As noted above, the institutional capacity to deal with global temperatures varies a great deal from country to country. For the most part, OECD countries have an adequate capacity not only to identify the problem, but also to design and implement policy responses to it. At the same time, most of the developing countries are sorely deficient in their institutional capacity. Similarly, institutional capacity is also sorely limited at the international level, especially if we should be able to design incentive arrangements that will make national participation viable on a broad scale.
Perhaps the most effective way to deal with the deficiencies in the developing countries is by way of scientific and technological cooperation. If those efforts are directed to strengthening scientific and technological capacity in the developing countries, both the developed and developing countries that collaborate will benefit. Both sides will benefit from the new knowledge they generate in the process of cooperating. They will also benefit from the investments they make in their own human capital by collaborating on the research. The exchange of faculty and students will be a critical feature of such cooperation.
The variability of conditions and of capabilities to address the consensus building and operational problems poses a major problem because of the existing complexity. Having a wide variety of approaches to solving the problem should be accepted and embraced. Helping to develop local capabilities to address the problem and to design institutional arrangements for solving the problem presents a major opportunity for international cooperation. To the extent that such cooperation makes it possible to find more rapid and efficient solutions to the problem, this may help to mobilize political support for an international solution to the problem.
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