A present and urgent worldwide issue is the global warming caused by an increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2. The concentration is expecteded to increase 2-fold in the next century and the global atmospheric temperature would increase to 2 to 3 degrees higher than its present value. Under the estimated circumstances, the next generation of people will lose land for cultivation and the ecosystem that supports their lives will be changed. It should be essential for present scientists to devise technologies to relieve our ecosystem from these crises.

Photosynthetic organisms have contributed to adsorption of atmospheric CO2 for over the last 4 billion years. The enormous economic and social activities of human beings, however, are releasing CO2 at a much higher rate than that of CO2 fixation by photosynthesis of plants. This causes our ecosystem to be polluted and damaged. The deforestation in the tropical regions promotes the destruction of the ecosystem. One of the most plausible approaches to halting ecosystem destruction would be increasing the land area for plantation and greening arid, unused areas and regions for sequestration of the atmospheric CO2 into long lived or unde-gradable plant organic materials. This may be done by changing our woody and crop plants to live under severe habitat conditions.

Plants that can grow on poor, arid lands may be created by improving their physiology in growth performances. Photosynthesis converts high energy photons to chemical energies in chloroplasts. The photosynthetic carbon reduction (PCR) cycle utilizes the energies for reduction of CO2 incorporated by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/ oxygenase (RuBisCO) from the atmosphere (Fig. 16.1). This review refers to the importance of the maintenance of the energy balance between capturing photon energy and its utilization, and discusses how we are able to fortify the capacity of plants to achieve balance in arid lands. The target is RuBisCO.

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Organic Gardeners Composting

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