Contents

13.1 Introduction 322

13.2 Physiological Ecology and Niche-Based

Responses 326

13.2.1 Critical Role of Body Temperature in

Insect Biology and Development 328

13.2.2 Consequences of Altered Plant Nutrition 329

13.2.2.1 Plant Stress and Foliar Quality for Herbivores 332

13.2.2.2 Temperature, Food Quality, and

Diet Processing 332

13.2.2.3 Climate-Based Insect Population Dynamics and Range Shifts 333

13.3 Species Interactions and the Complexity of Community-Level Food Webs 333

13.3.1 Competition and Abiotic Conditions 335

13.3.2 Predator-Prey Interactions 336

13.3.2.1 Mediating Effects of Microclimate...337

13.3.2.2 Context-Dependent Interactions between Predators and Prey 338

13.3.3 Food Web (Tritrophic) Interactions 339

13.4 Conclusions 341

Acknowledgments 346

References 346

Agricultural pests and diseases will not be taken into account unless the ecology of weeds, pests, and diseases under global climate change are explicitly addressed. It is an area of potentially major agricultural and forestry impact; but unfortunately one which has not progressed very much.

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