Academic institutions1

The Tyndall Centre has a specific programme on adaptation, which focuses both on conceptual issues relating to adaptation, and more specific projects including coastal adaptation, water basin management in Africa, and dealing with uncertainty. Although the programme does not relate

1 This list is not exhaustive.

specifically to agriculture, much of the thinking and conceptual frameworks provide important background to understanding adaptation.

The Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) has a number of programmes which relate to land-use and agriculture. In the Biosphere 2100 programme they specifically question what trade-offs are to be made between land and water use for food production, bioenergy production, and nature conservation? In their regional impacts and strategies programme they focus on the consequences of climate change for various sectors including climate change.

The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA). The

Land Use Change and Agriculture (LUC) Programme at IIASA has developed methodologies and modelling tools, and compiled detailed ecological and economic databases to analyse global, regional and national food and agricultural policies, against the background of global change. LUC provides science-for-policy insight on key global problems: reduction of hunger and poverty while ensuring environmental sustainability, international agricultural trade reforms and elimination of distorting subsidies, and integration of climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. The Risk and Vulnerability Programme (RAV) provides analysis into adaptation and resilience to weather extremes.

The Centre for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo (CICERO) conducts a range of climate research, including work on the economics of adaptation, public/private responsibilities, policy options and sectoral impacts, including agriculture.

The Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) develops alternative approaches to the neoclassical economic models in order to assess the costs of action and inaction in ways that are relevant for national and international climate policy. SEI also investigates market mechanisms for climate mitigation, including carbon trading and carbon offsetting.

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