Reasonableness

Reasonableness is a common standard used to evaluate a farmer's actions and to attach liability for on-farm, environmental injury. Historically, actions in nuisance and negligence have provided a remedy to parties injured, either physically or in law, as a consequence of some aspect of an agriculture operation. To prevent an unending chain of liability, the common law has limited what injuries are compensable through the use of a reasonableness standard. Due to its inherent fluid nature, this...

Description Of The Netherlands Agricultural System

The Netherlands agricultural system can be characterized as a high input system (large inputs per ha resulting in high yields). The inputs per ha (fertilizers) are the highest in the world, and so are both crop yields per ha, and milk production per cow (LEI, 2003 FAO, 2004). Agriculture and food production put a large claim on available resources and cause large emissions to the environment. In the Netherlands, about 60 of the land is in use for agricultural production and agriculture is the...

Changes In Land

Most of the world's ruminant production comes from only one-sixth of the global area of grassland. The estimated global area of grassland in mixed industrial systems is 565 Mha for 1995, which in pastoral systems 1,600 Mha, while about 1600 - 1400 -1200 -1000 -800 600 400 200 0 Figure 5.4 Annual meat (top panel) and milk (bottom panel) production per hectare of grassland for pastoral and mixed industrial production systems for all ruminants in developing, industrialized and transition countries...

Proximate causes

At the proximate level of causation, both tropical deforestation and desertification are best explained by multiple factors and various actors. Dominating the broad clusters of proximate causes of deforestation is the combination of agricultural expansion, wood extraction, and infrastructure extension, with clear regional variations. Dominating the broad clusters in desertification is the combination of agricultural activities, increased aridity, infrastructure extension, and wood extraction,...

List of abbreviations

Asia Least-cost Greenhouse Gas Abatement Strategy Advanced Terrestrial Ecosystem Analysis and Modelling Aggregate Timber Land Analysis System Computable general equilibrium (model) Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research Conversion of Land Use and its Effects Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at Small regional extent European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts model Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization...

References

Grove, T.P. Evans and C.M. Schweik (2001) A Review and Assessment of Land Use Change Models. Dynamics of Space, Time, and Human Choice. Center for the Study of Institutions, Population, and Environmental Change, Indiana University and USDA Forest Service. Aitkin, M., D. Anderson and J. Hinde (1981) Statistical modelling of data on teaching styles (with discussion). Journal of the Royal Statistical Society A, Vol. 144, pp. 148-161. Alberti, M. and P. Waddell (2000)...

P 1Pp 1PtJp 1 P p

Where Pt,cl, Pt,co and Pt,T represent future productivity as affected by climate change, increasing CO2 concentrations and technology development, respectively. Importantly, we assumed that the effects of these factors were additive. Although interactions between CO2 elevation and changes in climatic conditions have been reported, experimental evidence at the field scale is still limited (Ewert et al., 2002 Tubiello and Ewert, 2002) and there is no evidence about the significance of such...

Modelling Future Land Use Changes General method

The development of land use change scenarios was based on the following procedure (Figure 3.2). In a first step, important drivers of land use change were identified and interpreted at the European scale. Then, the future changes of the relevant drivers were estimated for the different scenarios and the corresponding total changes in land use were assessed. Finally, scenarios-specific rules were developed to allocate estimated land use changes across Europe. A more detailed description of the...

Effects and tradeoffs when reducing agricultural production

Since the agricultural sector has large effects on the environment a reduction in production or even a complete close down of the production sector is expected to have large effects on the environment. Agriculture is the main cause for eutrophication, acidification and a large emitter of N2O and CH4, a decline of this sector will reduce these problems. So it seems that there are no local trade offs to the other environmental themes (they even benefit from it). However, the trade-offs with...

Changes in Consumption Patterns Options and Impacts of a Transition in Protein Foods

Harry Aiking, Xueqin Zhu, Ekko van Ierland, Frank Willemsen, Xinyou Yin and Jan Vos Food sustainability and the protein chain Food is important to individuals and society, providing nutrients and generating income (Tansey and Worsley, 1995). The relationships between food production, environment and society are complex. In fact, the evolution of agriculture has both shaped and been shaped by world population growth (Evans, 1998). At any rate, a major proportion of global environmental pressure...

Conclusions And Implications

The concept of land use transition has been applied in land change studies at different spatial and temporal scales. A forest transition has occurred at a national scale in Europe and North America during the last 100 years, constituting a change from decreasing to expanding national forest areas. This transition has involved afforestation and natural regeneration mostly on abandoned marginal agricultural land and occurred as societies industrialized and urbanized (Mather et al., 1999). The...

Sustainable Agriculture In Central America Agricultural tradeoffs to mitigate deforestation

Throughout the developing world, the scarcity of remaining land resources means that capital and land intensive agriculture represents an increasing share of the overall means to food production. Growth in food production slowed worldwide starting in the 1960s (World Bank, 1995). Half of potentially arable unused land remains locked (de jure if not de facto) in protected lands, and another three-fourths has soil or topographic limitations. Further, over 10 of land currently in production is...

Classification Of Land Use Models

Different authors have provided reviews of land use models using classification systems, often based on the dominant technique used in the model or the underlying disciplinary theory. For deforestation models an overview is provided by Lambin (1997) and Kaimowitz and Angelsen (1998) while Miller et al. (1999) present a review of integrated urban models. Lambin et al. (2000) review models for agricultural intensification, Bockstael and Irwin (2000) review a number of land use models in terms of...

Discussion And Conclusions

The results in this chapter clearly show that the technical potential to increase crop yields and increase the efficiency of the animal production system is large enough to meet food demand in 2050 and reduce the area of agricultural land required for food production. Particularly, the potential efficiency gains in the animal production systems result in large surplus areas, up to 72 of the present agricultural land. The bioenergy production potential from these surplus areas are considerable,...

Protein Crop Options And Climate Change

A conservative estimate shows that direct human consumption of plant protein, rather than indirect (via meat), has the potential to reduce the claim on natural resources such as land and fossil fuels 4-6 fold (Smil, 2000 Pimentel and Pimentel, 2003). It should be realised, however, that the meat chain has been optimised for thousands of years, resulting in efficient use of almost the whole animal (meat as well as skin, hairs, bones, gut, etc.). When replacing meat with NPFs, by analogy, all...

Example For The Randstad Region Land Use Model

Randstad National Landscape

This example illustrates the possible use of LUCC models to support the discussion on land use policies and its effects for agriculture and future land use patterns. A representative LUCC model that allows the exploration of future land use patterns under different scenarios is applied to the Randstad region in the Netherlands. The term 'Randstad Holland' was launched to denote a group of towns and cities located relatively close together in the west of the Netherlands (see Figure 2.1 A for the...

Economic modelling

Introducing more environmentally friendly foods such as NPFs to replace animal products seems promising for environmental improvement according to LCA. A limitation of LCA, however, is that it cannot show how the rest of world will react if consumers in the EU partly replace pork by NPFs. As long as pork is highly demanded in the whole world and feed is imported from the rest of the world, the pork issue remains an international issue. If eastern Asian countries have an increasing demand for...

Scenarios

Climate conditions as predicted for the year 2020 (stylised representation of a typical environmental driving force). Increase in total food energy demand by 10 (stylised representation of an increase in food exports driven by increased global food demand). Decrease in meat energy demand by 10 (stylised representation of a change in lifestyles towards more vegetarian diets). Decrease in available crop land by 10 (stylised representation of increased demand for land for non-food purposes, e.g....

Population Growth

India was the first country in the world to adopt a programme to reduce birth rates aimed at stabilizing population 'consistent with the requirement of the national economy.' Ironically the programme could not achieve the desired results in the early decades of its implementation. Replacement level fertility is estimated to be achieved by 2026. Yet, because of population momentum, the population will continue to grow for some more time. Mukhopadhyaya (2000) observed that during 1901-1921, the...