Aerobes and Facultative Anaerobes in Granules

Relation of detected OTUs to oxygen was inferred from their phylogenetic identification (Table 7.3).

Table 7.3. Distribution of OTUs by relation to oxygen

name

% of clones found in the following library

GA GB GC

Grouped with

Relation to oxygen, gliding motility in the closest species

GB15

2.2

2.1

0

Acidovorax sp.

Aerobe

GC25

0

0

4.3

Burkholderia cepacia

Aerobe

GB38

0

4.2

0

Comamonas

Aerobe

acidovorans

GA32

2.2

0

0

Comamonas

Aerobe

testosteroni

GB7

0

2.1

0

Janthinobacterium

Aerobe

lividum

GB42

0

4.2

0

Herbaspirillum sp.

Aerobe

GC45

0

2.1

4.3

Janthinobacterium

Aerobe

lividum

GA16

2.2

0

0

Janthinobacterium

Aerobe

lividum

GB40

15.6

33.3

4.3

Janthinobacterium

Aerobe

lividum

GC7

0

0

6.4

Janthinobacterium

Aerobe

lividum

GC23

0

0

2.1

Frateuria aurantia

(continued)

Table 7.3. Distribution of OTUs by relation to oxygen — Cont'd

OTU

% of clones found in

Grouped with

Relation to oxygen,

name

the following library

gliding motility in

GA

GB

GC

the closest species

GC53

0

0

17.0

Pseudomonas

Aerobe

fluorescence

GA21

6.7

12.5

4.3

Acidovorax sp.

Aerobe

GC14

0

0

4.3

Comamonas terrigena

Aerobe

GA18

8.9

4.2

0

Flavobacterium sp.

Aerobe

GA23

4.4

0

0

Flavobacterium sp.

Aerobe

GA44

2.2

0

0

Flavobacterium sp.

Aerobe

GA36

4.4

0

0

Flavobacterium

Aerobe

balustinum

GC11

0

0

12.7

Flexibacter sp.

Aerobe

GA53

2.2

0

0

Cytophaga sp.

Aerobe

GC52

15.6

10.4

4.3

Cytophaga sp.

Aerobe

Total aerobes

65.6

75.8

64.0

GA55

11.1

0

0

Erwinia persincina

Facultative anaerobe

GC30

4.4

2.1

6.4

Escherichia coli

Facultative anaerobe

GC3

0

0

4.3

Dysgonomonas sp.

Facultative anaerobe

Total

15.5

2.1

10.7

facultative

anaerobes

GB58

6.7

4.2

0

Dechloromonas

Anaerobe

agitatus

GC40

0

2.1

2.1

Lactococcus lactis

Anaerobe

GB23

0

2.1

0

Leuconostoc lactis

Anaerobe

GC54

11.1

12.5

12.8

Leuconostoc lactis

Anaerobe

GC50

0

0

6.4

Propionibacterium sp.

Anaerobe

GC6

0

0

2.1

Bacteroides sp.

Anaerobe

GC51

0

0

2.1

Bacteroides sp.

Anaerobe

Total

17.8

20.9

25.5

anaerobes

Mean frequencies ±SD of OTUs related to obligate aerobes, facultative anaerobes, and anaerobes in all clone libraries were 69 ± 7%, 9 ± 7%, and 21 ± 4%. It was a statistically reliable correlation between percentage of total volume of the granule occupied by aerobic, facultative anaerobic, and obligate anaerobic bacteria and percentage of aerobic, facultative anaerobic, and obligate anaerobic bacterial clones isolated from

Table 7.4. Average geometric and biological parameters of 2.4 mm spherical granule grown in a column sequencing batch reactor with a medium containing ethanol or acetate

Table 7.4. Average geometric and biological parameters of 2.4 mm spherical granule grown in a column sequencing batch reactor with a medium containing ethanol or acetate

Layer or zone in the

Geometric

Volume,

% of total

% of related

granule

parameters

mm3

volume of the granule

bacterial clones isolated from the granules

Aerobic

0.55 mm below

6.09

84.1

69 ± 7%

microorganisms

granule surface

in porous layer

Facultative

Between 0.55

0.97

13.4

9 ± 7%

anaerobic

and 0.85 mm

microorganisms

below granule surface

Obligate anaerobic

Between 0.85

0.15

2.0

2.1%

microorganisms

and 1.0 mm

(Bacteroides spp.)

Central core of dead

Depth is 1 mm.

0.03

0.5

and lyzed cells

Diameter is 0.4mm

the granules (Table 7.4). The reason may be that cell concentrations of the representatives of OTUs in the granules were similar or at least with some narrow ranges.

Obligate aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were detected using FISH with oligonucleotide probes and CLSM within a layer with a depth from 70 to 100 |xm from the surface of biofilm. Probably, this depth is related to the depth of oxygen diffusion into granule. At the same time, facultative anaerobic enterobacteria performing either aerobic or anaerobic processes were detected using FISH with oligonucleotide probes and CLSM within a layer with a depth from surface to 650 |xm from the surface of granule. Concentration increased to maximum at a depth of 450 |xm and remained almost stable at depths from 450 to 650 |xm (Fig. 7.4).

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