Favorable and Marginal Agricultural Areas

The introduction of monocultures with large external inputs and standardized high yielding varieties of a few major crops has intensified the division between land favorable to agriculture and lands which are only marginally adapted for agriculture. This division has made the battle against genetic erosion a two-front one. Favorable agricultural areas have accounted for most of the food production increases. They are well suited to large scale agricultural enterprises, fertile soils and level...

Adjust Planting Structure in Accordance with the Need of Grain Ration and Feed Grains

From the overall situation of planting development, particular attention should be paid to feed production, including feed grain crops and feed crops, while making overall plans on the allocation of food grain, grains for seed industry and for industrial use and various cash crops. The emphasis should be on the harmonious development of a three-component crop structure cereal crops, cash crops (including crops like melons and vegetables ) and feed crops. This means that a part of the feed grain...

AG Heyer Introduction

Looking at plants as factories for the production of food and industrial raw materials, one sees three aspects of prime importance. The first is the overall biomass production second is the proportion of biomass that is accessible to human consumption, which is given by the so-called harvest index the third is the quality of the harvestable material. Plant biotechnology offers a wide array of possibilities for modifying the physiology and metabolism of crop plants, and it will be a key question...

ATPDependent RNA Helicase

We cloned and characterized a salt-responsive transcript, HVD1 (Hordeum vulgare DEAD box protein) (Fig. 21.2), encoding a putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase belonging to a group known as the DEAD box family.14 The DEAD box family was defined first by Linder et al14 and shares several highly conserved motifs among the different organisms ranging from E. coli to human . Most of the members of the DEAD box family have determined or putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase Fig. 21.1. Alignment of...

Basic Principles

There is substantial agreement among economists about the basic principles of priority setting for research. In essence, the main economic idea is that priority setting should move a research system towards allocative efficiency. The notion of allocative efficiency is that resources should be allocated across research problem areas (RPAs) so that the expected net benefits of research are maximized. A necessary condition of allocative efficiency is that an additional dollar of funding will have...

Case Study

Our case study is based on work in the Jornada Basin of south-central New Mexico. The Jornada Basin is part of the Mexican Highlands Section of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province within the extreme northern portion of the Chihuahuan Desert. The Jornada Basin was once dominated by warm season perennial grasses (e.g., Bouteloua eriopoda), but much of the area is now dominated by shrubs (e.g., Fig. 6.3. Relationship between the coefficient of variation in precipitation and the coefficient...

Coffee1213

Growth of Coffea arabusta plants cultured in vitro as affected by sucrose concentration, type of supporting materials and vessel ventilation rate per plantlet was investigated at PPF (photosynthetic photon flux) of 100-200 mol m-2 s-1. Single nodal cuttings of in vitro coffee plants were cultured on medium without sugar and with 20 g l-1 sucrose. Two types of supporting materials, agar and Florialite (porous solid cubes consisting of a mixture of vermiculite and cellulose fibers, Nisshinbo Ind....

Development of Molecular Markers in the Breeding for Tolerance

Of environmental stresses in rice production, tolerance to excess of soluble iron is known to show a clear genetic difference. The severest abiotic stress in the lowlands is iron toxicity in west Africa's lateritic soils. It has been shown that genetic tolerance to iron toxicity can contribute significantly to rice production in toxic soils. 6 We started a program to search for genetic markers for this tolerance. Initially, the testing method had to be improved. An improved screening method was...

Database Development and Information Management

The MAFF genebank database is now available on the internet and can be read in either Japanese or English (http www. gene.affrc.go.jp). This database is comprehensive and includes both information on germplasm as well as germplasm management data such as seed viability. To add a new dimension to the genetic resources database, an illustrated database has recently been developed to enable scientists and students to learn more about germplasm. The first phase of this database has been devoted to...

Embryo Sorting

Somatic embryo development is not synchronized. Embryos produced on development medium vary in shape, size and morphology. Separating the high quality (zygotic-like) embryos from non-embryo tissue and embryos of lower quality by hand is very labor-intensive, and automation is essential to render these steps economically feasible. Machine vision and image analysis systems are being developed currently to automatically count, sort, size and grade somatic embryos of several herbaceous plants such...

Evaluation and Characterization

NPGRRP makes a clear distinction between the processes of characterization and evaluation of the genetic resources material holding at the gene banks (seed and field gene banks). The characterization activities are coordinated by NPGRRP and carried out within the framework of NPGRRP. The evaluation programs are conducted in cooperation with the National Plant Breeding Programs. The data resulting from evaluation carried out by users of the samples are returned if the evaluation and or...

Discussion

The present studies indicate that cell death can be delayed by salt stress. Where the functional properties of aerenchyma (i.e., aeration) are concerned, this could be an important issue, since some rice plants are confronted both by salt and waterlogged conditions in the field. In mature rice plants, reduced aeration would lead to physiological distress. Responses to salinity stress are often expressed as anatomical and cellular changes.39 In the present work, compared to control roots the...

Functional Genomics

In a first set of attempts to visualize the levels of gene expression in individual tissues, micro-array hybridization technologies have been developed. Here, a library of clones representing as many as possible of the expressed sequences of a genome is distributed by a robot as individual microspots on 1 x 1 cm filters, called microchips. In the case of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) genome, such filters contain approximately 6,000 spots. For larger genomes, 10 to 100-fold more clones...

Tsujii Introduction

The world grain stock use ratios (ratio of stock volume against use volume) which are the criteria for global availability of grain have shown a tendency to fall since 1987. According to USDA data, except for 1997 98 the world average stock use ratio for all grain has been below 17 since 1994 95 FAO considers this a dangerously low level. The ratio is at around the lowest level since the war, and is about the same as the level during the food crisis year of 1974. The stock use ratios for rice...

Genetic Engineering

By recent progress in genetic engineering, it would be possible to introduce expected traits for a comparatively short period of time. Genetic engineering is expected to be useful in woody plant breeding. Dr. Ebinuma has reported a new transformation system using oncogenes of Agrobacterium as a selectable marker. And, Professor Morohoshi has presented the possibility of transgenic plants having lower lig-nin content. Moreover, the possibility of acid soil-tolerant trees was also mentioned in...

Ex Situ Conservation

Ex situ conservation activities have been undertaken since 1964. They are still in progress within the framework of NPGRRP. Collection by sampling maximum variations and determination of the interspecific, agroecological and phytogeographical distribution of plant species are the first steps of the project. Data of former surveys and expeditions are compiled, and priorities of locations and plant species are considered to eliminate duplicate efforts, during planning of the collection missions....

Favorable Agricultural Production Area Systems

To support favorable agricultural areas, germplasm is stored in ex situ genebanks where diversity can be conserved under controlled conditions and protected from the stresses and pressures encountered in their native habitats. The germplasm stored in genebanks also provides the raw material for breeders to use in developing crop varieties with traits selected for their adaptive value to specific biotic and abiotic conditions and market needs. There are more than 1300 genebanks worldwide, with...

Eucalyptus811

Eucalyptus camaldulensisshoots (2.2 cm long) were cultured in vitro photoautotrophi-cally in Magenta type culture vessels (air volume 370 ml) containing different types of supporting materials (agar, Gelrite, plastic net or vermiculite) for six weeks under CO2 non-enrichment (400 mol mol-1 in the culture room) or CO2 enriched (1200 mol mol-1 in the culture room) conditions. The gas permeable filter discs (Milli Seal, Millipore Seal, Millipore Japan, Tokyo) were attached to side walls of the...

Glutelin and Rice Quality

Rice seeds contain about 8 storage proteins by weight the content has been reported to be negatively correlated with the quality of rice for sake brewing and cook-ing.9,10 During brewing, proteins are decomposed to peptides and amino acids, some of which are assimilated by yeast and give sake its full, heavy taste. But the excess often gives sake a rough taste and accelerates the deterioration of its quality.11 Glutelin, which accounts for 80 of the rice storage proteins, is localized in...

In Situ Conservation Research and Collaboration

Recent global attention on the topic of in situ conservation has resulted in various efforts to protect germplasm in its natural habitat. Red data books devoted to various species and habitats in Japan have been prepared (e.g., Japan Society of Plant Taxono-mists,12 NACS-Japan and WWF-Japan13). The topic of in situ conservation is at present in the inventory phase, and measures to actually conserve germplasm in situ are beyond the ability of the genebank manager since these involve social and...

Introduction

The world demand for wood products is expected to rise sharply over the coming decade, and shortage has been forecast by the 21st century. To meet this burgeoning demand, the forest productivity of our limited lands will have to be increased. There is an urgent need for mass production of improved quality planting stock for reforestation. The conventional methods of tree improvement and selection offer only a limited possibility of meeting this demand. Over the past few years, biotechnological...

Manipulation of Reducing Power

In this previous discussion of pathways to stress tolerance we have chiefly placed emphasis on the type of protein or product that is induced. In the following, we discuss experiments indicating that the process and not so much the product may equally be important for protection. This experiment tested the long held concept that the function of accumulating metabolites is mainly or exclusively osmotic. The concept was tested in yeast, in which salinity stress leads to a dramatic increase of the...

M

Garcinia mangostanaplants on day 30.14,16 SO sugar-free medium, S30 sugar containing (30 g l-1 sucrose) medium GR and NoGR Presence and absence of growth regulator in the medium, respectively Control sugar and growth regulator containing medium. uniform distributions of CO2 concentration and relative humidity as well as those of air current speeds, and thus uniform plant growth. Their aims have been achieved successfully. Applications of those systems for eucalyptus and coffee plants...

KV Raman and KN Watanabe

Plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA) is broadly defined to include resources which contribute to people's livelihoods by providing food, medicine, feed for domestic animals, fiber, clothing, shelter and energy, etc.1 The use of plant genetic resources to enhance crop productivity and sustainability is considered a high priority subject today. In this article we discuss 1. The contribution and value of PGRFA in modern varieties, including its role in integrated pest...

Potato Late Blight as a Case Study

The Irish potato famine began in 1845 when the potato late blight disease decimated crops there. One hundred and fifty years later, in 1995, the famine was commemorated by many events in Ireland and elsewhere. It seems ironic that after a general subsidence of the disease, due to increasingly effective integrated pest management programs, the disease is once again causing concern in potato growing regions around the world. The first appearance had terrible consequences for Ireland and birthed...

Preservation

Preserving the original genetic constitution of germplasm is very difficult because regeneration of germplasm can shift the population genetic structure, and different genotypes and species require particular preservation conditions. Detailed research is required to find the optimum storage conditions for species with non-orthodox storage behavior. Considerable advances have been made in recent years in applying new technologies to store such species. Among these technologies, cryoperservation...

Proteomics

Functional genomics is not just restricted to mRNA identification and dosage. Progress in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis makes it possible to prepare an inventory, or fingerprint, of the protein composition of individual tissues. Often, the amount of protein detected is high enough to obtain amino acid sequences from some of the peptides of these proteins and in this way it is possible to identify the enzyme or protein present in such a gel spot. The new classes of tabletop mass...

References

World irrigation (VIII) Salinization and water management in arid regions with emphasis on Kazakhstan. Rural and Environmental Engineering 1998 34 5-24. 2. Wang S, Kitamura Y, Yano T. Salt accumulation and reclamation of soils in Kzyl-Orda, Kazakstan, Proc. International Symposium on Arid Region Soil. Izmir-Turkey, Sept. 21-25, 1998 120-125. 3. Hoffman GJ. Guidelines for reclamation of salt-affected soils. Appl Agr Res 1986 1 65-72. 4. Keren R, Shainberg I....

Post Harvest Management

It is estimated that food grain losses in the country are at about 10 in the case of cereals, pulses and oil seeds and up to 40 in the case of fruits and vegetables. In order to ensure Indian agriculture to be globally competitive, processing, product development, value addition, packaging, storage and marketing are considered of paramount importance. We believe that post-harvest technologies have to be an essential element of our overall strategy of enhancing productivity , production and net...

Safety Assessment Under Greenhouse Conditions

H39 and H75 were grown for safety evaluation experiments in a contained greenhouse (Stage I) and in a semi-contained greenhouse (Stage II). These experiments were conducted according to the guidelines established by the Science and Technology Agency of Japan. No significant differences were observed between transformants and wild type plants for reproductive traits, although there were slight differences in plant shape, possibly due to somaclonal variation. No specific peak was observed in gas...

Setting Priorities for Agricultural Research Theory and Experience

The close of the 20th century has brought new and daunting challenges to the agricultural and biological sciences. Confronted with population growth and the continual emergence of new diseases, pests, and environmental problems, researchers face pressure to develop improved technologies at an ever-increasing rate. Agricultural researchers are charged with the responsibility of producing more food and fiber, lowering the costs of production, and protecting the natural environment. They are urged...

S Kitani N Higuchi and I Yasutani Introduction

Recently, environmental problems have been increasing especially, the destruction of tropical forests is one of the most serious problems in the world. Tropical and subtropical forests are estimated to comprise twenty billion hectares (ha). However, it is reported that 10 of it has already been destroyed. In addition, seventeen million ha of the forest has been deforested or destroyed per year. Under these conditions, we must stop the decrease of tropical forests and try to reforest, but the...

Technical and Scientific Base

To make a lasting impact in eradicating poverty and hunger, current and future systems must operate from technological and scientific bases which seek to preserve genetic diversity and not simply exploit it. Technological means must be sought for improving the safe conservation of genetic diversity in crop plants in both ex situ genebanks and in in situ contexts. Importance must also be given to the technological aspects of the deployment and use of genetic diversity in both marginal and...

The Genome Research

The remarkable progress in automated DNA sequencing, and the medical and industrial interest in the human genome, have stimulated a variety of genome studies, including the systematic sequencing of some plant genomes. Again, the results obtained with the model plant Arabidopsis are very encouraging. Several industrial concerns are even rumored to have completely sequenced the genomic clone banks, which probably represent the entire Arabidopsis genome. A concerted effort among several European,...

Taking Advantage of Research Spillovers

In many cases, agricultural researchers can benefit from spilloversoriginating in research conducted in other crops, other countries, or other areas of science. Biotechnology offers some immediate examples. The pace of biotechnology research has been rapid over the past decade, and repeated breakthroughs have taken place in techniques, tools, and scientific understandings. Although agricultural scientists have been at the forefront of some advances, it is not clear that agriculture can or...

Supply Factors

Long term supply factors that regulate grain production are natural resources such as land, water and irrigation, and agricultural technology. The constraints on land are becoming severer. The annual growth rates of global cultivated areas for grain have been falling the last three decades, according to the FAO data. The growth rate was 0.33 for the sixties, 0.28 for the seventies and 0.18 in the eighties. The world total arable area has increased from 1.27 billion hectares in 1961 to a peak of...

Transformation Efficiency and Quality of Transformants

Transformation efficiency is sometimes crucial for the success of research, because a great number of transformed plants, even for one gene construct, need to be created to obtain transformants that incorporate a single, highly expressing transgene and show little somaclonal variation. There is wide variation between transformants in expression level of a gene, due probably to the state of gene integration in the plant genome. Different promoters combined with a single gene may change the...

Sustainability

Natural, semi-natural, and intensively managed dryland ecosystems of the world offer a wide range of different goods and services vital to human populations. The list is extensive and includes food production (humans and livestock), construction materials, climate regulation, soil maintenance, nutrient recycling, wildlife habitat, erosion control, tourism recreation, and aesthetic enjoyment.7 When weighing the advantages and disadvantages of some particular course of action that affects these...

Utilization of Pgrfa Including Genetic Vulnerability and Genetic Erosion

Not all genetic resources seem to have the same immediate utility. Public and private breeders use germplasm mostly from adapted and productive commercial varieties. A survey conducted by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) indicated that only 6.5 of germplasm used by breeders came directly from an exotic source. Of this small portion, two-thirds were sourced from landraces conserved ex situ in genebanks. One-third was sourced from germplasm found in situ, with a...

New Plant Type

Yield gains of 25 is envisaged by improving plant type on another front. Promising new lines with big panicles and a few thick stems are being developed at IRRI.6 So far the performance of the new types are not yet widely available. This approach reminds us of the project for 'super high-yielding rice' in the 1980s in Japan. A series of high-yielding lines were actually produced through this project. Table 5.1. Loci for hybrid sterility C S-5, Amp-3 Est-2, Pgi-2, RG213, alk Revised from Wan and...

Biosynthetic Pathways for Secondary Metabolites

The importance of secondary metabolites of plants is still very much underestimated. Organic chemists have often expressed an interest in these natural compounds, but mainly as a means to sharpen their capacity for structure determination, the reward being the elucidation of an as yet not described structural skeleton. Because an important fraction of our pharmaceuticals are still derived from plant origins, it was also often rewarding to chemically synthesize these compounds, particularly when...

Forestry Research

Despite their high economic and environmental values, molecular geneticists have, until recently, largely neglected trees as a research area. This is understandable, since genetic analysis of organisms with such long reproductive cycles is frustratingly slow. Nonetheless, many biochemical reactions that are important for primary and secondary cell wall formation, and thus are determinants of wood quality, should attract the attention of molecular biologists. Indeed, certain fast growing trees,...

Evolving Issues Related to the Management of Crop Genetic Resources

Many difficult and some contentious plant genetic issues are being discussed both at national and international levels, and these need to be resolved. Some of these issues are 1. What is the scope of crop genetic resources 2. How can access to crop genetic resources be guaranteed 3. What is the appropriate response to the issues of farmers' rights and benefit sharing 4. To what extent do intellectual property rights exist for crop genetic resources and information on this germplasm 5. What are...

Global Challenges for Realizing Equitable Sustainable Harvests

The realization of an agricultural harvest which is both 1. Sustainable in terms of protection of the environment and renewability of resources and 2. Equitable in terms of costs and benefits to producers and consumers, The urgency of this challenge is evident in the increasing burden of a burgeoning population to feed, a deteriorating resource base to protect and standards of living to be improved. Solutions to these problems lie with the extant agricultural systems which dominate the human...

Diversity Management in Production Fields

Researchers are seeking to address areas of natural resources management in which the genetic diversity aspect is highlighted, working on the premise that the ultimate use of genetic resources occurs when they are deployed or managed in ecosystems over space and time. Sustainable agroecosystem management strategies include 1. Intraspecific diversity (genetic vulnerability, farmers' fields favoring coadaptation dynamics, populations mixtures, multilines, genetic base of cultivars or pedigree...

Its Start and Impacts

After World War II most of the Asian countries attained independence from colonialism. At the same time, the limit for extension of farming was evident, due to population increase, particularly in Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. In the pre-green revolution years, there were some experiences in varietal improvement in many countries in Asia. There was a strong motivation for intensive agriculture following the model of the countries in the Far East, where land reform was successful and...

Metabolite Profiling

It is now becoming possible to measure the fluctuations of key metabolites in some tissues. Characterization of the metabolic profiles of plants will help us to identify the biochemical perturbations underlying altered gene expression, which may not be straightforward in the absence of a clear phenotype. For a wide variety of solutes, the further development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) has enormous potential in this direction because of its high peak capacities, resolution and sensitivity...

Noriyuki Morohoshi Abstract

We have tried to form a super-tree by new biotechnological and genetic engineering techniques. The first object of our research is to form a tree with less lignin content,by controlling the lignin biosynthesis genes using antisense RNA. We have succeeded in isolating and sequencing the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), O-methyltransferase (OMT) and peroxidase (PO) genes from hybrid aspen (Populus kitakamiensis), and also isolating the promoter regions of these genes. These results show that...

New Problems Which Were Outside of Targets of the Green Revolution

As mentioned above, the technological plateau of yield has been attained, with an emphasis on grain quality. Budget cuts have been serious for cereal production and related research. Concerns for ecological stability of agriculture and rice cultivation have been raised in light of a new concept for evaluating agricultural systems, the issue of Low Input Sustainable Agriculture (LISA). The emission of methane and 'green house effects', as well as salt accumulation in arid regions, are indicated...

Outline of the Study Area

A collective farm (kolkhoz) located in the Kzyl Orda region was selected as a study area. The region is in a typical arid continental temperate zone, characterized by a high solar radiation of 0.16 to 0.19 kW m2, a mean annual temperature of 9 C and annual precipitation of less than 150 mm. Though the farm has a gross area of 19,000 ha, only 1,900 ha or 10 has been reclaimed for agricultural purposes. Out of the 1,900 ha of reclaimed land which have been cultivated for farming, an area of 600...

Policy Framework

Developments in international, regional, and national law and policy over the past five years have significantly changed the policy environment relating to the management and control of genetic resources. And the situation continues to evolve rapidly. National policy makers with an interest in plant genetic resources and agrobiodiversity are currently faced with a combination of multiple and often conflicting national interests and a bewildering array of international interests and obligations...

Safety Assessment in Isolated Fields

After approval from the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, H39 and H75 were grown in an isolated field (Stage III). The experiments were conducted according to guidelines established by the Ministry. Although there were slight differences in the shape of a part of H39, there were no differences between the transgenic and wild type plants in outcross-ing frequency, ability to become weeds, or influence on the environment. Results from these three stages of safety assessment...

Socio Economic Aspects

In the post-green revolution era, a new series of socioeconomic problems have emerged with self-sufficiency of rice . The new trend of industrialization caused domestic competition for land use, labor, etc. Fragile infrastructures for grain storage, transportation and sales became clear in rural industries. There has been criticism from the point of social equity to the outcomes of the green revolution. There are also clashes between subsistence farming versus profit-seeking international...

Agriculture in the Semi Arid Tropics

The semi-arid tropics stretch over 48 counties on four continents, covering around 2,000 million hectares. It is inhabited by 700 million people. The soil types in the region are usually low in organic matter, N and P. The mean annual temperature is above 18oC and precipitation exceeds potential evapotranspiration for only 2 to 7 months (Fig. 8.1), with moisture balance being kept at a deficit for the rest of the year.4 Annual precipitation ranges from 400 to 1000 mm with erratic distribution,...

Acknowledgments

I thank BMZ (Germany), the Rockefeller Foundation (USA), and several collaborators who provided us with the gene constructs. A special mention is due to Novartis for providing us with the phosphomannose isomerase Fig. 22.3. Selection system using phsophomannose isomerase gene and mannose as a selectable agent. Fig. 22.3. Selection system using phsophomannose isomerase gene and mannose as a selectable agent. gene and to Bill Hardy for valuable comments on the manuscript. I sincerely thank my...

Conclusion

In order to make a lower lignin content tree, the aspen, we tried to isolate the peroxi-dase gene involved in lignin biosynthesis from the hybrid aspen. prxA3a was isolated and the DNA sequence and promoter of it were analyzed. As the promoter of prxA3a expressed in the stem specifically, it was assumed that prxA3a is involved in lignin biosynthesis. By using the antisense RNA method, some transformed aspens inhibitied in peroxidase activity and lignification were formed. These transformants...

Construction of cDNA Libraries in Acacia mangium

By comparison of N-terminal amino acid sequence, the sequence of this protein was similar to ferritin protein derived from some legumes (Fig. 27.2). Based on this result, we estimated that this 28 kDa acid responsive protein might be the ferritin protein of Acacia mangium and cloning of the cDNA of this protein was performed. We tried the amplification of a fragment DNA from it by PCR. As a result, there were two kinds of DNA fragments. Both the sequences of these two DNA fragments were similar...

Cryopreservation

Cryopreservation is at present considered essential for the large scale commercial use of somatic embryogenesis technology for clonal forestry, because it permits genetic material to be saved at low cost until its genetic value can be measured in field tests (see implementation section below). We and others have found that almost 100 of embryogenic culture lines, frozen under controlled conditions and stored in liquid nitrogen, can be recovered after 5 years.6 Trees produced from them are...

Crop Genetic Resources

Crop genetic resources can be described as germplasm which represents past building blocks of present day crops, and germplasm which can furnish the genetic material for future new crop varieties. In this biotechno-logical age the second category, genetic material for future new crop varieties, can encompass all germplasm, plant, animal and microorganism, since gene transfer across kingdoms, and even the introduction of manmade genes, is now a reality. Crop genetic resources can be categorized...

Field Performance

Somatic seedlings have now been growing for four years on a typical forest regeneration site in Washington State for clonal demonstration purposes. Strikingly uniform growth is apparent for somatic seedlings within a clone (Figure 29.2) compared with the less uniform zygotic seedlings (Figure 29.3). Somatic seedlings from ESM of 20-25 year old trees of Pinus radiata5 and Picea abies4 have also been grown in the field. Morphology of these somatic seedlings, too, was reported to be similar to...

Existing Systems for Conserving Improving and Using PGR

In both favorable and marginal agricultural areas, we have seen that sustainable agriculture is under threat from genetic erosion. The causes of these losses are traced in large measure to human intervention and can only be corrected by reverse intervention. Where genepools are narrowed, some food crops forgotten and crop varieties lost, actions can be taken to monitor and measure agro-biodiversity, conserve it and promote its sustainable use. Both favorable and marginal agricultural areas have...

Uchimiya

A number of abnormal environment parameters such as drought, salinity, cold, freezing, high temperature, anoxia, high light intensity and nutrient imbalances etc. are collectively termed as abiotic stresses. Abiotic stresses lead to dehydration or osmotic stress through reduced availability of water for vital cellular functions and maintenance of turgor pressure. Plants have evolved mechanisms to respond to various abiotic stresses at morphological, anatomical, cellular and molecular levels....

Genepool and Genomics

Recent progress in genomics study has been impressive, offering us much better knowledge of gene structure and function in a genome. This provides a strong scientific base for crop improvement efforts. Crop genepools have adapted to and sustained the demands of agricultural systems for thousands of years.18 A genepool represents a dynamic system of genetic diversity in the form of the allelic diversity of species or groups of species structured over space and time. It is often used as a unit of...

Human Resources Development

A key role of genebank managers is to foster human development. MAFF has various training programs to help upgrade the ability of its genetic resources staff in various fields, including statistics and data management. In addition, MAFF scientists have been involved in training foreign scientists both in Japan and overseas in various aspects of crop germplasm conservation and research. One major training course held at NIAR in conjunction with JICA is the Plant Genetic Resources Training...

Land Degradation and Desertification

Arid and semi-arid drylands compose one third of the land surface of the world and are home to about 20 of the human population.1 The vast majority of these drylands consist of rangelands ( 88 ), whereas the rest are classified as rainfed (3 ) and irrigated croplands (9 ) (Table 6.1). The rapid growth of populations in many of these regions, often in conjunction with imprudent land management, has led to increased social vulnerability and to rapid land degradation. Soils in drylands are...

Molecular Tools for Capturing the Value of the Tropical Rain Forest

The ongoing destruction of tropical rain for ests, estimated now to be proceeding at a rate of 154,000 km2 per year, poses serious concerns not only for ecologists, but also for all responsible inhabitants of this planet. The rain forest harbors the highest diversity in plants, insects and microorganisms of all habitats. The irreversible loss of this biodiversity represents a tremendous setback for both the classical biologists as well as for molecular geneticists and biotechnologists. How can...

Nitrate Contamination

During the last few decades agricultural productivity has increased enough to keep pace with the rapid increase in global population. This dramatic increase in productivity is largely due to improvements in crop varieties and associated increases in the use of fertilizers and pesticides, technical innovations sometimes collectively referred to as the Green revolution. The benefits of these innovations are apparent and relatively easy to document. What is not so apparent are the costs, both to...

Long vs Short Term Impacts

Drylands are particularly vulnerable to climate variability, of which precipitation is the most important component. For example, a slight shift in seasonal precipitation and or frequency of extreme rain events could potentially lead to overexploitation of the meager resources of drylands and contribute to further degradation of the very resource base on which human populations are so dependent. Preliminary studies with general circulation models (GCMs) projected that a doubling of atmospheric...

Physiological Implications

Figure 16.6 shows the A Ci curve for ordinary C3 plants, calculated by the equations of Farquhar and von Caemmerer10 from the reported kinetic values for plant RuBisCO. The CO2 compensation point is 50 ppm intercellular CO2, and the CO2 fixation shifts from the RuBisCO-limiting phase to the RuBP-regeneration-limiting phase at 170 ppm CO2. If Galdieria RuBisCO is substituted for plant RuBisCO, the realizable transgenic plants will have the CO2 compensation point at 16 ppm CO2. The phase...

Reclamation of Alkali Soils Concept and Principles

Reclamation of alkali soils usually involves a two step process. The first step is replacing exchangeable sodium ions with calcium ions. This calcium may originate from the dissolution of Ca-containing minerals in the soil, such amendments as gypsum and calcium chloride, or irrigation water with calcium ions. A second step involves leaching the resulting sodium salt from the soil. A significant factor in reclaiming alkali soils is the maintenance of hydraulic conductivity by providing a...

Processes

The most widespread desulfurization process in the developed countries is the wet lime slurry method, whose byproduct is mostly pure gypsum. In the developing countries, on the other hand, a semi-dry process tends to be adopted, owing to its low construction and running costs. However, the byproducts from a semi-dry process contain Ca(OH)2 (calcium hydroxide), CaCO3 (calcium carbonate) and fly ash, as well as gypsum. Among several Table 10.2. Salt composition of soil profile of Haplic Solonchak...

Results

Effects of Submergence on Rice Seedlings When 4 day old rice seedlings were entirely submerged in water, a substantial reduction in the rate of root growth, with shrinking and curling, became apparent within 24 h. Prolonged exposure to submergence (72 h) suppressed the growth of roots and shoots, but stimulated elongation of coleoptiles. The adenylate kinase activity in shoots of submerged plants was elevated at 72 h compared to that in unsubmerged control plants. The concentration of soluble...

Section I

Introduction to the Challenge Guide for the A. Komamine, T. Fujimura and K. N. Watanabe Introduction Prospects of Supply and Demand for Food Research Strategies for the Coming 1. Food Shortage in the 21st Century and Its Implications for Agricultural Factors Determining Food Shortage in the Early 21st Century 7 2. Prospects for Grain Demand and Supply in the 21st Century 29 Food Demand Grain Supply Countermeasures Toward Making up the Balance Between Grain Supply and 3. Agricultural Science In...

Tropical Diversity Studies

Sustainable exploitation and efficient management of a tropical rain forest requires a thorough insight into the structure and dynamics of this ecosystem. The stability of an ecosystem is largely determined by the intraspecific genetic diversity of the different interacting species, because this diversity holds a reservoir of potential adaptations to changing environmental conditions. Although the measurement of visual traits reveals the existence of genetic variation, it does not give a good...

Komamine T Fujimura and K N Watanabe

The most serious problem which we, as human beings, will face in the early 21st century is whether or not we can overcome the crisis in the biosphere that will occur on this planet. There are two reasons why we should anticipate a crisis in the biosphere. One is that we may be unable to achieve a sufficient level of agricultural production to support an explosively increasing population. If so, there will be rampant famines. The other is that all life on this small planet will be jeopardized by...

Altering Carbohydrate Composition Fructan

A goal oriented to improving food quality is the production of fructans in transgenic plants. Fructans are regarded as prebiotic because of antitumoral effects that seem to be associated with their stimulative effects on Bifidobacteria in the human intestine. This stimulation causes an increased propionate and butyrate fermentation and lowers the concentration of tumor promoting substances like ammonia and p-glucuronidase. In a mutant mouse strain which spontaneously develops colon tumors...

Challenge of Sustainable Agriculture

To increase food production, three avenues are available 1. Extensification of agriculture 2. Intensification of agriculture and 3. Reduction of crop losses. Advances in the direction of extension of arable land, however, appear to have reached the limits of our present scientific and technological capabilities. In addition, there is growing competition for land for non-agricultural uses such as housing, industry and recreation. In poor countries with large agrarian sectors, population pressure...

Challenges of Agricultural Systems

Throughout the world, since the birth of agriculture, farmers, plant breeders, foresters and gardeners have used the genetic variation in plants to develop new types and varieties of crops and other useful plant species. They have developed an immense range of different plant genotypes adapted to widely varied environments. Since 1945, world crop yields have increased between 200 to 400 , depending on the crop. Today, more than ever before, the safe conservation and sustainable use of plant...

Foreword

For contribution to the growth and advancement of emerging fundamental science and technology, the first Toyota Conference was organized in 1987 in celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Toyota Motor Corporation. Since then, this converence has been held every year, dealing with a broad range of subjects in different fields. In this conference, dozens of Japanese and foreign experts spend four days and three nights living together, discussing a common theme. Participants have consistently...

Transport Processes

Attempts to modify sink strength revealed that the harvest index seems to be strongly dependent on transport processes. This hypothesis is confirmed by the following examples. Expressing an apoplastic invertase that increases the tuber size when expressed in potato tubers, in source but not in sink tissues, leads to a very strong reduction of biomass production, because the carbohydrates that are usually transported as sucrose cannot leave the source organs.6 The same is achieved by inhibiting...

Ikehashi

This session is organized as an interface between understanding of social or agricultural situations in the near future and evaluation of research strategies. Two papers from economists, two papers from leaders of national agricultural sciences and an additional one on genetic improvement of rice have been prepared for the discussion. An outlook for food supply and demand is delineated by Professor H. Tsujii, who predicts a substantial deficit of food in view of population growth and other...

Biodiversity A Key Weapon

The number of higher plant species is estimated to be between 300,000 and 500,000, only a half of which have been identified.3,4 Of these, about 30,000 are edible and an estimated 700 food species have been cultivated or managed by humans for food.5 Only three - rice, wheat and maize - account for almost 60 of the plant-derived calories consumed by humans.6 A diversified genetic base for these crops is essential for ensuring protection against disaster in the form of a common threat to which...

Associated Breeding Works with the Green Revolution

To stabilize the initial success, there were some immediate tasks in intensive farming, as well as new attempts to improve rice in marginal areas. First, breeding for resistance to diseases and insect pests was urgent, because the adoption of intensive rice farming, particularly of rice cultivation in the dry season, provoked an outbreak of pests and diseases which had been only minor problems in traditional systems. Breeding for resistance has been successful in wide areas, and by and large it...

Population Pressure

One of the major human activities is agriculture, providing sustenance for the majority of humankind for 10,000 years. The growing efficiency and productivity of agriculture is also responsible for the precipitous increase in human population in the last 500 years. While the rate of population growth is now expected to begin leveling off, most projections nonetheless estimate that there will be an additional three billion people to feed in the next 25 years. By far the major part of this growth...

Marginal Agricultural Production Systems

There are now substantial data and evidence that smallholder farmers in marginal areas maintain and select among their landraces, and that this can be considered traditional breeding or management of diversity11 as well as conservation of that diversity. In the crops they plant, they select for those criteria that allow for greatest resistance across several competing characteristics straw versus grain, hardiness rusticity versus yield, cultural preferences in flavor and appearance over total...

Socio Economic Aspects of Traditional Agricultural Systems in Asia

Stability of farming through each production cycle has been guaranteed in rice farming. But, this system has been a subsistence farming without a marginal surplus that could have been invested for other local industries. Feudalistic land systems used to abide with the farming system. Villages provide a pool of landless farm laborers and unemployed laborers from city areas. There has been always a kind of vicious cycle Without local industries people flow into cities to get employment for them,...

Programs and Policies

Our development policies at times are placed on conflicting objectives.The environmental problems and policies need coordinated appraisal, as they are inextricably enmeshed in their impacts, value orientation objectives and attainments, irrespective of geo-political barriers. The specific concern at this juncture should pinpoint critical conditions for success so that development becomes truly an ally for providing social justice. Obviously, there is no simple or single solution to the complex...

Integrated Pest Management

Excessive use of pesticides in some of the crops, viz., cotton has made pest management increasingly difficult because of new problems such as pest resurgence and pesticide resistance. Pollution of environment and pesticide residues at toxic levels in the food chain are other problems associated with the indiscriminate use of pesticides. It is increasingly evident that chemical pesticides alone can not provide the desired level of protection against some of the key pests. For instance,...

Eco Regional Planning

In the present scenario, ecoregional planning will have to aim at enhancing agricultural productivity and production on a sustainable basis to meet the ever growing needs of the farm family and livestock for food, feed, fodder, fuel, fiber etc. This would imply an upscaling of research activities within the eco-regions and dovetailing research and development priorities between and within the eco-regions. This would call for an effective collaborative mechanism, i.e., responsibility for a...

Clonal Field Tests

The implementation of somatic embryogenesis in forestry has already begun at Weyerhaeuser, and several other forestry -organizations worldwide have begun the establishment of clonal field tests and corresponding clone banks of cryogenically stored ESM (Figure 29.4). Performance of the individual genotypes in these tests will be carefully measured to identify outstanding genotypes as soon as possible. During this evaluation period (5+ years), continuing R& D is expected to bring the costs of...

Source Capacity

Focusing on limiting factors for biomass production, we encounter the question of possible limitations of primary energy fixation in the source organs of the plant. Certainly energy uptake by the absorption of light is not a limiting factor, as photosynthetic fixation already reaches a maximum at moderate photon flux densities. If abiotic factors like water availability or CO2 supply are not restrictive, regulatory features of carbohydrate metabolism could become limiting. During...

Pesticide Contamination

Many of the issues encountered in the nitrate case study discussed above also arise with pesticides. The major differences lie in the nature of the human health and environmental costs incurred and in the types of technical solutions needed to reduce these costs. Also, the uncertainties associated with pesticide transport processes, and with the human health and ecological effects of pesticides, are probably even greater than the comparable uncertainties about nitrate. By any measure used,...

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Drought Stress Rd29a

To resolve the problem of growth retardation, we used the stress inducible rd29A promoter to cause overexpression of DREB1A in transgenic plants (rd29A DREB1A plants).21 Because the rd29A promoter was stress inducible and contained binding sites for the DREB1A protein, it did not cause expression of the DREB1A transgene at high levels under unstressed conditions instead, it rapidly amplified expression of the DREB1A transgene only under dehydration, salt, and low temperature stress. The rd29A...

Atsushi Komamine Dr Sc

Research Institute of Evolutionary Biology Kamiyoga, Setagaya Tokyo, Japan Institute of Agriculture and Forestry International Rice Research Institute Introduction, Section V Introduction, International Plant Genetic Resources Eidgen ssische Technische Hochschule Section VII Introduction, Chapter 27 Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Section III Introduction, Chapter 10 Aegean Agricultural Research Institute National Agriculture Research Center

Identification of a Peroxidase Enzyme Involved in Lignification

There are many isozymes of peroxidase in plants therefore it is very important to identify the enzyme involved in lignification in order to inhibit lignin biosynthesis only. Crude enzyme fractions were extracted from one year old hybrid aspen samples prepared every month and analyzed by isoelectric focusing. It was found that the acidic peroxidase isozyme clearly expresses in July, August and September, when lignin is synthesized vigorously, and that the lignification occurs in regenerated...

Biodiversity Conservation Activities in Turkey

The plant genetic resources activities were started by the establishment of the Crop Research and Introduction Center (CRIC) in 1964 (a more recent name of the institute is the Aegean Agricultural Research Institute, AARI). The plant genetic resources activities reorganized in 1976 within the framework of the National Plant Genetic Resources Research Program (NPGRRP). The objective of NPGRRP is the exploration, collection, conservation (both ex situ and in situ) and evaluation of existing plant...

O Ito and M Kondo Introduction

According to the agroecological zone system proposed by FAO,1 the terms arid and semi-arid, representing dry-land, cover areas with less than 75 days length of growing period (LGP) and 75 to 180 days of LGP, respectively. Dryland occupies 30 of global land area. Two-thirds of dry land exists in Asia and Africa. About one-third of dry-land in Asia and Africa belongs to the semi-arid region, where various management options are still available to the farmers to increase crop productivity and...

Economic Approaches to Priority Setting

Priority setting thus involves balancing the competing pulls of problem-driven research (whose value is apparent in the short run) and frontier research that is driven by longer term ambition to shift the scientific frontier, regardless of immediate applications. In effect, this means integrating demand factors and supply factors in considering alternative investments in research. A set of difficult questions arises Which research areas have the biggest potential payoffs Which are most likely...

Rainfall Variability and Plant Production

Rainfall Botswana Analysis

Ranchers and farmers in arid and semiarid regions of the world have long recognized the importance of short term rainfall variability on farm and livestock production, and rainfall variability continues to be the principal source of fluctuations in global food production, particularly in developing countries. For example, communally-owned Mexican Table 6.2. Comparison of social, economic, and environmental sustainability. Social sustainability (-SS-). Social cohesion, cultural identity,...

Congruence Rules

Research planners often cling implicitly to ideas of congruence or parity in research funding, i.e., the notion that research resources should be allocated to different RPAs proportionately to the value of production. This is an idea particularly beloved by legislators, finance ministry officials, and non-scientists. A simple congruence rule might allocate research funds so that research expenditures per dollar of crop production were equalized across crops. There are many other possible...