Materials And Methods

Uganda (30°E1°S, 35°E4°N) is located in East Africa (Figure 20.1). It is characterized by diverse agricultural systems that have evolved from the interaction of several factors governing land use (climate, soil, terrain, and socioeconomic factors) (Komutunga and Musiitwa, 2001). In Uganda, the climate varies with altitude, which ranges from 610 m in the rift valley to 4324 m on Mount Elgon. Mean annual rainfall ranges from 510 mm in the semi-arid northeast of the country to 2160 mm in the Ssese Islands of Lake Victoria.

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Figure 20.1 Map of East Africa

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Figure 20.1 Map of East Africa

Based on climate, soils, population, and market orientation of production, 33 agroecological zones were identified in Uganda (Wortman and Eledu, 1999). For purposes of this study, broad divisions into agroclimatic zones were considered including eastern humid montane (Mt. Elgon), southwestern humid montane (Mt. Muhavura), subhumid (Lake Victoria crescent) and semi-arid (Lake Kyoga Basin). Long-term (1962 to 2002) averages of relative humidity, rainfall, and maximum and minimum temperature are presented in Table 20.1.

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