Aerobically grown microbial granules have diverse microbial community, complex spatial structure, coordinated physiological functions, and specific temporal changes (Tay et al., 2003a,b; Ivanov et al., 2004, 2005). Using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and fluorescence in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes, it was shown that microbial granules were composed of a variety of biological layers arranged as a sequence of obligate aerobic microorganisms, facultative anaerobic, obligate anaerobic bacteria, and finally a core of dead and lysed cells (Tay et al., 2002a,b; Ivanov et al., 2004, 2005). Granules also contain protozoa on their surface (Ivanov et al., 2004). Due to the diversity of granules and their structures, microbial granules can be used as bioagent to treat wastewater or to recover wastewater treatment system after sludge bulking or physiological shocks.
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