In the coming years, greenhouse horticulture is expected to make a significant transition towards high-quality products. The development of livestock production will be determined to a great extent by livestock diseases and the subsequent social and political debate. To a greater extent in the future, livestock production is expected to be characterized by product differentiation and added value, reduced long-distance transportation of live animals and a distinction in government policy with regards to land based and intensive livestock production.
Land based livestock production will play an important role in the management of open spaces, while intensive livestock production will be faced with a licensing system and strict rules regarding the sale of animal manure. A section of the agricultural world will become more extensive when making the transition to organic operations or the implementation of measures within agricultural nature management.
Developments in greenhouse horticulture (the scale of production and energy consumption per unit of the product) are determining factors for CO2 emissions in primary agriculture. For livestock production, the development of the stock and the feed management (quantity and use) are important factors for emissions of CH4 and N2O. The emission of methane is chiefly related to the number of animals (particularly cows) through their digestion of feed; the manner of storing manure also influences emissions of methane. The emission of nitrous oxide is closely related to the use and application of manure and artificial fertilizer.
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