Relevant climate research in other agencies

Climate change is now a mainstream concern for governments across the OECD area, with most member countries also funding research into differing aspects of national impacts, adaptation and mitigation. In this chapter we focus predominantly on work that is developing appraisal and evaluation frameworks of relevance to agriculture, specifically any work aimed at improving the efficiency of responses.1

The EU has been pioneering in its development of efficient mitigation strategies, with the ETS being its flagship instrument to regulate industrial emissions. While agriculture is not part of the traded sector at present, the potential for inclusion has stimulated research into effective and efficient mitigation options in agriculture. The EU is in the process of developing its adaptation framework with a White Paper on adaptation to climate change in Europe (European Commission, 2009). A principal consideration of the White Paper is the extent of the EU's responsibility to assist adaptation in developing countries.

The EU also funds specific projects on climate change research. Two are of particular interest in developing frameworks and the economics of climate change: ADAM (Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies: Supporting European Climate Policy) aims to provide a better understanding of the trade-offs and conflicts that exist between adaptation and mitigation policies. ADAM will support EU policy development in the next stage of the development of the Kyoto Protocol and will inform the emergence of new adaptation strategies for Europe. In terms of agriculture, however, ADAM only has a small focus and that is on crops, with no focus on livestock. The main objective of the PESETA project (Projection of Economic impacts of climate change in Sectors of the European Union based on bottom-up Analysis) is to contribute to a better understanding of

1 For a list of the main organisations involved in climate change and agriculture research, see Annex A.

the possible economic impacts induced by climate change in Europe over the 21st century, again focusing predominantly on crops.

The FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) plays an important role in research on climate change across its divisions. Recently the FAO identified some key features that would be required in relation to funding mitigation from agriculture:

• Aggregation (carbon finance, where up-scaled and broad approaches can be applied - e.g. sector, programme, ecosystem - facilitates the involvement of large numbers of smallholder farmers, covering a wide area and range of ecosystems, with influence on the development of needed policies and technologies);

• Financing arrangements that address the specific needs of smallholder agriculture mitigation adoption, including the need for investment capital, technologies and risk management/transfer (insurance);

• A range of options for mobilising both private and public funds, including use of compliance market credits, voluntary market credits, publicly funded programmes and agricultural product labels, with adequate flexibility to adjust to the specific agro-ecological, institutional and technological situations of Parties, and

• An enabling environment with appropriate policies, institutions, capacity building and an agreed system of property use/rights/access in order to link farmers, including smallholder farmers, to carbon financing (FAO, 2009).

The FAO also has a broad programme aimed at ensuring food security under climate change, which is outlined in Annex A.

In the United Kingdom, UKCIP was established in 1997 to co-ordinate scientific research into the impacts of climate change, and to help organisations adapt to those unavoidable impacts. UKCIP is funded mostly by the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and is responsible for generating widely used scenarios of climate change impacts (UKCIP02 and UKCIP09), as well as developing frameworks and support for assessing costs of impacts and adaptation measures. UKCIP provides information on current agricultural research relating to adaptation, and the tools developed by UKCIP can be applied to agriculture: however, it does not focus specifically on agriculture itself. Defra also has a strong interest in furthering work into both mitigation and adaptation in the agricultural sector, both in terms of identifying impacts, developing adaption (technology) inventories and cost-effective responses. Of specific interest is that Defra is currently funding a number of projects focussing on impacts and adaptation on livestock sectors, which have been poorly represented in other research conducted by — for example — the EU.

The Spanish Government established the Spanish Research Institute on Climate Change in 2008, in Zaragoza, which co-ordinates research on climate change in Spain.

The Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Division of Natural Resources Canada focuses on two main activities, The Regional Adaptation Collaboratives (RACs) programme, and the Tools for Adaptation Program. This RACs programme will provide a mechanism for collaboration between different levels of government, private sector entities, and community organisations on complex adaptation issues that address federal, sectoral, or regional priorities. The objective of this initiative is to equip decision makers with the information and advice that they need to make policy, operational, and management changes that respond to regional opportunities and threats from a changing climate. The Government of Canada published a comprehensive report in 2008 on impacts and adaptation to a changing climate (Lemmen et al., 2008), assessing current and future risks and opportunities for Canada.

The Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has investigated some aspects of the economics around climate change and agriculture, particularly the economics of sequestering soil carbon.

As mentioned, Australia has recently conducted a large-scale report on the likely effect of human-induced climate change on Australia's economy, environment, and water resources. The Garnaut Review also focused on the costs and benefits of various international and Australian interventions on economic activity, where the agricultural sector was included in considerable depth. It concludes that the development of biosequestration technologies could greatly help reduce the costs of emissions reduction in Australia, although the realisation of this would require comprehensive emissions accounting.

New Zealand conducts considerable research into climate change and agriculture, as agriculture is an important sector of the economy and contributes almost 50% of the country's GHG emissions. Aside from the ETS, which is outlined in Box 5.1, considerable research is conducted across a range of institutions, primarily regarding the mitigation of emissions from agriculture. The Pastoral Greenhouse Gas Research Consortium (PGgRC)

aims to provide New Zealand livestock farmers with the knowledge and tools to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from the agricultural sector. The PGgRC is made up of several research institutions and government bodies. The New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) supports a range of projects relating particularly to the quantification and reduction of GHG emissions from agriculture (www.maf.govt.nz/climatechange/slm/gg-grants.htm).

The World Bank, the UNFCCC and the UNDP all have research programmes investigating the global costs and investment flows required to address adaptation (mostly in developing countries but some of these are global). Because of the scale of the estimates, much sectoral detail is lost; however, the research programmes themselves provide valuable frameworks and methodology (World Bank 2006; UNDP, 2007; UNFCCC , 2007).

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