1. Main physical aspects are related to reactor's design and temperature. Design can directly or indirectly affect the mixing characteristics of the reactor, the liquid and gas upflow velocity rates, and even the shape of the biomass.
2. Temperature, besides affecting the physio-chemical fact described above, also affects the chemical-biological reaction rates. The optimal temperature for mesophilic treatment is in the range of 30-38°C and 50-60°C for thermophilic treatment.
1. Lower strength of wastewater can be used. It was observed the lower the strength of the wastewater, the faster granulation will proceed. The strength should however be high enough to maintain good conditions for bacterial growth. The minimum COD level is presumably approximately 500 mg/l.
2. Dispersed solids such as acidogenic biomass and fibrous matter, retard or may even prevent granulation. Hence the presence of the above should be avoided or minimized.
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