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Joo-Hwa Tay, Stephen Tiong-Lee tayt, Liu Yu, Show Kuan Yeow and volodymyr ivanov

Aqua Aerobic Granule



Waste Management Series

Volume 1: Waste Materials in Construction: Science and Engineering of Recycling for Environmental Protection G.R. Woolley, J.J.J.M. Goumans and P.J. Wainwright (Editors)

Volume 2: Geological Disposal of Radioactive Wastes and Natural Analogues

W. Miller, R. Alexander, N. Chapman, I. McKinley and J. Smellie

Volume 3: Principles and Standards for the Disposal of Long-lived Radioactive Wastes N. Chapman, S. McCombie (Editors)

Volume 4: Solid Waste: Assessment, Monitoring and Remediation I. Twardowska, H.E. Allen, A.F. Kettrup, W.J. Lacy

Volume 5:

Olive Processing Waste Management: Literature Review and

Patent Survey, Second Edition

Michael Niaounakis and Constantinos P. Halvadakis



Joo-Hwa Tay, PhD, PE Stephen Tiong-Lee Tay,^ PhD Yu Liu, PhD Kuan-Yeow Show, PhD Volodymyr Ivanov, PhD

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore


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First edition 2006

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No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made

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A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

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A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress

ISBN-13: 978-0-08-045022-3 ISBN-10: 0-08-045022-9 ISSN: 1478-7482

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BOOK AID International

Sabre Foundation

In Remembrance to Stephen Tiong-Lee Tay

We wish to dedicate this book to the major author, Stephen Tiong-Lee Tay. Stephen suddenly passed away on 29 July 2005, several days before the finishing of the book. He established research team on the granulation studies in Nanyang Technological University (NTU) and created there a spirit of cooperation and friendship. He has made significant contributions to the world's studies on granulation, especially in microbiology and biotechnology of the granules degrading toxic compounds. He postulated and proved that the aerobic granulation technology could overcome the disadvantages associated with the use of carrier materials in traditional cell immobilization systems. The microbial granulation research team and his students in NTU continue the development of Stephen's ideas. For all of us, who had the privilege of knowing, interacting, and working with Stephen, he was more than a brilliant and dedicated Professor, he was a dear friend, mentor, and coach, he has touched the lives of many of us.

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