level in Seedlings of Salt-Sensitive Rice Varieties 250

Dissection of Programmed Cell Death in Root Cortex in Rice 251

Effects of NaCl on Cortical Cell Death 253

Section VII

Introduction: Biotechnology of Woody Plants 257

S. Kitani

Micropropagation 257

Genetic Engineering 257

Molecular Tools 257

24. Molecular Tools for Capturing the Value of the Tropical

Rain Forest 259

M. Van Montagu

Introduction 259

The Model Plant Arabidopsis 259

The Genome Research 260

Functional Genomics 260

Biosynthetic Pathways for Secondary Metabolites 262

Tropical Diversity Studies 262

Forestry Research 263

Stronger Plants Through Plant Engineering 264

The Changing World of Industry 264

Conclusion 265

25. Improvement of a New Transformation Method:

MAT Vector System 267

H.Ebinuma

Introduction 267

Principle of MAT Vectors 267

Transformation Procedure 267

Improvement of MAT Vectors 271

Plasmid Release 274

26. Formation and Characterization of Transformed Woody

Plants Inhibiting Lignin Biosynthesis 275

Noriyuki Morohoshi

Introduction 275

Development of the Technical Requisites to Inhibit Lignin

Biosynthesis 276

Identification of a Peroxidase Enzyme Involved in Lignification 276

Properties of the Poplar Controlled by the Peroxidase

Gene 278

Conclusion 278

27. Tolerance of Acacia Mangium to Acid Soil 281

S. Kitani, N. Higuchi and I. Yasutani

Introduction 281

Materials and Methods 281

Results 283

Discussion 283

Introduction 289

28. Developing a Mass Propagation System for Woody Plants 289

T. Kozai, C. Kubota, S. Zobayed QTNguyen, F. Afreen-Zobayed and J. Heo

Reasons for High Production Costs and Their Reduction by Photoautotrophic Micropropagation 290

Growth Promotion and Quality Improvement Using Small

Culture Vessels 290

Forced Ventilation Micropropagation Systems and Their

Application 296

Scaled-Up Micropropagation System by Use of an Aseptic

Culture Room25,26 300

Conclusion 300

29. Advances in Conifer Tree Improvement Through Somatic Embryogenesis 303

P. K. Gupta, R. Timmis, K. Timmis, J. Grob, W. Carlson, E. Welty and C. Carpentar

Introduction 303

Culture Establishment 303

Embryo Development, Maturation and Germination 304

Cryopreservation 304

Field Performance 305

Large Scale Production 305

Embryo Sorting 306

Manufactured Seed 307

Clonal Field Tests 307

Conclusion 308

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