Gwp Analysis For Conventional And Notillage Maize Production In The United States

A comprehensive analysis of the effect of a change from CT to NT on the carbon dioxide flux for grain production in the United States has showed that emissions associated with machinery were reduced, but those associated with agricultural inputs increased (West and Marland, 2002). These changes produced a net savings of 31 kg C ha yr in addition to that achieved by carbon sequestration in soil (337 kg C ha year) for a total carbon benefit of 368 kg C ha year. However, the impact of the change...

Monitoring And Verifying Soil Carbon Sequestration At The Project Level

Post et al. (1999) outlined the elements of a plan for monitoring and verifying SCS at regional scales. The plan had four basic elements (1) selection of landscape units suitable for measuring and monitoring SCS, (2) development of measurement protocols, (3) utilization of remote sensing information and simulation models, and (4) development of a methodology to scale up results to represent the entire SCS project. The selection of landscape units for measuring and monitoring SCS will depend on...

References

Integrated assessment of carbon sequestration in agricultural soils. In A Soil Carbon Accounting and Management System for Emissions Trading. Special Publication SM CRSP 2002-04. Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, pp. 69-98. Antle, J.M., S.M. Capalbo, S. Mooney, E.T. Elliott, and K.H. Paus-tian. 2002. A comparative examination of the efficiency of sequestering carbon in U.S. agricultural soils. Am. J. Alternative Agric 17...

Food Security And The Food Security Policy Synthesis

Chronically undernourished individuals rarely receive dietary energy considered by nutritionists to be necessary for light activity and good health. The Food and Agriculture Organization (2002) defines food security as a goal achieved when all people at all times have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. The World Bank and the U.S. Agency for International Development...

Results And Discussion

Microwatersheds presented various land use and management systems. Tables 24.3, 24.4, and 24.5 show the total C content aboveground (trees, shrubs plus grasses, litter, and or stalks) and underground (roots and soil) from 0- to 105-cm depth for the main land use systems of the Mazateca, Cuicateca, and Mixe regions (Etchevers et al., 2003). The C stock in the aboveground plus roots plus soil pools was highest (306 Mg ha-1) in the Mixe region, and lowest (54 Mg ha-1) in the Cuicateca region....

Conclusions

An increase in atmospheric concentration of CO2 and other GHGs is likely to cause regional and global climate change. Temperature increases are likely to be more accentuated at higher than at lower latitudes and to have an evident impact on precipitation and its distribution. The frequency of extreme events may increase with global warming, and projected climate change is likely to affect soil quality. In some cases, water and wind erosion of soils and salinization may be accelerated. In other...

Direct Effects of Rising Atmospheric CO2 11411 CO2 Effects on Crops

Results from experimental studies have established that it is no longer realistic to examine the effects of climate change on crop and forage plants without also accounting for the direct effects of rising atmospheric CO2 at the same time. The short-term responses to elevated CO2 of isolated plants grown in artificial conditions remain difficult to extrapolate to crops in the field (K rner, 1995). Even the most realistic free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) experiments yet undertaken...

Farming Systems

Zambia's agriculture is predominantly rainfed. The major crops grown in the country are maize, sunflower, soybeans, groundnuts, sorghum, cotton, beans, bambara groundnuts, cowpea, sugarcane, finger millet, bulrush millet, rice, sweet potato, cassava, tobacco, and wheat. The main tools for land clearing in Zambia are the machete, hoe, and fire. Cultivation methods are mainly based on use of the manual hoe. Livestock raising is also an important traditional practice in the Southern, Eastern, and...

Precipitation

Interannual variability in precipitation is a key factor that accounts for a large measure of interannual variability in crop yields. As with temperature, monthly mean values and timing are important factors controlling impact of precipitation on crop yields. Precipitation is a key input variable to the crop model that accounts for a large measure of interannual variability in crop yields. We evaluated the capability of a regional climate model (RegCM2) (Giorgi et al., 1993) to simulate...

Critical Role of Body Temperature in Insect Biology and Development

Temperature directly affects virtually all biological rate processes in insects (Logan et al., 1976 Wagner, 1984a, 1984b Chappell and Whitman, 1990 Stamp and Casey, 1993 Lactin et al., 1995 Lactin and Johnson, 1996b, 1998a, 1998b), and population responses may vary dramatically in response to climate change (Coxwell and Bock, 1995). Shifts may favor increased food consumption and digestion, more rapid development and faster growth rates, increased survival, or higher fecundity (Huey and...

Global Food Demand

Food security is defined as access to food to meet what people need biologically for a healthy and fulfilling life. It implies sustainable agricultural production, sufficient income so that people have access to food, and availability of a balanced diet to avoid hidden hunger. Swaminathan (2003) defines food security in terms of availability, access, and retention of food. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (1996), Food security exists when all people, at all times, have...

Future of Public Research

As mentioned elsewhere, the private sector will only invest when and where a future stream of profits is envisioned. To the extent that private sector advances are to be captured for the benefit of the disadvantaged, public sector organizations must make the investments required to use, modify, or direct them to the crops, regions, and situations of the poor who largely operate outside of the standard market mechanisms. New types of public-private partnerships will be essential, ones that we...

Conclusion

The impact of climate on present and future food security cannot be evaluated solely through use of crop yields estimates and models of future production and food deficits. Uncertainties in such estimates are large. There is also a clear need to understand how climatic factors might interact with future food and agricultural markets, sector and trade policy, and political instability, as well as the relevance of historical resource inequities and past development trends. The high sensitivity of...

Discussion And Conclusion

The current notion that food security is determined by household income, poverty, and access to resources rather than by aggregate increased food production puts the potential role of carbon sequestration in small-scale farming systems in a broad and complex context. One or two 'best' management practices that simultaneously boost soil carbon and crop yields, but fail to address any of the other multiple social goals of rural households, are most likely not the alternatives that are likely to...

Crop Production In Dryland Regions

Cereal yields in dryland regions, particularly when produced without irrigation, are low because of the lack of water. As already stated, high-yielding varieties, fertilizers, pest control, and irrigation have been mainly responsible for large increases in worldwide food and fiber production. When irrigation is not available in dryland regions, the lack of water limits production, and the benefits of the other technologies are largely muted. FAO (1996) reported that the 1988-1990 average yield...

Case Study 2 Kenya

Arid and semi-arid lands occupy two-thirds of Kenya (Nandwa et al., 1999). Erratic rainfall and poor fertility as a result of intensive cultivation are the main limiting factors of plant productivity. Droughts have also affected farming livelihoods. KSS3 2+ NG, harvest only grain irmn IF(100 kg ha-1 urea), NG IT l PR (0.5 t ha-1 y-1), NG 5y F, 5 y C, 2 applications FYM 3 t ha-1, GR IT n CC, FYM 1.5 t ha-1 y-1, GR CC, FYM 1.5 t ha-1 y-1, PR0.5 t ha-1 y-1, NG WW CC millet-cowpea C-F, FYM 3 t...

Pools And Fluxes

Carbon is transferred through and stored in ecosystems by a myriad of physiological, ecological, and geochemical processes (Schlesinger, 1997 Clark et al., 2001) that may respond independently to the different facets of global change. Microbial respiration in the soil, for example, is extraordinarily sensitive to temperature, whereas photosynthesis responds strongly to changes in both atmospheric CO2 and temperature. Predicting the effects of changing climatic conditions and atmospheric...

Impacts of Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Food Security

The direction of the various expected impacts on consumers and on farm income is summarized in Table 4.2. Farm income is defined as returns to land, labor, and capital. The net effect on food security depends on local conditions. Table 4.2 General Impacts of Rising Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases on Factors Affecting Food Security CO2 fertilization Climate change Extreme weather events Sea level rise Higher levels of CO2 in the atmosphere tend to increase plant growth. However, increases in...

Agricultural Productivity

Most food-deficit countries allocate a large proportion of their domestic food production to food consumption, since a very small share of domestic consumption is provided by imports. Agricultural products are also a very important source of foreign exchange earnings to support the growing need for imports. Agricultural production growth depends on the availability and quality of resources. And in low-income, food-deficit countries, this means land and labor because of limited use of new...

Maize And Agricultural Vulnerability In Mexico

Maize is the staple grain of Mexican cuisine and is the most essential contribution to the nutrition and sustenance of Mexico's population. By some estimates, maize contributes up to 50 of total calories consumed in Mexico, and up to 70 in rural areas (Fritscher Mundt, 1999). Maize also has great cultural significance. From its initial domestication, it has had a central role in the evolution of Mesoamerican religion, mythology, social organization, and economy (Le n-Portilla, 1988). In the...

Designing Soil Carbon Contracts for Farmers in Developing Countries

There has been considerable discussion in the literature about how contracts for soil sequestration might be designed in the context of the United States (Antle et al., 2003 Antle and McCarl, 2002). Some discussion of how carbon sequestration incentives could be created for farmers in developing countries (Antle and Diagana, 2003) is also now in the literature. In a country with well-defined property rights and corresponding financial institutions, farmers can participate in domestic or...

Criticisms of the Green Revolution

The Green Revolution has been a much-debated subject. The initial euphoria during the late 1960s of the high-yielding wheat and rice varieties and more intensive crop production practices was followed by a wave of criticism. Some criticism reflected a sincere concern about social and economic problems in rural areas that were not and cannot be solved by technology alone. Some criticism was based on premature analyses of what was actually happening in areas where the Green Revolution...

Deriving Model Parameters

A specific model incorporating a state-variable approach was used to predict soil organic carbon under different conditions. The model was based on the concept of buildup and breakdown processes that depend on the soil organic carbon content of the system. The soil organic carbon build-up rate (R) was described by the following mathematical function ACh Haplic Acrisols ANm Mollic Andosols ARl Luvic Arenosols FLe Eutric Fluvisols FRh Haplic Ferralsols FRp PLinthic Ferralsols LPe Eutric Leptosols...

Alternative Technologies

Since the crucial issues in the three regions of SHMP are lack of sufficient food and soil conservation, the principal objective of the SHMP research unit is the design and generation of sustainable alternative technologies for the milpa system, assuming a permanent agricultural system as opposed to the current shifting system (Cort s et al., 2001). Sustainable farming systems conserve and protect the essential agroecosystem resource base including soils, water, and genetic diversity provide...

Climate Change and Length of Growing Season in 20th Century

Length of growing season is the length of time during the year that soil temperature and moisture are suitable for crop growth. It depends primarily on local temperature and precipitation. In this section the pattern of annual growing season lengths on current cropland during the 20th century are estimated and evaluated. Both long-run trends in length of growing season and their potential interaction on length of growing season during El Ni o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycles are assessed....

Predator Prey Interactions

Climatic conditions (especially microclimate) also have a very big impact on arthropod predator-prey interactions. This interaction is important because natural predators and parasitoids in agricultural settings often limit abundance levels of insect herbivore pests on crops (Cornell et al., 1998 Rosenheim, 1998 Gutierrez, 2000), including successful bio-control efforts. The chain of events linking predators with prey species that affect predation success is large, and disruption at any level...

Consequences of Altered Plant Nutrition

Environmental stresses have large effects on the nutritional quality of host plants to insect herbivores. The nutritional Figure 13.3 (opposite page) Performance niche responses. (A) Population growth responses by the grain beetles Calandra oryzae and Rhizopertha dominica for temperature and moisture content of wheat. (Data from Birch, L.C. 1953. Ecology, 34 698-711 figure from Maguire, B. Jr. 1973. Am. Naturalist, 107 213-246. With permission.) The dashed line indicates conditions that...

Milpafruit Tree Intercropping System In Sustainable Hillside Management Project

A major objective of this project was to identify alternative technology options for the target regions. Since no previous agronomic research had been conducted on intercropped staples and fruit trees, development of the MIFT system took into account the management of peach trees in the Puebla Valley and local cropping patterns for maize and beans, and assumed that soils on slopes greater than 20 would be a common condition. These slopes are in contrast to moderate Figure 23.3 Living wall...

US Response to Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol

Although the Clinton administration negotiated the Kyoto Protocol, the Bush administration has thus far refused to ratify it. In his public remarks, President Bush has disagreed with both the form of the Kyoto Protocol and the scientific evidence that prompted other governments to ratify the treaty. In 2001, he stated that the emissions targets established by the Kyoto Protocol were arbitrary and not based on science, and further claimed that no one can say with any certainty what constitutes a...

Economic Feasibility

Knowing how much carbon can be stored and the extent to which crop yields can be increased under various management scenarios is only the first step in a feasibility assessment. The second step is to evaluate whether farmers would in fact be able to afford to implement promising practices. Limited investment capital among smallholders has been recognized as major obstacle to adoption of soil fertility management strategies, regardless of their long-term financial and social profitability (Izac,...

Soil Carbon Dynamics

Several important carbon management strategies exist, including the adaptive and mitigative options found in Figure 5.1. Adaptive options are based on better management Figure 5.1 Adaptive and mitigative strategies of carbon management and sequestration to address global climate change. Figure 5.1 Adaptive and mitigative strategies of carbon management and sequestration to address global climate change. of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, desert lands, and wetlands. Adopting RMPs such as...

Bulk Density

Soil bulk density (p6, Mg m-3) is the ratio of the mass of dry solids to a bulk volume of soil (Blake and Hartge, 1986). Its determination is essential to calculate the mass of soil organic carbon (SOCm, Mg C m-3) from SOC concentration (SOCc, Mg C Mg-1) Although p6 is a relatively straightforward measurement, its evaluation can be subject to errors. Blake and Hartge (1986) and Culley (1993) offer excellent descriptions of the various methods that can be used to determine p6. In the extractive...

Soil Organic Matter Soil Carbon and Carbon Sequestration in Zambia

Diagram Tieridging

Soils under almost all farming systems in Zambia are low in N, P, and SOM (Stromgaard, 1984). It has been easy to detect and demonstrate evidence of N deficiency in cropped soils, but declines in SOM have been rather difficult to identify and quantify (Lungu, 1987). On the other hand, when crop residues are returned to the soil and legume cover crops are grown, they lead to increased organic C content and improved water retention. The contributions of decomposed legume litter to SOC were...

References Of Agriculture Policy In Zambia

Effect on soil organic matter and soil fertility of the chitemene slash-and-burn practice used in northern Zambia. In K. Mulongoy and R. Merckx, Eds. Soil Organic Matter Dynamics and Sustainability of Tropical Agriculture. John Wiley, Chichester, United Kingdom, pp. 367-375. Baldock, J. A. and P.N. Nelson. 2000. Soil organic matter. In M.E. Sumner, Ed. Handbook of Soil Science. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 25-84. Biswas, J.C., J.K. Ladhs, and F.B. Dazzo. 2000. Rhizobia...

Potential For Sequestering Soil Organic Carbon In Zambia Soils

The SOC contents in most agricultural soils are below their potential levels, especially soils in developing agricultural systems (Lal, 1999). Carbon content of Zambian soils is low, ranging between 0.5 to 1 organic C (Singh et al., 1990), with an average of 0.8 (Silanpaa, 1982). In the three agro-ecological regions of Zambia, benchmark data of organic C content (Table 25.1) range from a low of 0.15 to 1.11 for bottom soils (38- to 70-cm depth) to a high of 2.45 to 3.0 for topsoils (0- to 8-cm...

Case Study 1 Nigeria

Nigeria comprises some of the most densely inhabited areas of semi-arid West Africa Harris, 2000 . As a result, the soils of this region have been cultivated for long periods. Plant Table 21.1 Main Characteristics of Study Sites Soil type Ferrugineous tropical soils, sandy, poor water holding capacity WHC and low-nutrient organic matter content Farming Smallholder farming systems Intensive permanent annual or biannual cultivation cropping intensity gt 60 Less intensive shrub short-bush fallow...