The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
The FAO plays an important role in assisting member countries with climate change issues related to climate change and food security. FAO's programme on climate change considers the major objective of ensuring food security, which includes:
• the promotion of practices for the mitigation and adaptation of agricultural systems,
• the reduction of emissions from the agricultural sector,
• the development of practices aimed at reducing vulnerability and increasing the resilience of agricultural systems to climate related risks,
• strengthening national and regional climate observing systems and networks,
• climate and/or disaster risk management in agriculture and allied sectors, and
• data and information collection, early warning and dissemination.
FAO's projects are targeted towards providing better solution for climate related risks in member countries. The field programmes are supported by the Organization's core budget and extra-budgetary resources received from multilateral and bilateral donors.
The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)
UNEP works to facilitate the transition to low-carbon societies, support climate proofing efforts, improve understanding of climate change science, and raise public awareness about this global challenge.
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
Climate change research at IFPRI focuses on the assessment of, adaptation to, and mitigation of climate change risks. Strategic, cost-effective, and pro-poor policy reforms that enhance human welfare in equitable and sustainable ways form the core of IFPRI's Global Change Program. The programme analyses the complex interrelations between climate change and agricultural growth, food security, and natural resource sustainability.
IFPRI's comprehensive approach to climate change analysis looks at the key drivers of climate change and their possible evolution over time. A scenario-based framework is used to forecast how these major drivers of change will impact food and agricultural systems and food security. Based in part on these projections, IFPRI is developing adaptation and mitigation strategies, including ones that show how alternative climate policy regimes in a post-Kyoto Protocol world will affect agriculture, food security, and poor people. Developing countries could finance climate adaptation and mitigation strategies through cap-and-trade and carbon-tax instruments that support agricultural and rural development, but the impacts of these and other approaches need to be better understood. Effective adaptation and mitigation can generate income in rural areas, further increasing local capacity to adapt to climate change, but the best means of encouraging these outcomes need to be identified.
Specific research programmes include:
• Global Food and Natural Resources
• IMPACT Special Project: Global Trends in Food Supply and Demand
• Strategies for Adapting to Climate Change in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa: Targeting the Most Vulnerable
• Strategies for Low Carbon Growth Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in India through Land-Use Change
• Food and Water Security under Global Change.
The World Bank is involved in several climate change projects and programmes, mostly in developing countries. It is also involved in programmes run by external groups, such as CGIAR. Although predominantly focused on developing countries, some of the research is nonetheless highly relevant to developed countries.
The World Bank is working with six pilot countries - Bangladesh, Bolivia, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mozambique and Vietnam on a study funded by the Governments of the United Kingdom, Netherlands, and Switzerland to help decision makers in developing countries better understand and assess the risks posed by climate change and to better cost, prioritise, sequence and integrate robust adaptation strategies into their development plans and budgets in a context of high uncertainty, competing needs and limited financial resources.
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR)
CGIAR and their partners in government and civil society organisations have been helping farmers cope with the effects of variable and severe weather for nearly three decades. Specifically, they seek ways to protect water and other natural resources under extreme weather conditions and other pressures, to develop crop varieties that are adapted to harsh climates, and to identify policy and institutional innovations that better enable countries and communities to cope with these conditions. Through this work, CGIAR researchers have generated a wealth of improved crop germplasm, knowledge, technologies, methods and policy analysis, which can lessen the vulnerability of marginalised rural people and places through more sustainable management of crops, livestock, soils, water, forests, fisheries and biodiversity.
The CGIAR Challenge Program, "Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security" (Climate Change Challenge Program, CCCP) is a major collaborative endeavour between the CGIAR and its partners, and the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP). It is aimed at overcoming the additional threats posed by a changing climate to achieving food security, enhancing livelihoods and improving environmental management in the developing world.
The Challenge Program's main objectives are to:
• Overcome critical gaps in knowledge of how to enhance - and manage the trade-offs between - food security, livelihood and environmental goals in the face of a changing climate.
• Develop and evaluate options for adapting to a changing climate to inform agricultural development, food security policy and donor investment strategies.
• Assist farmers, policymakers, researchers and donors to continually monitor, assess and adjust their actions in response to a changing climate.
International Energy Agency (IEA)
The IEA's activities on energy efficiency and future emission scenarios are also of direct relevance to climate change policy issues. In 2005, in Gleneagles, the G8 leaders mandated the IEA to provide advice on a range of energy policy issues linked to climate change.
Since 1999, the IEA has also maintained a database of its member countries' policies and measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as well as databases on energy efficiency and renewable energy policy.
Together with the OECD's Environment Directorate, the IEA provides a Secretariat for the Annex I Expert Group (AIXG) on the UNFCCC, providing analysis of technical issues of relevance to the development of the Convention.
European Environment Agency (EEA)
The EEA works on supporting the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol in the EU, including producing the annual European Community GHG inventory, supporting the IPCC and the UNFCCC on methodological issues and reviews related to GHG inventories; producing an annual indicator report on GHG emission trends and projections, and a regular evaluation of the implementation within member states of the emissions trading directive.
The EEA also works on impacts and adaptation, which includes:
• Assessment of impacts of Europe's changing climate: a report first published in 2004, and updated in 2008;
• Climate change state and impact indicators (global and European temperature and greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere) as part of the EEA core set of indicators;
• Analysis of vulnerability of specific regions to climate change,
• Analysis of climate change and water adaptation issues, including an overview of countries' adaptation actions;
• Methodologies to calculate the costs of climate change impacts and adaptation to climate change.
The European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change (ETC/ACC) assists the EEA in its support to EU policy in the field of air pollution and climate change. The ETC/ACC is a consortium of European institutes with MNP as its lead organisation.
The ETC/ACC reports on the progress of EU environmental policy on air quality, air emission and climate change issues. It participates in European Environmental Outlook reports of the EEA, it collects data concerning the current state of the environment and further harmonises European monitoring networks and reporting obligations
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