References Of Agriculture Policy In Zambia

Araki, S. 1993. Effect on soil organic matter and soil fertility of the chitemene slash-and-burn practice used in northern Zambia. In K. Mulongoy and R. Merckx, Eds. Soil Organic Matter Dynamics and Sustainability of Tropical Agriculture. John Wiley, Chichester, United Kingdom, pp. 367-375.

Baldock, J. A. and P.N. Nelson. 2000. Soil organic matter. In M.E. Sumner, Ed. Handbook of Soil Science. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 25-84.

Biswas, J.C., J.K. Ladhs, and F.B. Dazzo. 2000. Rhizobia inoculation improves nutrient uptake and growth of lowland rice. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 64:1644-1650.

Brady, N.C. and R.R. Weil. 1996. The Nature and Properties of Soils, 11th ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, pp. 404-405.

Cassel, D.K. and R. Lal. 1992. Soil physical properties of the tropics: common beliefs and management restraints. In R. Lal and P.A. Sanchez, Eds. Myths and Science, of Soils of the Tropics. Special Publication 29, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, pp. 61-89.

Centre for Energy Environment & Engineering Zambia. 1999. Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa: Zambia Country Study. Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Zambia, UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, Ris0 National Laboratory, Denmark.

Chidumayo, E.N. 1987. A shifting cultivation land use system under population pressure in Zambia. Agrofor. Svst., 5:15-25.

Chidumayo, E.N. and S.B.M. Chidumayo. 1984. The Status and Impact of Woodfuel in Urban Zambia. Department of Natural Resources, Lusaka, Zambia.

Dalland, A., I.P. Vaje, R.B. Matthews, and R.B. Singh. 1993. The potential of alley cropping in the improvement of farming systems in the high rainfall areas of Zambia. III. Effects on soil chemical and physical properties. Agrofor. Svst., 21:117-132.

Duxbury, J.M., M.S. Smith, and J.W. Doran. 1989. Soil organic matter as a source and sink of plant nutrients. In D.C. Coleman, J.M. Oades, and G. Vehara, Eds. Dynamics of Soil Organic Matter in Tropical Ecosystem. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, pp. 33-67.

Environmental Conservation Association of Zambia. 1998. Conservation Tillage in Zambia. Environmental Conservation Association of Zambia, Lusaka.

Ewel, J., C. Berish, B. Brown, N. Price, and J. Raich. 1981. Slash and burn impacts on a Costa Rican wet forest site. Ecology, 62:816-829.

Fanshawe, D.B. 1969. The Vegetation of Zambia. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Rural Development, Lusaka, Zambia.

Food and Agriculture Organization/World Bank. 1988. Soil Fertility Initiative. Exploratory Mission Report No. 98/063 cp-ZAM, July. Food and Agriculture Organization/World Bank Cooperative Program, Lusaka, Zambia.

Franzluebbers, A.J., F.M. Hans, and D.A. Zuberer. 1998. Long-term changes in soil C and nitrogen pools in wheat management systems. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 85:59-80.

Gajri, P.R., V.K. Arora, and K. Kumar. 1994. Maize growth responses to deep tillage straw mulching and farmyard manure in coarse textured soils of NW India. Soil Use Manage., 10:15-20.

Goma, H.C. 1999. Soil fertility management and sustainable agriculture in Northern Province. Proceedings of Stakeholders Workshop, Lusaka, Zambia, 28-29 February.

Gorissen, A., and M.F. Cotrufo. 1999. Elevated C dioxide effects on nitrogen dynamics in grasses, with emphasis on rhizosphere process. Soil. Sci. Soc. Am. J., 63:1695-1702.

Greenland, D.L., A. Wild, and D. Adams. 1992. Organic matter dynamics in soils of the tropics: from myths to complex reality. In R. Lal and P.A. Sanchez, Eds. Myths and Science of Soils of the Tropics. Special Publication 29. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, pp. 17-33.

German Technical Cooperation. 1995. Zambia Country Study on Climatic Change, Inventories, and Mitigation Analysis. German Technical Assistance and Ministry of Energy and Water Development, Lusaka, Zambia.

Hall, D.O. 1989. Carbon flows in biosphere: present and future. J. Geog. Soc., 146:176-181.

Houghton, R.A., J.D. Unruh, and P.A. Lefebvre. 1993. Current land use in the tropics and its potential for sequestering carbon. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 7, 305-320.

Hue, N.V., G. Craddock, and F. Adams. 1986. Effects of organic acids on aluminum toxicities in subsoils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 50:28-34.

Kauffman, J.B., D.L. Cummings, D.E. Ward, and R. Babbitt. 1995. Fire in the Brazilian Amazon: I. Biomass, nutrient pools, and losses in slashed primary forests. Oecologia, 104:397-408.

Keeling, C.D., T.P. Whort, M. Wahlen, and J. van der Plicht. 1995. Interannual extremes in the rate of rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide since 1980. Nature (London), 375:666-670.

Kuykendall, L.D., F.M. Hashem, R.B. Dadson, and G.H. Elkan. 2000. Nitrogen fixation. In J. Lederberg, Ed. Encyclopedia of Microbiology, 2nd ed. Vol. 3. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 392-406.

Lal, R. 1975. Role of Mulching Techniques in Tropical Soils and Water Management. Technical Bulletin 1. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Lal, R. 1986. Soil surface management in the tropics for intensive land use and high and sustained productivity. B.A. Adv. Soil Sci., 5:1-97.

Lal, R. 1995a. Global soil erosion by water and carbon dynamics. In R. Lal, J. Kimble, E. Levine, and B.A. Stewart, Eds. Soils and Global Change. CRC Press/Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 132-142.

Lal, R. 1995b. The role of residue management in sustainable agricultural systems. J. Sustainable Asna.., 5:51-78.

Lal, R. 1999. Soil management and restoration for carbon sequestration to mitigate the accelerated greenhouse effect. Prog. Environ. Sci., 1:307-326.

Lal, R. 2000a. World cropland soils as a source or sink for atmospheric carbon. Adv. Agron., 71:145-191.

Lal, R. 2000b. Restorative effects of Mucuna utilities on soil organic carbon pool of a severely degraded Alfisol in Western Nigeria. In R. Lal, J.M. Kimble, and B.A. Stewart, Eds. Global Climate Change and Tropical Ecosystems. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 147-156.

Lal, R. 2001. Conservation tillage in the tropics for soil carbon sequestration. In GART 2001 Year Book. Golden Valley Agricultural Trust, Golden Valley, Zambia, pp. 50-54.

Lugo, A.E., and S. Brown. 1993. Management of tropical soil as sinks or sources of atmospheric carbon. Plant Soil, 149:27-41.

Lungu, O.I. 1987. A Review of Soil Productivity Research in High Rainfall Areas of Zambia. Occasional Paper No. 8, Series A. Zambia Soil Productivity Research Programme, Department of Soil Science, School of Agricultural Sciences, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.

Lungu, O.I.M. and V.R.N. Chinene. 1999. Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils of Zambia. In Zambia Status Paper presented at Workshop on Carbon Sequestration in Soils and Carbon Credits: Review and Development of Options for Semi-Arid and SubHumid Africa, Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center, Sioux Falls, SD. Available at:

Malama, C. 1998. Manipulating Nitrogen Release from Tropical Trees Prunnings Through Interactions Mediated by Their Resource Qualities. Wye College, University of London, Ashford, Kent, United Kingdom.

Mendes, I.C., A.K. Bandick, R.P. Dick, and P.J. Bottomley. 1999. Microbial biomass and activities in soil aggregates affected by winter cover crops. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 63:873-881.

Metting, F.B. 1993. Soil Microbial Ecology. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Mokwunye, A.U. 1995. Phosphate rock as capital investment. In H. Gerner, and A.U. Mokwunye, Eds. Use of Phosphate Rock for Sustainable Agriculture in West Africa. Miscellaneous Fertilizers Studies No. 11. International Fertilizer Development Center, Muscle Shoals, AL, pp. 100-106.

Mokwunye, A.U., A. de Jager, and E.M.A. Smaling. 1996. Restoring and Maintaining the Productivity of West Africa Soils: Key to Sustainable Development. International Fertilizer Development Center, Muscle Shoals, AL.

Moshi, A.O., A. Wild, and D.G. Greenland. 1974. Effect of organic matter on the charge and phosphate absorption characteristics of Kikuyu red clay from Kenya. Georderma, 11:275-285.

Nye, P.H. and D.J. Greenland. 1960. The Soil Under Shifting Cultivation. CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom.

Oades, J.M. 1984. Soil organic matter and structural stability: mechanisms and implications for management. Plant Soil, 76:319-337.

Olness, A., D. Lopez, J. Cordes, C. Sweeney, N. Mattson, and W.B. Voorhees. 2002. Application of a management decision aid for sequestration of carbon and nitrogen in soil. In Kimble, J.M., R. Lal, and R.E. Follet, Eds. Agricultural Practices and Policies for Carbon Sequestration in Soil. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 245-263.

Peat, J.E. and K.J. Brown. 1962. The yield responses of rain grown cotton and Ukiriguim the lake province Tangayika. 1. The use of organic manure, inorganic fertilizers, and cotton seed ash. Empire J. Exp. Agric, 30:215-231.

Post, W.M., T. Peng, W.R. Emmanuel, A.W. King, V.H. Dale, and D.L. De Angelis. 1990. The global carbon cycle. Am. Scientist, 78:310-326.

Renard, G., A. Neef, K. Becker, and M. von Oppen, Eds. 1997. Soil Fertility Management in West African Land Use Systems. Mar-graf Verlag, Werkersheim, Germany.

Rilling, M.C., C.B. Field, and M.F. Allen. 1999. Soil biota responses to long term atmospheric CO2 enrichment in two California annual grasslands. Oecologia, 119:572-577.

Rochette, P., D.A. Angers, and D. Cote. 2000. Soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics following application of pig slurry for the 19th consecutive year: I. Carbon dioxide fluxes and microbial biomass carbon. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 64:1389-1395.

Russell, E.W. 1973. Soil Conditions and Plant Growth, 10th ed. Longman, London/New York.

Sanchez, P.A., and S.W. Boul. 1975. Soils of the tropics and world food crisis. Science, 188:598-603.

Sanchez, P.A., M.P. Gichuru, and L.B. Katz. 1982. Organic matter in major soils of the tropical and temperate regions. In Proceedings of 12th International Soil Science Congress, New Delhi, India, vol. 1, pp. 99-114.

Sanchez, P.A., C.A. Palm, L.T. Scott, E. Cuevas, and R. Lal. 1989. Organic input management in tropical agroecosystems. In D.C. Coleman, J.M. Oades, and G. Uehara, Eds. Dynamics of Soil Organic Matter in Tropical Ecosystems, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, pp. 125-152.

Sanchez, P.A. and H. van Houten. 1994. Alternatives to slash-and-burn agriculture. Symposium at 15th International Soil Science Congress, Acapulco, Mexico.

Silanpaa, M. 1982. Micronutrients and the Nutrient Status of Soils: A Global Study. FAO Soils Bulletin 48. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.

Singh, R.P., J.F. Barr, and B.A. Stewart, Eds. 1990. Dryland Agriculture: Strategies and Sustainability. Vol. 13. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Stewart, B.A., R. Lal, and S.A. El-Swaify. 1991. Sustaining the resource base of our expanding world agriculture. In R. Lal and F.J. Pierce, Eds. Soil Management for Sustainability. Soil and Water Conservation Society, Ankeny, IA, pp. 125-144.

Stromgaard, P. 1984. The immediate effect of burning and ash-fertilization: cut-and-burn shifting systems in woodland ecosystems of Zambia, Plant Soil, 80:307-320.

Swift, J.J., L. Bohren, S.E. Carter, A.M. Izac, and P.L. Woomer. 1994. Biological management of tropical soils: integrating process research and farm practice. In P. Woomer and M.J. Swift, Eds. The Biological Management of Tropical Soils. John Wiley, New York, pp. 209-217.

Veldkamp, W.J., M. Muchinda, and H.A.P. Delmol. 1987. Agroeco-logical Zones of Zambia. Research Branch, Ministry of Agriculture, Lusaka, Zambia.

White, F. 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris.

Wissen, H.L.M. van. 1974. The influence of cultivation practices on the organic carbon content of some deep soils in Kissii District. Preliminary Report, Training Project in Pedology Kissii No. 4. Winard Staring Centre, Agricultural University Wageningen University, Netherlands.

Woomer, P.L. 1993. The impact of cultivation on carbon fluxes in woody savannas of Southern Africa. Water Air Soil Pollut., 70:403-412.

Woomer, P.L., A. Martin, A. Albrecht, D.V.S. Resck, and H.W. Scharp-enseel. 1994. The importance and management of soil organic matter in the tropics. In P. Woomer and M.J. Swift, Eds. The Biological Management of Tropical Soils. John Wiley, New York, pp. 47-80.

Woomer, P.L., C.A. Palm, and J.N. Qureshi. 1998. Carbon sequestration and organic resource management in African smallholder agriculture. In R. Lal, J.M. Kimble, R.F. Follett, and B.A. Stewart, Eds. Management of Carbon Sequestration in Soils. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 153-173.

Zambia Department of Agriculture. 1999. Agricultural Statistics Bulletin. Policy and Planning Division. Department of Agriculture, Lusaka, Zambia.

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