Aerobic granulation can be regarded as the gathering together of cells through cell-to-cell immobilization to form a stable, contiguous, multi-cellular association. These aggregated granules have a compact structure as compared with suspended sludge flocs. Studies showed that aerobic granulation is a gradual process from seed sludge to compact aggregates, further to granular sludge and finally to mature granules as illustrated in Fig. 5.1. Obviously, for cells in a culture to aggregate, a number of factors could affect this process.

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