Scope of Applications

Anaerobic treatment process has been successfully applied in various types of industrial wastewaters. It ranges from food wastewaters to non-food

Table 3.1. Processes used by vendors in database (Frankin, 2001)

Process

Number

% average

% average

% average

of plants

in database

over

over

1990-1996

1997-2000

UASB

682

58

68

34

EGSB

198

16

8

50

Low ratef (lagoon/contact)

187

15

12

8

Fixed bedf

54

4

4

3

Fluidized bedf

16

1

2

1

Hybrid

12

1

1

2

Undefined/unknown

66

5

6

3

Total in database

1215

100

101

101

tDenotes non-granular type of anaerobic system.

tDenotes non-granular type of anaerobic system.

Table 3.2. Applications served by vendors in database (Frankin, 2001)

Application

Number of plants

%

Breweries and beverages

329

27

Distilleries and fermentation

208

17

Chemical

63

5

Pulp and paper

130

11

Food

389

32

Landfill leachate

20

2

Undefined/unknown

76

6

Total in database

1215

100

wastewater, such as chemical plants. Table 3.2 illustrates that food, breweries and beverages industries have the largest share of anaerobic treatment plants built to treat their wastewaters. The data presented also affirms that anaerobic treatment is an established technology for a wide variety of industrial applications.

The fact that chemical wastewater can be treated using anaerobic process is very important and encouraging. Recent advances in chemical technology have led to the production of many and new potentially dangerous compounds called xenobiotics in the wastewater streams. These new substances, representing a wide array of compounds ranging from phenols to pesticides, each presents its own individual problems when dealing with its ultimate disposal. Many new and innovative techniques for the treatment of these wastes have been introduced, many of which employ anaerobic processes.

Brewery, beverages, distillations, and fermentation wastewaters present problems similar to those of sugar processing, namely high organic strength. These wastewaters are composed of the residues of the fermented material which contributes to high biological oxygen demand (BOD), as high as 25,000 mg/L after the alcohol has been distilled off. Anaerobic processes have been used to treat these wastewaters, with good results and thus this explains the large percentage (44%) of anaerobic application in this area.

Food processing industries cover a diverse scope from fish processing, pear and pineapple wastes to bean blanching wastes. Anaerobic treatment process has proven to yield encouraging results. Again, almost one-third of the anaerobic process plants are dedicated to treat the food wastewaters.

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