Case Study 3 India

Miracle Farm Blueprint

Organic Farming Manual

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Over half of the farming population of India live in semi-arid regions. Crop yields have recently increased as a result of the green revolution. In this case, irrigation and inorganic fertilizers are expensive and inaccessible for the rural poor. Soil fertility treatments using legume cultivation and vermicom-post production are increasingly used, leading generally to increased organic matter. Meanwhile, practices such as the use of inorganic fertilizers and the continuous cultivation of cereals lead to a substantial decline in soil carbon levels.

CENTURY was run for several practices at three sites: Lingampally, Metalkunta, and Malligere. The CP is 1 year of fallow and 4 years of cropping. The use of IF, FYM, green manure, vermicompost (V) and PR, trees, and legumes inclusion were compared with CP (Figure 21.3).

The use of farmyard manure, green manure, and vermi-compost and plant residues produced increases in soil carbon of 0.2 to 0.4 ha-1 year-1. Increases in soil carbon can also be obtained by leaving crop residues in the soil. Agroforestry practices substantially increased soil carbon by 0.9 metric

1.0

0.8

0.6

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0.2

0.0

-0.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

to .c

0.4

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0.2

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-0.2

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0.4

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0.2

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S only IF, BR,CC ]only IF,BR, F 3 FYM 4.5 t ha-1 y-1 ] FYM 4.5 t ha-1 y-1 I FYM 6.75 t ha-1 y-

Kymausoi

I FYM 1.5 t ha-1 y-1, PR 0.6 tha-1 y-1 ] FYM 1.5 t ha-1 y-1, PR 0.6t ha-1 y-1, L(cowpea) ] FYM 2t ha-1 y-1, PR 0.6t ha-1 y-1, L(cowpea) ] FYM 4t ha-1 y-1, PR 0.6t ha-1 y-1, L(cowpea)

1 FYM 1.25 t ha-1 y-1 ] FYM 2.25 t ha-1 y-1 3 FYM 2.27 t ha-1 y-1,F reduced to1year ] FYM 3.3 t ha-1 y-1 I FYM 3.9 t ha-1 y-1, PR0.3 t ha-1

2 3 4 5 6 SCENARIOS

CP:

Current practice

PR:

Plant residues

CC:

Continuous cultivation

F:

Fallow

NG:

No grazing residues

BR:

Burn residues

IF:

Inorganic fertilizer

FYM:

Farm yard manure

Figure 21.2 Average annual change in soil carbon stock under various practice scenarios (CENTURY) for the case study 2: Kenya.

Lingampally

V7Z77,IIF

replace IF with FYM irmn FYM 6 t ha-1 y-1

CX3FYM 6 t ha-1 y-1, GM 250 kg ha-1 y-1,V 100 kg ha-1 y-lx"xH FYM 6 t ha-1 y-1, PR 2 t ha-1y-1 □□FYM 6 t ha-1 y-1, PR 2 t ha-1 y -1, trees

Metalkunta

Malligere

SCENARIOS

replace IF with FYM mgüadd trees, Glyricidia

SCENARIOS

CP:

Current practice

PR:

Plant residues

IF:

Inorganic fertilizer

FYM:

Farmyard manure

V:

Vermicompost

GM:

Green manure

Figure 21.3 Average annual change in soil carbon stock under various practice scenarios (CENTURY) for the case study 3: India.

Figure 21.3 Average annual change in soil carbon stock under various practice scenarios (CENTURY) for the case study 3: India.

tons C ha-1 year-1. Leguminous crops had also clear beneficial effects when included in rotations. The use of inorganic fertilizers resulted in carbon loss. Inorganic fertilizers and irrigation both have a carbon cost, reducing the amount of sequestered carbon. A full carbon accounting in these farming systems should consider the high-energy cost of nitrogen fertilizers (Pretty et al., 2002), the use of mechanized operations, and the transfer of carbon from one farm to another by livestock.

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