Aerobic granular sludge SBRs have been seeded with conventional activated sludge. In anaerobic granulation, there is evidence that the characteristics of the seed sludge profoundly influence the formation and properties of anaerobic granules. The important factors that determine the quality of seed sludge for aerobic granulation appear to include the macroscopic characteristics, settleability, surface properties (a high surface hydrophobicity and low surface charge density are preferred), and microbial activity. Although the role of seed sludge in aerobic granulation is not clear yet, some recent research had looked into this aspect (Tay et al., 2005a,b).
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