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ATP binding (ATPase A motif)

ATP hydrolysis/ RNA unwinding ( ATPase B motif)

ATP hydrolysis/ RNA binding

Fig. 21.2. Structure of deduced HVD1 protein.

under salinity conditions was approximate ten times higher than that under normal growth conditions. These results suggest that BBADH1 gene was expressed constitutively, and BBADH2 gene was induced by salt stress, in barley leaves. Barley had two copies of the BBADH1 gene. Only a single gene, BBADH2, appeared to be present in the genome of barley.

In our previous study, it was found that all monocotyledonous BADHs known at that time have a C-terminal tripeptide SKL.27,28 It was thought that monocotyledonous BADHs are localized in microbodies (peroxisomes). In the present study, we confirmed the existence of a BADH isozyme (BBADH2) gene in barley plants. However, we could not find a SKL signal at the C-terminal of the BBADH2 amino acid sequence. Furthermore, BBADH2 was more similar to dicotyledonous BADHs. While the BBADH1 gene was expressed constitutively, BBADH2 gene was salt inducible in barley leaves. Therefore, BBADH2 mainly functions in salt-stressed barley leaves for glycinebetaine synthesis. It was reported that BADH catalyzes oxidation of not only betaine aldehyde but also other aldehydes.29 So BBADH1 may have other functions or catalyze oxidation of other aldehydes.

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