Storm surge results

Tidal Surge Katrina

The final output of the storm surge model incorporating HWMs and barriers to flow are depicted in Figure 3. The created map is only as accurate and precise as the data used to create it, and for the storm surge analysis used to create the maximum storm surge digital elevation coverage for Hurricane Katrina, the accuracy and precision is no better than the HWMs used to make that coverage. Datasets constructed from field data collected by the USGS, FEMA, USACE, and other scientists and engineers...

Methods used to reveal genetic diversity in the colonyforming prymnesiophytes Phaeocystis antarctica P globosa and P

Hayes Linda K. Medlin Received 12 October 2005 Accepted 17 March 2006 Published online 12 April 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract Previous work on the genetic diversity of Phaeocystis used ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analyses to show that there is substantial inter- and intraspe-cific variation within the genus. First attempts to trace the biogeographical history of strains in Antarctic coastal waters were based on a...

Heat latent

Latent Heat is energy in the form of heat released or absorbed by a substance during a phase change of the substance. The amount of latent heat involved with condensation evaporation and freezing melting are different under different temperatures and pressures. As temperature increases, latent heat of vaporization decreases, but that of fusion increases. Water is not the only substance that has three different phases at a normal temperature range in the universe, but it is the most abundant...

Upper And Intermediate Water Masses

Sub Tropical Gyres Characteristics

If you compare Figure 6.15 with Figure 3.1, you will see that the geographical distribution of the world's upper water masses is strongly influenced by the pattern of surface currents. Upper water masses are generally considered to include both the mixed surface layer and the water corresponding to the upper part of the permanent thermocline, and they are therefore of varying thickness. If, as is the case in the region of the Equator, salinity is kept low by high precipitation and the...

Mountain Birches

Fig Leaves The Annanite Mountains

The term mountain birches encompasses a diverse taxo-nomic group which can be defined most easily in terms of growth habit and location. Mountain birches are distinguished from all other birches by their ability to live in the alpine or subarctic zone above the treeline and have the potential to adopt the many-stemmed growth (polycormic) habit as opposed to the pole form (monocormic). The silver birch (Betula pendula) grows only as the pole form, which in Scotland requires a minimum of 1100 day...

Shaanxi China January 23 1556

The deadliest earthquake and mass-wasting event on record occurred in 1556 in the central Chinese province of shaanxi. Most of the 830,000 deaths from this earthquake resulted from landslides and the collapse of homes built into loess, a deposit of wind-blown dust that covers much of central China. The loess represents the fine-grained soil eroded from the Gobi desert to the north and west and deposited by wind on the great loess plateau of central China. Thus, this disaster was triggered by an...

Proposal Of Seafloor Spreading

Hess contemplated these many unexpected discoveries in relation to the theory of continental drift proposed by the German meteorologist and geophysicist Alfred Wegener in 1912. After noticing that the east coast of south America and the west coast of Africa fit together like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle and collecting additional fossil evidence, Wegener concluded that the continents had once been connected, but split and drifted thousands of miles apart. Wegener offered no explanation for the...

History of Levee Building on the Mississippi River

Mississippi River Widening 100 Miles

The Mississippi River is the longest river in the world and encompasses the third-largest watershed, draining 41 percent of the continental United States including an area of 1,245,000 square miles (3,224,550 km2). The river transports 230 million tons of sediment, including the sixth-largest silt load in the world. Before the Europeans came and began altering the river, this silt used to cover the flood-plains with this fertile material during the semiannual floods and carry more downriver to...

Drought caused by changes in Global Atmospheric circulation

Aftermath Dust Bowl

Global oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns undergo frequent shifts that affect large parts of the globe, particularly those arid and semiarid parts affected by Hadley Cell circulation. One of the better known variations in global circulation is known as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Fluctuations in global circulation can account for natural disasters, including the Dust Bowl days of the 1930s in the U.S. plains states. Similar global climate...

Successful demonstration of VAM processing

Indirect Cut Away Heat Exchange

The only VAM technology that has so far proven to be commercially feasible on a large-scale basis is a system at the West Cliff Colliery of BHP Billiton, Australia (Somers and Schultz, 2008). The installation is called WestVAMP (West Cliff Colliery Ventilation Air Methane Plant) and is based on the VOCSIDIZER technology developed, patented and supplied by MEGTEC Systems. Using VAM at a concentration of 0.9 per cent, high-grade steam is generated and used to drive a conventional power plant...

Deep chlorophyll maximum

It seems likely that the increase in chlorophyll concentration in this deep layer, relative to that in the mixed layer, is due to an increase in chlorophyll concentration within the cells as well as to an increased population of phytoplankton.24,268,687,1022 Kiefer et al. (1976) found the chlorophyll per unit biomass in the deep phytoplankton layer to be about twice the value near the surface. At five stations in the eastern subtropical Atlantic, Veldhuis and...

Upward irradiance and radiance

Florida Irradiance

As a result of scattering within the water, at any depth where there is a downward flux there is also an upward flux. This is always smaller, usually much smaller, than the downward flux but at high ratios of scattering to absorption can contribute significantly to the total light available for photosynthesis. Furthermore, in any water the upwelling light is of crucial importance for the remote sensing of the aquatic environment (Chapter 7), since it is that fraction of the upward flux which...

Tambora Indonesia 1815

The largest volcanic eruption ever recorded is that of the Indonesian island arc volcano Tambora in 1815. This eruption initially killed an estimated 92,000 people, largely from the associated tsunami. The eruption sent so much particulate matter into the atmosphere that it influenced the climate of the planet, cooling the surface and changing patterns of rainfall globally. The year after the eruption is known as the year without a summer in reference to the global cooling caused by the...

Orbital parameters precession

The ORBIT And rotational behavior of the Earth moving about the Sun affects the amount of solar energy received. Precession is the phenomenon where the Earth wobbles about on its axis, just like a spinning top. Consequently, the solstices and equinoxes occur earlier each year. The winter solstice occurs a few weeks before perihelion, the closest approach Earth makes to the Sun. Over time, the summer solstice will occur closer to perihelion and the summer heat will become even greater. This...

Deformation mechanism maps

Nabarro Herring Creep Mechnaism

Our discussion so far has focused on the type of creep most commonly observed in glaciers, called power-law creep because the creep rate is proportional to the stress raised to some power > 1 (Equation (4.4)). The dominant processes in power-law creep are dislocation glide and climb. For completeness, some other types of creep should be mentioned. In recent years, scientists working on ice deformation mechanisms have found it useful to plot maps showing the deformation mechanisms operating at...

Types of Rotary Vacuum Filters

The three principal types of rotary vacuum filters are rotary drum, coil, and belt. The rotary drum filter consists of a cylindrical drum rotating partially submerged in a vat or pan of conditioned sludge. The drum is divided lengthwise into a number of sections that are connected through internal piping to ports in the valve body (plant) at the hub. This plate rotates in contact with a fixed valve plate with similar parts, which are connected to a vacuum supply, a compressed air supply, and an...

Sources Of Sludge

Wastewater sludge is generated in primary, secondary, and chemical treatment processes. In primary treatment, the solids that float or settle are removed. The floatable material makes up a portion of the solid waste known as scum. Scum is not normally considered sludge however, it should be disposed of in an environmentally sound way. The settleable material that collects on the bottom of the clarifier is known as primary sludge. Primary sludge can also be referred to as raw sludge because it...

Taconic Orogeny

Taconic Orogeny

The Taconic allochthons are a group of Cambrian through Middle ordovician slates resting alloch-thonously on the Cambro-ordovician carbonate platform. These allochthons are very different from the underlying rocks, implying that there have been substantial displacements on the thrust faults beneath the allochthons, probably on the order of 100 miles (160 km). The allochthons structurally overlie wild flysch breccias that are basically submarine slide breccias and mudflows derived from the...

Criticisms of the Green Revolution

The Green Revolution has been a much-debated subject. The initial euphoria during the late 1960s of the high-yielding wheat and rice varieties and more intensive crop production practices was followed by a wave of criticism. Some criticism reflected a sincere concern about social and economic problems in rural areas that were not and cannot be solved by technology alone. Some criticism was based on premature analyses of what was actually happening in areas where the Green Revolution...

Heat sensible

IF The movement of energy to or from a substance can be sensed (for example, with a thermometer) as a rise or fall in temperature, then it is referred to as sensible heat. By contrast, if the movement of energy to or from a substance has a different result, such as evaporation, there will be no change in temperature. In this case, the energy is held dormant in the substance for release should the substance revert to its initial state (for example, via condensation). For this reason it is called...

The Koppen Climate Classification System

In 1900, the Russian-German climatologist Vladimir Koppen presented the scientific community with a system for classifying the world's climates. Today, it is called the Koppen Climate Classification System. It divides the Earth's surface into climatic regions that generally coincide with world patterns of vegetation and soils. The system has five major climate types. These are based on averages of annual rainfall and temperatures. The annual averages are combined with the monthly rain and...

Simaroubaceae

Life form medium-sized tree Max. height 21 m (herbarium) Max. diameter 40 cm (herbarium) Leaf alternate, imparipinnately compound, 11-31 subopposite leaflets, oblong to elliptic, mesophyll (3-9 x 10-30 cm), entire, coriaceous, hairs on midrib Inflorescence several clustered spikes Flower small red Fruit oblong to ellipsoid (4.5 x 7 cm), woody, yellow Other it has a rough bark in square scales, with a strong almond scent. Continent Upper Guinea endemic Upper Guinea Sierra Leone, C te d'Ivoire,...

Impact Of Plateau Ice On Reconstructed Equilibrium Line Altitudes

Glacial Plateau Contour Toposheet

Once the presence of glaciers has been confirmed by the application of a landsystems approach, palaeo-climate reconstructions can be undertaken based upon the limits and interpreted dynamics of the glacier coverage. Where plateau icefields existed but left little or no evidence of their presence they have often been ignored and reconstructions have been confined to valley glaciers only (e.g. Sissons, 1980 Ballantyne, 1990). In the following subsections the potential impact of overlooking...

Box 103 Onset Of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation

Glacier Erosion Pictures

Marine sediments provide a better record of Earth's glacial history than terrestrial sediments because their rate of sedimentation is more continuous and they are subjected to fewer episodes of erosion. A glacial signature can be found in these sediments via the presence of ice-rafted material such as dropstones or pods of coarse-grained debris within very fine-grained marine silts. This type of evidence has been used recently to challenge the accepted date for the onset of northern hemisphere...

Box 114 Moraine Banks And Cyclic Glacier Fluctuations

Flute Ice Glacier

The behaviour of individual Alaskan tidewater or fjord glaciers has often been observed to be asynchronous with other tidewater glaciers and with those on land. It has been suggested that tidewater glaciers may behave in a cyclic fashion due to the inherent instability of a calving glacier margin. The rate of glacier calving is strongly influenced by water depth. As a tidewater glacier advances down a fjord in equilibrium with its mass balance a moraine shoal or moraine bank will form along its...

Laboratory experiments

Pampas And Equalipties Tables

In order to test the theoretical considerations presented above, laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the resistivity-temperature curves for saturated and dry material from the field site at Schilthorn. For these experiments, a set of miniature electrodes and cables was developed for the use on the laboratory scale (Figure 6.4). This miniature DC resistivity tomography system was originally developed to monitor the migration of contaminants in soils in scaled centrifuge...

Adapting to climate change

Pampas And Equalipties Tables

We have to combat climate change if we are to reduce the risk of catastrophic events in the future. Yet whatever we do, some change is inevitable. Even if we stopped all greenhouse gas emissions tomorrow, the average global temperature would still keep rising for the next 30 years, mainly because of the gradual release of heat stored by the oceans. The rising temperatures are bound to raise sea levels. They may also cause more droughts and floods, and create problems for agriculture and...

Obligate Anaerobes in Granules

Pampas And Equalipties Tables

The representatives of phylogenetic groups in aerobically grown granules were determined and then hypothetically inferred physiological groups 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Distance along radius of granule, m Fig. 7.4. Distribution of enterobacteria in aerobically grown granule. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Distance along radius of granule, m Fig. 7.4. Distribution of enterobacteria in aerobically grown granule. of microbial community in granules have been used for analysis of...

Dissociation procedures

Pampas And Equalipties Tables

The most accurate measurement of the gas content evolving from dissociating hydrate are those made in situ, in which no quenching, depressurization, room-pressure handling, or sample re-installment onto the apparatus is required following synthesis. Either of two general procedures can be followed to take the hydrate samples from post-synthesis conditions of elevated methane pressure down to 0.1 MPa methane pressure prior to dissociation. The first method, referred to as temperature-ramping ,...

The Global Relation Between Sea Surface Temperature and Evaporation

Pampas And Equalipties Tables

The starting point for the analysis is the global relation between sea surface temperature and evaporation. Here, we use the monthly sea surface temperature data from the Hadley Centre (Rayner et al., 2003) and the monthly evaporation data computed from the NCEP reanalysis (Kalnay et al., 1996), from which the annual average fields have been computed. Each field is then zonally averaged over the ocean on the T62 Gaussian grid of the NCEP data. The results for the period (1979-2001) for each...

Multilayer Model

Pampas And Equalipties Tables

Based on the microscopic observations, a multilayer model for anaerobic granulation was initially proposed by MacLeod et al. (1990) Guiot et al. (1992). According to this model, the microbiological composition of granules is different in each layer. The inner layer mainly consists of methanogens that may act as nucleation centers necessary for the initiation of granule development. H2-producing and H2-utilizing bacteria are dominant species in the middle layer, and a mixed species including...

Multiple Scattering in an Absorbing Medium

Pampas And Equalipties Tables

Up to this point we have assumed that absorption is negligible and taken k to be identically zero. But an absolutely nonabsorbing medium does not exist. What about free space It, too, does not exist. Even the vast reaches of interstellar space are populated sparsely with molecules and particles. If you know how to make an absolute vacuum, run, do not walk, to the Patent Office. Moreover absorption is rarely if ever absolutely negligible it may be negligible for some purposes but not others. So...

Mollers All 120 8000 Aarhus C Denmark

Pampas And Equalipties Tables

Northwestern Germany experienced several ice advances and retreats during the Last Glacial Maximum. This part of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet, located at the margin of the Baltic Sea basin, was dominated by a land-based but highly dynamic Baltic Ice Stream that terminated about 30 km southwest of the study area at its maximum extent. Abundant tunnel valleys, drumlins, and low preconsolidation ratios of tills suggest fast ice flow caused by some combination of enhanced basal sliding and...

Global Climate Change And Extreme Weather Events

Pampas And Equalipties Tables

FIGURE SA-18 Observed changes in (A) global average surface temperature (B) global average sea level rise from tide gauge (blue) and satellite (red) data and (C) Northern Hemisphere snow cover for March-April. All changes are relative to corresponding averages for the period 1961-1990. Smoothed curves represent decadal averaged values while circles show yearly values. The shaded areas are the uncertainty intervals estimated from a comprehensive analysis of known uncertainties (A and B) and from...

Thermosphere

Global Weather Watchers

THE EARTH is surrounded by a blanket of air, called the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a thin layer of gases that envelope the Earth. The gases are held close to the earth by gravity and the thermal movement of air molecules. Life on Earth is supported by the atmosphere, solar energy, and the magnetic fields. Five layers have been identified in the atmosphere, using thermal characteristics, chemical composition, movement, and density. The atmosphere is divided into the troposphere, the...

The Near Future The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI

Although each of the published heat budget models is, in principle, appropriate for use in any kind of assessment of the thermal environment, none of the models is accepted as a fundamental standard, neither by researchers nor by end-users. Fig. 2.4 Acclimatisation related thresholds for example Lisbon 2003 based on the HeRATE approach Koppe and Jendritzky 2005 Fig. 2.4 Acclimatisation related thresholds for example Lisbon 2003 based on the HeRATE approach Koppe and Jendritzky 2005 On the other...

Sodium Silicate

Activated silica Sodium silicate that has been treated with sulfuric acid, aluminum sulfate, carbon dioxide, or chlorine. Acidity The capacity of a solution to absorb the effect of the addition of a base. Alkalinity The capacity of a solution to absorb the effect of the addition of an acid. Anionic polyelectrolytes Polyelectrolytes possessing a net negative charge in the molecules. Cationic polyelectrolytes Polyelectrolytes possessing a net positive charge in the molecules. Charge...

The Earths Geologic Past

Being able to look to the past has helped climatologists better understand long-term processes relating to the Earth's climate. Although lack of usable data means that much of the most ancient time intervals is not understood as well as are more recent time intervals, as new discoveries are made and analysis techniques are improved, the Earth's past climate history becomes clearer. In order to put the Earth's past in a historical context, it must be looked at on a timescale that spans 4.6...

Land Treatment Systems

Waste Water Infiltration System Canada

Land application of wastewater is perhaps the oldest method for disposal and treatment of wastewaters. Early systems were used in England as Land Farms, which received untreated wastewater and night soil from nearby communities. Today, land application systems have included application to edible and nonedible crops, to rangelands, to forests and wood plantations, to recreational areas including parks and golf courses, and to disturbed lands such as mine spoil sites. Land application of...

Physical Setting And Hydrology

Ohio River Wheeling Gage

Nineteen major tributaries discharge to the Ohio River (Figure 11-2). The 155,000-square-mile ORSANCO district originates on the western slopes of the Appalachian Mountains, with the Allegheny River flowing into the Ohio River from the northwest and the Monangahela River from the south. The southwestern portion of the district is characterized by rolling hills and wide valleys, and the northwest is level or gently rolling. The elevation of the Ohio's riverbed drops 429 feet from the headwaters...

Atmospheric Physics And Thermodynamics

Kohler Curve

The atmosphere is a thin shell of gas held gravitationally to the planet and having a thickness of only about 1 of the radius of the solid body. Its original composition, drawn from the solar nebula from which the Sun and the planets formed, will have included many more light elements, especially hydrogen and helium, than are found today, and a complicated evolutionary process, still not fully understood, was involved in the progression from one to the other. Key stages in the evolution of the...

Trade Winds

Atmospheric Cells Monsoon Regions

The Trade WINDs are a large-scale component of Earth circulation, occupying most of the tropics straddling the equator between approximately latitude 30 degrees N and latitude 30 degrees S, with a seasonal shift of the entire trade wind belt system about 5 degrees of latitude northward during summer (July) and southward during winter (December). In the Northern Hemisphere, warm equatorial air rises and flows north toward the pole, the Coriolis Effect (caused by the Earth's rotation) deflects...

Nitrite Ion Accumulation

The production and accumulation of nitrite ions in an activated sludge process can occur during some forms of incomplete nitrification. The accumulation of nitrite ions is due to partial inhibition of enzymatic activity within nitrifying bacteria. This inhibition prevents the rapid oxidation of nitrite ions to nitrate ions. Operational factors responsible for this inhibition include cold temperature, deficiencies in key nutrients, high influent ammonium ion concentration, inhibitory and toxic...

Human Effects On Polar Bears

Humans kill polar bears for aboriginal subsistence, sport, and defense of human life and property. In some areas, monitoring of polar bear kills is effective (in Norway and the United States), but in other areas there is little reliable information (Russia and Greenland). Concerns have recently been expressed about the threat posed by trophy hunting (currently allowed only in Canada and Greenland). Quotas are often based on poor population data. Approximately 80 trophies are imported into the...

Icemarginal Moraines

The Quaternary Enhanced Glacial Erosion

Ice-marginal landforms produced directly by the action of a glacier are known as ice-marginal moraines. They may form by the action of four main processes, none of which need to be mutually exclusive (i) ice-marginal or submarginal glaciotec-tonics (ii) ice-marginal dumping of debris via a range of processes including rockfall and debris flow (iii) ice surface marginal meltout and (iv) subglacial transport and meltout of debris. As a consequence, a practical and universally accepted taxonomy...

The 1958 Lituya Bay Alaska Tsunami

One of the largest-known landslide-induced tsunamis struck Lituya Bay of southeastern Alaska on July 9, 1958. Lituya Bay is located about 150 miles (240 km) southeast of Juneau and is a steep-sided, seven-mile-(11-km-) long, glacially carved fjord with T-shaped arms at the head of the bay where the Lituya and Cril-lon Glaciers flow down to the sea. The glaciers are rapidly retreating, a rock spit known as La Chausse spit blocks the entrance to the bay, and a large island, Cenotaph Island, rests...

Increase Surface Reflectivity

The conversion of a natural landscape to an urban environment often induces a local warming trend due to the introduction of impervious and light-absorbing surfaces, such as dark-colored rooftops and pavements. This is known as the urban heat island effect. Warmer temperatures in urban environments have a number of negative impacts, such as higher energy demand for air conditioning and related emissions (pollutants and greenhouse gases), thermal stress to local ecosystems, and an increased risk...

Mount Pele Martinique 1902

Chile Pelee Martinque Map

Martinique was a quiet, West Indian island first discovered by Europeans in the person of Christopher Columbus in 1502. The native Carib people were killed off or assimilated into the black slave population brought by the French colonizers to operate the sugar, tobacco, and coffee plantations, and they exported sugar beginning in the mid-1600s. The city of St. Pierre, on the northwest side of the island, became the main seaport, as well as the cultural, educational, and commercial center of...

Characteristics of Floodplain Forests

Floodplain forests are unique ecosystems that are located alongside rivers and streams. These systems derive their characteristics from periodic inundations. The extent, structure, and diversity of floodplain forests have been strongly modified by human pressures acting at the catchment, reach, and local scales. Even though many floodplains in Europe are characterised by natural forestation that began after the Second World War due to widespread changes in land-use practices, most European...

The Annales School

The most influential contribution to environmental history came from the field of history. The Annales school, which flourished at the University of Strasbourg, France, agglutinating a first generation of scholars around the journal Annales d'histoire conomique et sociale, founded in 1929 by the medievalist historian Marc Bloch, and modern historian Lucien Feb-vre. This approach, a reaction to the dominant history of political events and the function of leaders, minimized the role of...

The Drilosphere As A Selforganizing System

Drilosphere

Earthworms and other major soil ecosystem engineers create physical domains in soils that have all the characteristics of self-organized systems as defined by Perry (1995) Based on strong and rather specific interactions within physical boundaries, these systems change the constraints of their environment with positive feedbacks on their own living conditions (Lavelle et al. 2006 see Figure 5.1). Soil constraints indeed have pushed soil organisms to develop intense interactions along...

Hydrolysis and liquefaction

Hydrolysis and liquefaction are the breakdown of large, complex and insoluble organics into small molecules that can be transported into micro-bial cells and metabolized. Hydrolysis of the complex molecules is catalyzed by extracellular enzymes such as cellulase, protease and lipase. Essentially, organic waste stabilization does not occur during hydrolysis the organic matter is simply converted into a soluble form that can be utilized by the bacteria (McCarty and Smith, 1986 Parkin and Owen,...

Water Cycle

The global water cycle is one of the major drivers and reservoirs for other geochemical cycles on the Earth. The water cycle describes the sum of processes operative in the hydrosphere, a dynamic mass of liquid continuously on the move between the different reservoirs on land and in the oceans and atmosphere. The hydrosphere includes all the water in oceans, lakes, streams, glaciers, atmosphere, and groundwa-ter, although most water is in the oceans. The hydro-logic, or water, cycle encompasses...

Physical and Biological Properties

Mass Balance Calculation Wastewater

Raw primary sludge particle size distribution is greater than 7 mm (5 to 20 ), 1 to 7 mm (9 to 33 ), and smaller than 1 mm (50 to 88 ), of which about 45 is less than 0.2 mm. In activated sludge, the approximate distribution is 90 below 0.2 mm, 8 between 0.2 and 1 mm, 1.6 between 1 and 3 mm, and 0.4 over 3 mm. The organic part of the sludge decays more rapidly, with an increase in the quantity of finely dispersed and colloidal particles and bound water resulting in a decrease in the separation...

The Green Sahara Of The Past

Tropical Sahara

Evidence from a whole range of sources shows that only a few thousand years ago, the climate of the whole Sahara region was very different from now. Animal bones in the desert sands show that giraffes and elephants once walked where there is now no vegetation and no water. The people who lived in the central Sahara at that time even recorded the animals they saw in rock paintings and engravings, vividly illustrating just how completely this place has changed in a few thousand years. A more...

Revenues Expenses Profits

The most important aspect of this is that profits can be increased by either an increase in revenues or a decrease in expenses. Water treatment operations are by and large end-of-pipe treatment technologies, and hence from the standpoint industry applications that must treat water, the investments required increase expenditures and decrease profit. Municipal facilities view their roles differently, because their end-product is clean water which is saleable, plus they may have addon revenues...

Carbon Capture and Storage

Geology Natural Gas Resources

According to the IPCC, CO2 capture and storage (CCS) is a process that involves capturing the CO2 arising from the combustion of fossil fuels (such as in power generation or refining fossil fuels), transport to a storage location, and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. Before CO2 gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured as a relatively pure gas. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, on a mass basis, CO2 is the 19th-largest commodity...

Hydrology and water resources

This section focuses on the relationship of runoff, lake levels, groundwater, floods and droughts, and water quality, with observed climate variability, climate trends, and land-use and land-cover changes reported since the TAR. The time period under consideration is primarily 1975 to 2005, with many studies extending to earlier decades. Observed changes in precipitation and aspects of surface hydrology are described in more detail by Trenberth et al. (2007), Section 3.3. 1.32.1 Changes in...

Western iNTENSiFicATioN

Western Intensification

We have now explained the underlying reason for gyres, but we have not explained one of their most important and indeed obvious aspects the gyres are not symmetric in the east-west direction. Thus far, our explanation would lead to gyres that look like those in the left panel of figure 4.3, whereas in fact the gyres look more like those in the right-hand panel, with intense western boundary currents, of which the Gulf Stream in the western North Atlantic is the most famous example to Americans...

Unit operations and unit processes

Drinking Distilled Water Unit Operation

Figure 1 shows the schematic of a conventional wastewater treatment plant using primary treatment. Raw wastewater is introduced either to the screen or to the comminutor. The grit channel removes the larger particles from the screened sewage, and the primary clarifier removes the larger particles of organic matter as well as inorganic matter that escapes removal by the grit channel. Primary treated sewage is then introduced to a secondary treatment process train downstream (not shown) where the...

Methods of Thermal Drying

Thermal Heat Flow Collision

Dryers are commonly classified on the basis of the predominant method of transferring heat to the wet solids being dried. These methods are convection (direct drying), conduction (indirect drying), radiation (infrared drying), or a combination of these. In convection (direct drying), heat transfer is accomplished by direct contact between the wet sludge and hot gases. The heat of the inlet gas provides the latent heat required for evaporating the liquid from the sludge. The vaporized liquid is...

Incineration

Incineration reduces sludge volume dramatically. Prior to incineration, sludge must be dewatered and thermally dried, with drying being the most energy-intensive step. Therefore, when considering the use of incineration, one must look for methods and techniques to reduce the amount of energy required and to provide some, if not all, of the required energy from another sludge process. Dewatering can be accomplished by any number of mechanical processes, such as belt filter presses, pressure...

Climatic Change And Forest Migration

Lowland Siberia Map

In the early Holocene, around 9000 BP, tree migration rates of 1 to 2 km yr have been reported both in Europe and Canada, causing a substantial and rapid reduction in the area of the tundra biome (Huntley & Birks, 1983 Ritchie, 1987 Huntley & Webb, 1988). However, since the passing of the Hypsithermal period, cooler weather has prevailed over the past 6000 years and this has been reversed only recently due to the current global climatic warming trend. Since the Hypsithermal temperature...

Phenological Responses To Increased Temperatures

Lake Hazen

This account of arctic vegetation so far has been orientated towards a discussion of the likely long-term effects of climate change in the belief that for an ancient and heterogeneous arctic flora the main impacts of climatic change will be found at a population or species level. There is no doubt that phenotypic responses to increasing temperatures are already taking place. In the Arctic these have already been mentioned in relation to the profuse flowering by the purple saxifrage that can now...

Sediment Transport Pathways

Picture Sediment Transport Paths

Transport routeways through valley glaciers are varied (Fig. 15.2). Boulton (1978) distinguished two main sediment transport pathways 1. active subglacial transport, and 2. passive supraglacial or englacial transport. Subglacial debris transport was termed active because sediment in the basal shear zone of glaciers is subjected to high inter-particle contact forces and consequently undergoes significant abrasion, fracture and comminution. Boulton (1978) argued that, in contrast, sediment in...

Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion

Aerobic Digester

Autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) is a sludge digestion process that is capable of achieving a high degree of stabilization and pathogen reduction. The process is characterized by high reaction rates achieved at a thermophilic temperature of 40 to 70 C. The temperatures are attained by using the heat released by the exothermic microbial oxidation process. Approximately 15,000 kJ of heat is generated per kilogram of volatile solids destroyed. In a completely mixed and aerated...

Changes in Marine Biodiversity as an Indicator of Climate Change

Biology Department, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4J1 1. Introduction 4. Cumulative Impacts and Indirect 2. Climate Change and the Oceans Effects of Climate Change 3. Effects of Climate Change on 5. Biodiversity as Insurance against Biodiversity Climate Change Impacts 3.1. Local Scale 6. Conclusions 3.2. Regional Scale Acknowledgements 3.3. Global Scale References 3.4. Other Factors Relating to Climate Change Our planet has a number of features that make it unique,...

Snow albedo

Albedo Snow

Climate scientists are not directly interested in snow spectral reflectance but rather in the reflection of the global incoming solar radiation. Spectrally integrated reflectance is described by the albedo, which is the ratio of the reflected to the incoming global shortwave radiation. Albedo depends not only on snow type, but Figure 2.18. Effect of soot concentration on albedo (from Warren and Wiscombe, 1980, copyright 1980 American Meteorological Society). Figure 2.18. Effect of soot...

Global Energy and Entropy Balances

Uneven Heating Between Equator And Poles

In earlier chapters, we have considered thermodynamic processes that are for the most part small scale, such as those associated with individual cloud drops, the local interface of the atmosphere with the ocean, small-scale mixing events in the ocean, and brine pockets in sea ice. This chapter examines planetary-scale energetics and entropy. Consideration of the overall energy and entropy of the planet provides insight into the maintenance and stability of the Earth's climate and is a starting...

Burning the Forests

Background Abstrak

Climate change is being caused by a combination of factors, but the most important is the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and especially carbon dioxide. Most of this extra carbon dioxide is being released by burning carbon-rich fuels. This is the same process that turns sugar into energy in our bodies, but it is more violent, releasing the energy as searing heat. The most basic of all fuels is wood, which people have been burning for thousands of years to keep warm and to cook...

Water Management Water Use in Rainfed Regions of India1

Watershed Trenching Structure

YS Ramakrishna3, GGSN Rao, VUM Rao, AVMS Rao and KV Rao2 Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad Large investments of about Rs.800 billion since Independence has gone into development of surface irrigation projects and the gross irrigated area increased from 22.56 m ha to 75.14 m ha by 2000-01 in India. In spite of large-scale developments in irrigation sector, the agricultural production remains static at 212 mt, a cause of great concern, which is mainly attributed to the...

Adaptive measures sustainable groundwater management by identification of deep confined aquifers

Head Variation Aquifers

There are different approaches to mitigate drought. The approaches can be preventive, as discussed above, by integrated management of surface and groundwater or using deep confined aquifers which should be identified before the calamity. The important consideration is that the potential aquifer identified is assessed to be resistant against droughts using geological, hydrogeological, geophysical and isotopic methods. UNESCO (2003) has recently formed an Expert Group called Groundwater for...

Chemical Mixing

Vertical Shaft Flocculation Reynolds

Chemical mixing facilities should be designed to provide a thorough and complete dispersal of chemical throughout the wastewater being treated to insure uniform exposure to pollutants which are to be removed. The intensity and duration of mixing of coagulants with wastewater must be controlled to avoid overmixing or undermixing. Overmixing excessively disperses newly-formed floe and may rupture existing wastewater solids. Excessive floe dispersal retards effective flocculation and may...

Microclimates and vegetation

Lotus Flower With Hands Clipart

Climate on the broad scale, across hundreds of kilometers, brings about the broad-scalc distribution of vegetation types (Chapters 1 and 2). However, even looking at the world much more locally, wc see that there arc also very substantial differences in the average climatc. For example, a south-facing slope has a different climate from a north-facing one. The year-round temperature and rainfall conditions under a tree will be different from those just a few meters away in the open. The...

Clouds Stratus

Stratus clouds are those clouds that resemble a sheet across the atmosphere. These clouds typically rest at a low altitude, found below 6,000 ft. (2,000 m.). Their color can vary between white to dark gray. A stratus cloud that rests at ground level is known more commonly as fog. Stratus clouds a bit higher than fog block the sun from view and cause a cloudy day' The name stratus is the Latin word to spread out. The formation of stratus clouds occurs when a sheet of cool air passes under a...

Two layers of the atmosphere

Based on chemical composition, the atmosphere is divided into two broad layers the homosphere and the heterosphere. The homosphere extends up to the height of 56 mi. (90 km.) and is characterised by uniformity in chemical composition. It consists of three thermal layers, namely, the troposphere, the stratosphere, and the mesosphere. Each sub-layer is separated from the adjoining layer by a shallow transitional zone. The het-erosphere has heterogeneous chemical composition, with layered...

Temperature

Flash Curve

In considering the effect of temperature on aquatic photosynthesis, it is necessary to distinguish between the effects immediately following a change in temperature and the effects obtained if the plants are allowed to adjust to the new temperature for one to several days. Considering the immediate effects of temperature change first, if the photosynthetic rate of a phyto-plankton population or a marine or freshwater macrophyte is measured under saturating light, at a series of temperatures...

Challenges of Adaptation Science Understanding the Process

Adaptation Model Science

A main challenge facing adaptation science is to improve our theoretical understanding and predictive capacity. The purpose of this is to guide adaptive forest management. Adaptive management serves to reduce vulnerabilities to and enhance opportunities of climate variability and change. The IPCC (Watson et al.,1996b) defines vulnerability as the extent to which climate change may damage or harm a system. It depends not only on a system's sensitivity but also on its ability to adapt. If a...

Glacial Geology and Geomorphology

Ice Glacial Marine Sediment

Some of the most impressive landforms produced at the margins of sub-polar glaciers of the Canadian and Greenland high arctic are thrust-block moraines or composite ridges (Fig. 3.5) (Kalin, 1971 Evans, 1989b Evans and England, 1991 Lemmen, et al. 1991 Lehmann, 1992). These landforms are constructed by proglacial glacitectonic disturbance of glacilacustrine, raised glacimarine or glacifluvial sediments on valley floors where the compressive stresses in the glacier snout are transmitted to...

Types of Plants

A wide variety of aquatic plants have been used in wetland systems designed for wastewater treatment. The larger trees (e.g., cypress, ash, willow) often preexist on natural bogs, strands, and domes used for wastewater treatment in Florida and elsewhere. No attempt has been made to use these species in a constructed wetland nor has their function as a treatment component in the system been defined. The emergent aquatic macrophytes are the most commonly found species in the marsh type of...

The Growth Of Environmental Awareness

1970s Environmental Disaster

Another factor that has helped focus attention on global warming in recent years is the growth of environmental awareness. Over the last few decades, there have been several notable anthropogenic environmental disasters. These have made the public more aware of environmental damage sometimes permanent. One of the worst anthropogenic disasters was the explosion at the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl, USSR, on April 26, 1986. A reactor exploded during a failed cooling system test and ignited a...

From Hothouse To Icehouse

Cenozoic Icehouse

Abrupt cooling at the Eocene Oligocene transition (35 million years ago) marked the appearance of the first continent-spanning ice sheet on Antarctica, potentially the first Cenozoic Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, and the transition from hothouse to icehouse climate in the Cenozoic. However, much of the planet continued to experience climatic conditions warmer than the present, with cool temperate Research on the early Cenozoic era, when tropical forests grew in Wyoming, is revealing new...

Initiation of the Cenozoic Icehouse

The early Cenozoic greenhouse Earth was plunged from a protracted state of warmth into its current glacial state 33.7 million years ago, at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. The transition from a relatively deglaciated climate state to one where the Antarctic ice sheet grew to between 40 and 160 of its modern size occurred within 200,000 to 300,000 years (Coxall et al., 2005 Liu et al., 2009a). A long-term decrease in CO2, commencing after the Early Eocene Climate Optimum at 52 Ma, has been...

Criticisms Of Ngos

The NGO movement, however, is not without its critics. Many question the accountability of NGOs. For example, the work undertaken by World Vision, in coordinating the relief effort resulting from the Tsunami in South East Asia in 2005, has sustained attacks that the donated monies, millions of dollars in this case, were not reaching the intended victims. Many NGOs working in developing countries are partly funded by their own governments, and have been criticized as being a front for foreign...

The OrigiN of Arctic Icebergs

Iceberg Type

Most Arctic icebergs originate from the fast-flowing glaciers that descend from the Greenland Ice Sheet. Many glaciers are funneled through gaps in the chain of coastal mountains. The irregularity of the bedrock and valley wall topography both slows and accelerates the progress of glaciers. These stresses cause crevasses to form, which are then incorporated into the structure of the icebergs. Arctic bergs tend to be smaller and more randomly shaped than Antarctic bergs and also contain inherent...

Signs of Global Warming

2007 Drought Oscarville

Rising global temperatures have already had a major impact on the environment and ecosystems in many regions of the world. The 2007 IPCC report, for example, found that numerous environmental changes can be clearly linked to climate change. Arctic glaciers are rapidly melting, creating more and larger glacial lakes and increased earlier spring runoff into snow-fed rivers. Mountainous regions are experiencing more rock avalanches. And warmer temperatures are causing previously frozen soil,...

Force of Tsunami Impact and Backwash

When tsunamis crash into coastal areas they are typically moving at about 22 miles per hour (35 km hr). The speed as the wave moves inland changes dramatically, decreasing to a few miles per hour (several km hr) over short distances, depending on the slope of the beach or shore environment and how much resistance the wave encounters from obstacles on shore. The force associated with a debris-laden wall of water 50-70 miles (80-120 km) wide moving inland at that speed is tremendous. As tsunamis...

Conclusions

Human-induced changes in the global climate system and in stratospheric ozone pose a range of health risks. Irrespective of actions that might soon be taken to reduce or halt these environmental changes, human populations will be exposed to some degree of climate change and increased ultraviolet irradiation over the coming decades. Climate change is likely to have wide-ranging and potentially serious health consequences, including various risks to the health of European populations. Some health...

Gas content in ice cores

Environmental Impact Ice Cores

Below the surface of a glacier or ice sheet, air bubbles become isolated and trapped during the transformation of snow into ice. If no diffusion occurs, the bubbles contain 'fossil' air from the time of the inclusion. The composition of the bubbles in ice cores therefore provides a way to analyse changes in the atmospheric composition several thousands of years back in time. The reconstruction of atmospheric C02 concentration from ice cores is, however, not straightforward, due to (a) possible...

Peruvian current

ORIGINATING IN THE frigid waters offthe coast of Antarctica, the Peruvian Current moves north along the western coast of South America. When in reaches the continental shelf along South America, the current rises, carrying cold water with it to the surface of the Pacific Ocean. The prevailing winds of the South Pacific and Earth's rotation cause the Peruvian Current to rotate the Coriolis Force causes the current to rotate clockwise. The Peruvian Current extends 125 mi. (201 km.) west from the...