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For contribution to the growth and advancement of emerging fundamental science and technology, the first Toyota Conference was organized in 1987 in celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Toyota Motor Corporation. Since then, this converence has been held every year, dealing with a broad range of subjects in different fields. In this conference, dozens of Japanese and foreign experts spend four days and three nights living together, discussing a common theme. Participants have consistently praised this format, which encourages deeply involved discussions and fresh insights. Each Toyota Conference is planned and executed independently by a third-party organizing committee under the sponsorship of Toyota Motor Corporation, and its secretariat is placed in Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.

One essential idea for the 21st century is "sustainable development." I believe that agriculture has a vital role for this development. Many people are optimistic about plants' ability to cleanse and protect the environment; for example, to help prevent global warming by fixing carbon monoxide with photosynthesis. Furthermore, experts forecast the global population topping 10 billion by the middle of the next century. If all these people are to enjoy meaningful lives, we must find environmentally friendly ways to produce sufficient supplies of safe foods. In other words, the world must adopt the principles and practices of sustainable agriculture. In view of this issue, the theme chosen for the 12 th Toyota Conference was the "Challenge of Plant and Agricultural Sciences to the Crisis of Biosphere on the Earth in the 21st Century." I understand that 56 researchers from 16 countries have considered this theme, conducting lively discussions not only covering scientific subjects like biotechnology but also addressing social and economic issues.

Today marks the release of the Toyota Conference record as part of the Environmental Intelligence Unit series published by Landes Bioscience. On this occasion, I would like to thank and congratulate all those who submitted papers, as well as those who helped edit the transcript of the conference proceedings. At the same time, I sincerely hope the proceedings of the 12 th Toyota Conference will spur biological and scientific researchers around the world to take on this difficult challenge, while fostering greater cross-pollination efforts with other fields of study. And I also hope that these proceedings help mankind motivate to overcome the crises facing the earth's biosphere in the 21st century.

May 1999 Tatsuro Toyoda Chief Executive Officer Toyota Central R&D Labs, Inc.

: Organizing Committee of the 12th Toyota Conference

Chairperson: Professor Atsushi Komamine

Research Institute of Evolutionary Biology 2-4-28, Kamiyoga, Stegaya, Tokyo 158-0098, Japan

Vice

Chairperson:

Members:

Professor Tatsuhito Fujimura

Institute of Agriculture and Forestry

University of Tsukuba

1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba. 305-8571, Japan

Professor Hiroshi Ikehashi

Department of Agronomy, Graduate School of Agriculture Kyoto University

Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan

Mr. Shigekazu Kitani Toyota Motor Corporation 1 Toyota-cho, Toyota 471-8572, Japan

Professor Satoshi Matsumoto

Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agriculture

The University of Tokyo

1-1-1- Yayoi. Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan

Professor Hirofumi Uchimiya

Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences

The University of Tokyo

1-1-1- Yayoi. Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan Professor Kazuo N. Watanabe

Faculty of Biology-Oriented Science and Technology Kinki University

Uchita-cho, Naga-gun, Wakayama 649-6433, Japan Dr. Yukio Yamada

Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc. Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192, Japan

Auditor: Dr. Atsushi Danno

Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc. Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192, Japan

Secretary General:

Ms. Sakoto Tanabe

Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc. Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192, Japan

Toyota Conferences Sponsored by Toyota Motor Corporation

The 1st TOYOTA Conference Molecular Conformation and Dynamics of Macromolecules in Condensed Systems September 28-October 1, 1987 Aichi, Japan organized by M. Nagasawa

The 2nd TOYOTA Conference Organization of Engineering Knowledge for Product Modelling in Computer Integrated

Manufacturing October 2-5, 1988

Aichi, Japan organized by T. Sata

The 3rd TOYOTA Conference Integrated Micro Motion Systems—Micromachining, Control and Applications October 22-25, 1989 Aichi, Japan organized by F. Harashima

The 4th TOYOTA Conference Automation in Biotechnology October 21-24, 1990

Aichi, Japan organized by I. Karube

The 5th TOYOTA Conference Nonlinear Optical Materials October 6-9. 1991 Aichi, Japan organized by S. Miyata

The 6th TOYOTA Conference Turbulence and Molecular Processes in Combustion October 11-14, 1992 Shizuoka, Japan organized by T. Takeno

The 7th TOYOTA Conference Towards the Harnessing of Chaos October 31-November 3, 1993 Shizuoka, Japan organized by M. Yamaguti

The 8th TOYOTA Conference Toward Global Planning of Sustainable Use of the Earth—Development of Global

Eco-Engineering November 8-11, 1994

Shizuoka, Japan organized by S. Murai

The 9th TOYOTA Conference Brain and Mind—for Better Understanding of the Dynamic Function of Mind and Its Supporting Brain Mechanism December 5-8, 1995

Shizuoka, Japan organized by M. Ito

The 10th TOYOTA Conference

Atomic, Molecular and Electronic Dynamic Processes on Solid Surfaces November 5-8, 1996

Shizuoka, Japan organized by M. Aono

The 11th TOYOTA Conference Nanostructured Materials in Biological and Artificial Systems November 5-8, 1997 Shizuoka, Japan organized by A. Yamagishi

The 12th TOYOTA Conference Challenge of Plant and Agricultural Sciences to the Crisis of Biosphere on the Earth in the 21st Century November 25-28, 1998 Shizuoka, Japan organized by A. Komamine

The 13th TOYOTA Conference Affective Minds

November 29-December 2, 1999 Shizuoka, Japan organized by G. Hatano

Acknowledgements

We take this opportunity to thank all participants in the Conference and the following members of the Organizing Committee of the Conference for their helpful cooperation.

Professor Tatsuhito Fujimura University of Tsukuba, Vice Chairperson

Professor Hiroshi Ikehashi Kyoto University

Mr. Shigekazu Kitani Toyota Motor Coporation

Professor Satoshi Matsumoto The University of Tokyo

Professor Hirofumi Uchimiya The University of Tokyo

Dr. Yukio Yamada

Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.

Dr. Atsushi Danno

Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.

We express our sincere thanks to Toyota Motor Corporation for sponsoring this Conference and to Ms. Satoko Tanabe, Secretary General, Mr. Kazufumi Morimoto and other members of Secretariat of Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc. for their excellent organization of this fruitful conference and the Proceedings.

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