Preface xv

Contributors xxi

1. Mechanisms and Models for Anaerobic Granulation 1

Kuan-Yeow Show

Introduction 1

Physico-chemical Models 2

Inert Nuclei Model 2

Selection Pressure Model 3

Attrition Model 3

Multivalence Positive Ion-bonding Model 4

ECP Bonding Model 5

Synthetic and Natural Polymer-bonding Model 6

Secondary Minimum Adhesion Model 7

Local Dehydration and Hydrophobic Interaction Model 8

Surface Tension Model 8

Consideration on the Physico-chemical Models 9

Structural Models 10

Capetown Model 11

Spaghetti Model 11

Syntrophic Microcolony Model 11

Multilayer Model 13

Ecological Models 14

Consideration on the Structural Models 16

Proton Translocation-Dehydration Theory 18

Theory Development 18 Consideration on the Proton Translocation-Dehydration

Theory 20

Cellular Automaton Model 21

Cell-to-Cell Communication Model 23

A General Model for Anaerobic Granulation 24

References 27

2. Factors Affecting Anaerobic Granulation 35

Kuan-Yeow Show

Introduction 35

Environmental Conditions 36

Temperature 36

System pH 37

Characteristics of the Feed 38

Process Conditions During Start-up and Operation 39

Upflow Velocity and Hydraulic Retention Time 39

Organic Loading Rate 40

Characteristics of Seed Sludge 43

Characteristics of Substrate 45

Chemical Conditions 47

Effect of Cations 47

Effect of Polymers 49 Summary of Recommendations for Developing

Granular Sludge 51

Biological Aspects 51

Chemical Aspects 51

Physical Aspects 51

Wastewater Characteristics 52

References 52

3. Applications of Anaerobic Granulation 57

Kuan-Yeow Show

Introduction 57

Types of Anaerobic Treatment Plants Installed Worldwide 58

Scope of Applications 58

Applications of Anaerobic Granulation 60

Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor 60

Expanded Granular Sludge Bed Reactor 68

Hybrid Anaerobic Reactors 72

Anaerobic Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor 73

Anaerobic Baffled Reactor 74

Internal Circulation Reactor 74

Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor 75

Anaerobic Migrating Blanket Reactor 75

The Future of Anaerobic Granulation 76

References 78

4. Mechanisms of Aerobic Granulation 85

Yu Liu

Introduction 85

A Generic Four-step Immobilization Mechanism 86

Selection Pressure-driven Aerobic Granulation 88 Role of Extracellular Polymeric Substances in Aerobic

Granulation 92

Summary 95

References 95

5. Factors Affecting Aerobic Granulation 99

Yu Liu

Introduction 99

Substrate Composition 99

Substrate Loading Rate 101

Hydrodynamic Shear Force 102

Feast-Famine Regime 104

Solids Retention Time 104

Dissolved Oxygen 105

Feeding Strategy 106

Cycle Time 106

Settling Time 108

Exchange Ratio 108

Presence of Calcium Ion in Feed 109

Seed Sludge 109

Reactor Configuration 110

Summary 111

References 112

6. Structure of Aerobically Grown Microbial Granules 115

Volodymyr Ivanov

Natural Microbial Granules 115

Aerobically Grown Microbial Granules 116 Structural Features of Aerobically Grown Microbial Granules 116

Shape and Size of the Granules 117

Surface of Granules 119

Radial Structures in Granule 120

Concentric Layers of Granule 123

Biomass and Polysaccharides in Granule 125

Channels and Pores 126

Adherence and Release of Cells and Particles 127

Anaerobic Processes in Aerobically Grown Granules 128

Optimization of Granule Size 129

Dynamics of Granule Formation and Destruction 131

References 132

7. Microorganisms of Aerobic Microbial Granules 135

Volodymyr Ivanov and Stephen Tiong-Lee Tay

Granules as Cellular Aggregates 135

Microbial Interactions in Aggregates 136

Study of Microbial Community Diversity 138 Microbial Diversity Studied by Cloning-Sequencing Method 138

Growth Stages of Aerobic Granules 139

Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis 141

Diversity Indices 142

Microbial Community Analysis 143

Aerobes and Facultative Anaerobes in Granules 145

Obligate Anaerobes in Granules 147 Microbial Diversity of Granules, Grown in Glucose-containing Model Wastewater, Studied by FISH with Group-specific

Oligonucleotide Probes 151

Bacterial Populations in Acetate-fed Aerobic Granules 158

References 158

8. Nutrient Removal by Microbial Granules 163

Yu Liu

Introduction 163

Development of Nitrifying Granules 164

The Formation of Nitrifying Granules 164

Characteristics of Nitrifying Granules 164

Elemental Compositions of Nitrifying Granules 170

Microbial Diversity of Nitrifying Granules 171

Organics Removal and Nitrification 176

Nitrogen Removal under Alternating Aerobic-Anaerobic

Conditions 177 Improved Stability of Aerobic Granules by Selecting

Slow-growing Bacteria 178

Microbial Granules for Phosphorus Removal 180

Formation of PAGs 180

Characteristics of PAGs 181

Summary 183

References 184

9. Removal of Phenol from Wastewater by Microbial

Granules 191

Stephen Tiong-Lee Tay

Sources and Applications of Phenol 191

Contamination of Environment with Phenol 192

Microbial Resistance to Phenol Toxicity 193

Aerobic Biodegradation of Phenol 193

Anaerobic Biodegradation of Phenol 194 Conventional Biological Treatment of Phenol-containing

Wastewater 195

Use of Immobilized Cells for Phenol Biodegradation 196 Cultivation of Aerobic Granules for Phenol Removal from

Wastewater 197 Microbial Response of Aerobic Granules to High Phenol

Loading 200 Bacterial Diversity and Functions in Aerobic Phenol-degrading

Granules 202

Enhanced Phenol Removal by Aerobic Granules 205

References 208

10. Seeds for Aerobic Microbial Granules 213

Volodymyr Ivanov and Stephen Tiong-Lee Tay

Advantages of Microbial Granulation 213

Disadvantages of Microbial Granulation 214

Principles of Facilitated Granule Formation 214 Cell Aggregation by Application of Reagents and Adsorbents 215

Granules as Seeds for Granulation 216

Life Cycle of the Granule and Determination of Retention

Time for the Granules in SBR 216

Selection of Microbial Seeds from Granules 218 Use of Enrichment Culture for Facilitated Granule

Formation 219

Selection of Pure Cultures for Facilitated Granule Formation 221

Isolation of Pure Cultures with High Self-aggregation Ability 222

Formation of Granules 223

Microscopy and Microbiology of the Granules 227 Phylogenetic Identification and Evaluation of Biosafety of

Selected Strains 227

Diversity of Granule versus Fast Granulation 230

Selection of Granules with Nitrifying Activity 231 Formation of Phenol-degrading Granules from Acetate-fed

Granules 233

Seeds for Phenol-degrading Granules 238

References 240

11. Biosorption Properties of Aerobic Granules 245

Yu Liu

Introduction 245

Development of a Kinetic Model for Metal Biosorption 246

Biosorption Kinetics of Various Metals by Aerobic Granules 249

Biosorption of Cd2+ by Aerobic Granules 249

Biosorption of Cu2+ by Aerobic Granules 250

Biosorption ofZn2+ by Aerobic Granules 252

Effect of Initial Metal Concentration on Biosorption Kinetics 253 Effect of Initial Metal Concentration on Specific

Biosorption Capacity 253 Effect of Initial Metal Concentration on Overall

Biosorption Rate Constant 255 Effect of Initial Aerobic Granules Concentration on

Biosorption Kinetics 255 Effect of Initial Aerobic Granules Concentration on

Specific Biosorption Capacity 255 Effect of Initial Aerobic Granules Concentration on

Overall Biosorption Rate Constant 259

Comparison of Biosorption Behaviors of Various Metals by

Aerobic Granules 260

Summary 265

References 265

12. Conclusions: Current State and Directions of Research 269

The Development of Anaerobic Granulation 269

Mechanisms of Aerobic Granulation 270

Physiological Diversity in Aerobic Microbial Granules 270 Distribution of Exotrophic and Endotrophic Microbial

Cells in Granule 271

Microbial Diversity of Aerobic Granules 272

Stability of Microbial Granules 272 Formation of Aerobic Microbial Granules in

Continuous Systems 273

Microbial Seeds 273

Practical Application of Aerobic Microbial Granules 274

Color Plate Section

Index 275

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