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Aquaponics 4 You Review

Aquaponics 4 You Review

DIY Survival Sanctuary Review

DIY Survival Sanctuary Review

The warming Effects of the Industrial Revolution

Global Warming Industrial Revolution

Until recently, humans did not significantly affect the much larger forces of climate and atmosphere. Many scientists believe, however, that with the dawn of the industrial age and the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas, and oil humans began to significantly add to the amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, enhancing the planet's natural greenhouse effect and causing higher temperatures. Climate change . . . is the single greatest threat that...

Types Of Carbon Sequestration

Carbon sequestration is the process through which CO2 from the atmosphere is absorbed by various carbon sinks. Principal carbon sinks include agricultural sinks, forests, geologic formations, and oceanic sinks. Carbon sequestration and storage (CSS) occurs when CO2 is absorbed by trees, plants, and crops through photosynthesis and stored as carbon in biomass, such as tree trunks, branches, foliage, and roots, as well as in the soil. For a more in-depth discussion of the specifics of actual...

How to be More Energy Aware in Your Home

On Friday, June 5th it is World Environment Day. This is a UN backed initiative that strives to make the world s population more aware of the energy they re consuming and how that can have an impact on the environment. It also works to create awareness of the damage that s already done to the environment and how we can make changes to try to make things better. In recent years, we ve seen the phenomenal rise in the profile of the Swedish teenage environmental activist, Greta Thunberg. Greta has...

Lead Accumulator Structure

The electrodes, commonly named grid, are made by a lead alloy frame to improve both strenght and hardness of the grid supporting the so called active mass. This active mass is made by mixing very fine Pb powder with lead oxide (PbO or Pb304) and diluted H2S04. After drying, the mass composition turns basically into lead sulphate and unreacted lead oxides. The final electrodes are formed by spreading the mass over the grids and charging them through electrolysis in H2SO4. This gives rise to the...

Garbage Challenges in Developing Countries

Developing Countries Pictures

The problems of waste management are different for the developing world. Because the economies of developing countries are usually not as robust as the economies of countries such as the United States, people in these poorer countries tend to buy fewer products with less packaging, and they produce less waste than Americans or residents of other industrialized nations. On the A child scavenges on a dump in Manila, in the Philippines. Many developing countries have problems disposing of wastes....

Amphibious Plant Adaptations

Climb Assist Devices Oil Rig Tower

Most amphibious herbaceous species in temperate zones are either rhizomatous or tuberous geophytes (plants with their perennating buds below ground) and rely more on vegetative propagation than seed for regeneration. Seed germination is often very low in many amphibious species and successful sexual reproduction takes place only during periods of exceptional drought when water table levels have receded long enough for seeds to germinate and produce established juvenile plants. This restricted...

Features of Agriculture and Forestry in the Humid and Sub Humid Tropics

Agriculture is very important for most countries in the humid and the sub-humid tropics. Take tropical Asia as an example. In tropical Asia, agriculture is a key economic sector. In 1993, ithad employed more than half of the labor force, accounting for 10-63 of the GDP in most countries of the region (IPCC, 1998). Substantial foreign exchange earnings also are derived from exports of agricultural products. Climate-sensitive crops - such as rice, other grains and cereals, vegetables, and spices...

Choice of emission factors

This section includes a discussion of the choice of emission factors for the Tier 1 method. The Tier 2 method is based on mass balance principles and the Tier 3 method is based on plant-specific data therefore there are no default emission factors applicable to the Tier 2 and Tier 3 methods. Petrochemical production Tier 1 default feedstocks and processes Conventional steam reforming without primary reformer Ethylene Dichloride Vinyl Chloride Monomer Balanced Process for EDC production with...

Temperature distribution in glaciers and ice sheets

Height Ice Sheets

Temperatures in glaciers and ice sheets vary in space and time. Temperate glaciers have temperatures at or close to 0 C, while the upper part of the Antarctic ice sheet may be as cold as -40 to -60 C (Fig. 4.2). The melting temperature of ice decreases with increasing pressure at a rate of 0.072 C per 106 pascals (MPa lPa INm-2). As an example, the pressure at the base of a 2000 m thick glacier or ice sheet is about 17.6 MPa, corresponding to a lowering of the melting point to 1.27 C. Therefore...

DIY Power Plant Dish System

DIY Power Plant Dish System

The Freedom Box Generate Money Using Electricity

The Freedom Box Generate Money Using Electricity

Natural Multi-purpose Cleaner

Natural Multi-purpose Cleaner

Specific Effects of UVB Radiation on Plants

Ultraviolet Leaf Plants

Plants are highly sensitive to UV-B radiation because of their sessile nature. In plants, UV-B radiation damages cell membranes and all organelles within the cell, including the chloroplasts, mitochondria, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) within the nucleus. Damage to these cell organelles directly or indirectly affects basic plant metabolic processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, growth, and reproduction. Consequently, UV-B damage harms crop yield and quality. An overview of various...

Microclimates and vegetation

Lotus Flower With Hands Clipart

Climate on the broad scale, across hundreds of kilometers, brings about the broad-scalc distribution of vegetation types (Chapters 1 and 2). However, even looking at the world much more locally, wc see that there arc also very substantial differences in the average climatc. For example, a south-facing slope has a different climate from a north-facing one. The year-round temperature and rainfall conditions under a tree will be different from those just a few meters away in the open. The...

Cold tolerance in plants

If you are a gardener in an area with cold winters, you will know that most plants do not grow over the winter and survive the conditions in a dormant state. The first cold snap will kill off flowering annuals, which then overwinter as seeds. Early growth in the spring will be destroyed by a late frost and so careful gardeners will cover the emerging shoots of their early potatoes with earth to protect them. Plants are subjected to chilling stress at temperatures in the range 0-15 C and to...

Introduction climate and agriculture in Russia

Busting Out Brick Wall Clip Art

When analyzing the development of Soviet agriculture it should be borne in mind that Russia is comparatively poorly endowed in terms of agricultural land and climate and that, under any system of farming, agricultural productivity would be appreciably lower than, for example, that of the United States or Western Europe. Russian farming is characterized by its extreme northerly location. The center of Russia lies at roughly the same latitude as Hudson Bay, and St. Petersburg is actually at the...

Methods Of Disinfection And Disinfectant Agents Used

Generally, two methods of disinfection are used chemical and physical. The chemical methods, of course, use chemical agents, and the physical methods use physical agents. Historically, the most widely used chemical agent is chlorine. Other chemical agents that have been used include ozone, ClO2, the halogens bromine and iodine and bromine chloride, the metals copper and silver, KMnO4, phenol and phenolic compounds, alcohols, soaps and detergents, quaternary ammonium salts, hydrogen peroxide,...

Intermediate Reboiler or Condenser

Reboiler Energy Balance

Exergy losses can by reduced by the use of an intermediate reboiler 2 . However, this measure does not lower the total energy requirement of a column. But a certain part of the heat is supplied at a lower temperature in reboiler 2 as illustrated in Figure 7.11, Therefore, the energy cost might be reduced. An intermediate reboiler is advantageous only if several external heat sources, for example, steam pressure levels, are available for the individual reboiler. Analogously to an intermediate...

Biodiversity Of Mangroves

Mangrove Ecosystem Structure

Biodiversity is usually defined at three levels, i.e. species, populations and ecosystems (Ray and McCormick 1992). The term biodiversity components has been recommended as an ecological reference to these several hierarchical levels, and the idea is particularly appropriate to describe tropical estuarine ecosystems (Yanez-Arancibia et al. 1994). Biodiversity components of tropical estuaries can refer to the high diversity of species, life histories, habitats and links in food webs, or the...

The Influence of pH on the Nitrification Rate

Nitrification Free Ammonia Inhibition

In the literature, the optimum pH value forthe nitrification process varies between 8 and 9. Figure 3.7 summarizes investigations of pH effects on the nitrification rate. Usually the nitrification rate decreases, as the pH decreases. By measuring the nitrification rates Meyerhof (1916) found the pH optimum for Nitrosomonas to be between 8,5 and 8,8, and for Nitrobacter to be 8,3 to 9,3. Hofman et al. (1973) made similar investigations, and found for both organisms an optimum pH of 8.3, and that...

The Worlds Major Vegetation Types

Coniferous Forests Iran

In the broadest sense the world's vegetation can be divided into several basic structural types, each of which includes several bionics 1. There is a set of forest vegetation bionics, which have a dense, closed canopy of trees. If you stand and look upwards in a forest, you see few large gaps between the crowns of the trees, which tend to overlap and interlock with one another. Forest biomes include tropical rainforest, temperate evergreen forest, temperate deciduous forest, and cold climate...

Food for Freedom Review

Food for Freedom Review

EDC Prepping Program Review

EDC Prepping Program Review

My Survival Farm Review

My Survival Farm Review

Thermohaline Circulation and Climate

Variations in formation and circulation of ocean water may cause some of the thousands of years to decadal scale variations in climate. Cold water forms in the Arctic and Weddell seas. This cold, salty water is denser than other water in the ocean, so it sinks to the bottom and gets ponded behind seafloor topographic ridges, periodically spilling over into other parts of the oceans. The formation and redistribution of North Atlantic cold bottom water accounts for about 30 percent of the solar...

Waste Management in Europe

Garbage Containers Europe

Most developed countries face the same problems with trash as the United States. In fact, some areas of the globe are way ahead of the United States in trash technology and policies. Europe, for example, due to its dense population, began running out of landfill space long ago. Many European countries turned to incinerators, but this method has become increasingly disfavored because it produces too much air pollution and hazardous waste. As a result, some countries in Europe have begun...

References Of Agriculture Policy In Zambia

Effect on soil organic matter and soil fertility of the chitemene slash-and-burn practice used in northern Zambia. In K. Mulongoy and R. Merckx, Eds. Soil Organic Matter Dynamics and Sustainability of Tropical Agriculture. John Wiley, Chichester, United Kingdom, pp. 367-375. Baldock, J. A. and P.N. Nelson. 2000. Soil organic matter. In M.E. Sumner, Ed. Handbook of Soil Science. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 25-84. Biswas, J.C., J.K. Ladhs, and F.B. Dazzo. 2000. Rhizobia...

Biological Removal of Nitrogen Nitrification and Denitrification

The goal of nitrogen removal, regardless of what exactly forms of nitrogen compounds in wastewater streams, has been the production of nitrogen gas, an inert, water-insoluble gas that is easily separated from liquid media. The necessity of producing nitrogen gas in the treatment processes of nitrogen removal is mainly due to high solubility of nitrogen compounds such as NO3 , NH4+, and NO2 present in the nitrogen removal. There is some indication that this old paradigm is being challenged....

Biological Removal of Phosphorus

Biological Remediation Processes

Phosphorus is a constituent of wastewater, averaging around 10 mg liter in most cases. The principal form in food and agricultural wastewater is organically bound phosphorus. Organically bound phosphorus originates from body and food waste and, upon biological decomposition of these solids, is converted to orthophosphates. Biological phosphate removal is a relatively new technology dating back to the late 1950s it wasn't until the 1970s that there were full-scale processes developed for...

Characteristics of Agricultural and Food Wastewater

Biological Oxygen Demand Test Flowcharts

Whenever and wherever food, in any form, is handled, processed, packed and stored, there will always be an unavoidable generation of wastewater. Wastewater is the most serious environmental problem in the manufacturing and processing of foods. Most of the volume of wastewater comes from cleaning operations at almost every stage of food processing and transportation operations. The quantity and general quality (i.e., pollutant strength, nature of constituents) of this processing wastewater...

Definition of Carbon Pools

The definitions of carbon pools according to IPCC (2006) are given in Table 4.3. Above-ground biomass (AGE) Above-ground biomass is expressed as tonnes of biomass or carbon per hectare. Above-ground biomass is the most important and visible carbon pool, and the dominant carbon pool in forests and plantations, although not in grasslands and croplands. Above-ground biomass is given the highest importance in carbon inventory and in most mitigation projects and is the most important pool for...

Sludge Thickening Concentration

Thickener Diagram

Further sludge concentration is first accomplished by the use of thickening equipment that will increase the solids content to between 2 and 5 . Sludge thickening is achieved through one of two means flotation and settling to the bottom by gravity or centrifugal force. The thickening operation separates water from the sludge as much as possible and is cost-effective because the cost involved in the process is well offset by the savings gained through the reduction of sludge volume, which...

Physiological Adaptations In Coastal Vegetation

Coastal Maritime Forest Florida

Tolerance of drought and the ability to regenerate in disturbed sites are two of the outstanding features of sand dune vegetation. Many of the moss and lichen species, which hold the surface of the sand dunes, have the remarkable property of being able to allow their tissues to dry out without losing viability. After prolonged periods of desiccation (e.g. lying on a herbarium sheet for 70 years ) some moss species begin to resume metabolic activity within 30 minutes of gaining access to water....

Impacts of Climate Change in Japan

Climate Change Heatstroke

The observed and projected impacts of climate change are described for several sectors The impacts on food (agriculture, livestock and fisheries) contain changes in the rice production, Ukikawa symptoms (detached fruit skin and flesh) in mandarin and grapes due to high temperature and delayed seaweed harvests due to a later cooling down of water temperatures in autumn. It is expected that poor ripening of rice increases, a shift northward will take place for apple cultivation lands (Fig. 1.38),...

Granular Media Filtration

Gravity Sand Filters

Granular media filtration is used for treating aqueous waste streams. The filter media consists of a bed of granular particles (typically sand or sand with anthracite or coal). The anthracite has adsorptive characteristics and hence can be beneficial in removing some biological and chemical contaminants in the wastewater. This material may also be substituted for activated charcoal. The bed is contained within a basin and is supported by an underdrain system which allows the filtered liquid to...

The importance of sun angle

Brake Booster Vacuum Chevy Lumina

Just as sun angle makes the difference overall between temperatures at different latitudes of the earth, it makes a significant difference on a local scale too. If a slope is angled towards the sun when the sun is low in the sky, it gets more of a full beam and so the surface temperature of soil or leaves (and the air just above) will be warmer. On a slope that is in the wrong direction relative to the sun, much of the day is spent in shadow or being sunlit at an angle, so it will be colder...

Will Human Civilization Face the Exhaustion of Water Resources Due to Global Change

The climate had always been changing and will continue to evolve in the future. So far the only acceptable conception has been based on the outputs of IPCC 12 , which declare that warming up of the Earth is caused by anthropogenic activities -specifically by emissions of carbon dioxide. But a series of scandals disclosed a specialized handling of the primary data so that the seriousness of the so far achieved results was challenged or even damaged. Nevertheless, the ever present question, which...

Examples Of Composting In The United States

Aerated Static Pile Composting

In the United States, studies of windrow and aerated static pile composting were conducted in the mid-1970s in Beltsville, Maryland, and in Carson, California. As of 2003, there were more than 200 wastewater sludge composting facilities in the United States. Most of the composting facilities are aerated static pile systems, and some are in-vessel systems. Windrow composting is rarely used because of the potential odor generation and the large area requirement. The city of Eustis, Florida, uses...

Control of Co2 by Seafloor Spreading

The seafloor spreading theory is one hypothesis introduced to suggest a mechanism of controlled CO2 levels in the atmosphere, causing the observed variations between warm CO2-rich greenhouse intervals and cold CO2-depleted global cooling intervals. This theory focuses the control of CO2 levels on plate tectonic processes. During plate tectonics, carbon is cycled endlessly between the Earth's interior and its surface. It is this cycling of carbon in different stages that defines whether global...

Table 54 Estimates for grain production in the USSR between 1928 and 1940 millions of tons

Source Wheatcroft and Davies, 1994. good but less than planned about 83.5 million tons. The Western estimate is only 64 million tons. Grain delivery was less than planned but twice that of 1928. It was a very good result and the country was able to export about 5.8 million tons in 1930. Much of the grain harvested should have been reserved for the state grain stock (Conquest, 2002). The planned target for 1931 was fixed at 97.9 million tons but already by 1...

Rotating Biological Contactor RBC

Rotating Biological Contactors (RBCs) are used in the treatment of wastewater as a secondary treatment process. The RBC process involves allowing wastewater to come in contact with a biological medium in order to remove contaminants in sewage before discharge of the treated wastewater to the environment, usually a river. The construction of an RBC consists of a series of plastic discs, the media, mounted on a driven shaft that is contained in a tank or trough. Commonly used plastics for the...

Definition of Shallow Lakes and Ponds and World Distribution

Shallow Lakes Ecosystem

Shallow lakes and ponds are the most abundant lake types in the global landscape. They provide a myriad of ecosystemic and social services as well as goods and materials, while having great conservation value (for example for migratory birds). Such shallow systems usually occur in lowland areas, many in association to seasonal changes in the flood regimes of rivers. The origin of many of these systems can also be related to geological disturbances, such as glacial movements or other processes...

Annex 3A1 First Order Decay Model

The first order decay (FOD) model introduced in Chapter 3 is the default method for calculating methane (CH4) emissions from solid waste disposal sites (SWDS). This Annex provides the supplementary information on this model mathematical basis for the FOD model (see Section 3A1.2), key issues in the model, such as the estimation of the mass of degradable organic carbon available for anaerobic decomposition at SWDS (DDOCm) (Section 3A1.2) and the delay time from disposal of waste in the SWDS till...

Impacts of Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Food Security

The direction of the various expected impacts on consumers and on farm income is summarized in Table 4.2. Farm income is defined as returns to land, labor, and capital. The net effect on food security depends on local conditions. Table 4.2 General Impacts of Rising Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases on Factors Affecting Food Security CO2 fertilization Climate change Extreme weather events Sea level rise Higher levels of CO2 in the atmosphere tend to increase plant growth. However, increases in...

The Growth Of Environmental Awareness

1970s Environmental Disaster

Another factor that has helped focus attention on global warming in recent years is the growth of environmental awareness. Over the last few decades, there have been several notable anthropogenic environmental disasters. These have made the public more aware of environmental damage sometimes permanent. One of the worst anthropogenic disasters was the explosion at the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl, USSR, on April 26, 1986. A reactor exploded during a failed cooling system test and ignited a...

Advocacy and operational ngos

The World Bank differentiates between operational and advocacy NGOs, where an operational NGO focuses on the design and implementation of development-related projects, such as service delivery, and an advocacy NGO defends or promotes a specific cause. A good example of an operational NGO is that of the work of the International Medicine Corps (IMC) in Afghanistan. In this case, the IMC instituted a vaccination campaign against measles, a disease that was identified by the World Health...

Reactions for Hydrogen Cation Exchanger Resins Regeneration Reactions

Calcium, Magnesium and or Sodium-Cation Exchanger (Insoluble) + Sulfuric Acid (Soluble) Hydrogen Cation Exchanger (Insoluble) + Calcium, Magnesium and or Sodium Sulfates (Soluble). Reactions for Hydrogen Cation-Exchanger Resins -Reactions with Sulfates or Chlorides Ca, Mg, Na2 S04, Cl2 + H2Z Ca, Mg, Na2 Z + H2S04 or HCl Calcium, Magnesium and or Sodium as Sulfates and or Chlorides (Soluble) + Hydrogen Cation Exchanger (Insoluble) Calcium, Magnesium and or Sodium-Cation Exchanger (Insoluble) +...

Shaanxi China January 23 1556

The deadliest earthquake and mass-wasting event on record occurred in 1556 in the central Chinese province of shaanxi. Most of the 830,000 deaths from this earthquake resulted from landslides and the collapse of homes built into loess, a deposit of wind-blown dust that covers much of central China. The loess represents the fine-grained soil eroded from the Gobi desert to the north and west and deposited by wind on the great loess plateau of central China. Thus, this disaster was triggered by an...

Landforms Of Cold Environments

Glacial Eskers Photos

Cold climates are known for many distinct types of landforms. These landforms are associated with freezing and subfreezing temperatures along with the presence of water. Cold climate processes are often linked to frost action. During the last major ice age, ice covered nearly one-third of the Earth's surface. The Northern Hemisphere was buried under a massive ice sheet up to 2 miles (3.2 km) thick in places. The ice extended from the North Pole southward to southern Illinois. Greenland was...

The Equatorial Undercurrent

The Equatorial Undercurrent (Figures 5.1(b) and 5.2) is a major feature of equatorial circulation. Such an undercurrent occurs in all three oceans, although it is only a seasonal feature in the Indian Ocean. Equatorial Undercurrents flow from west to east, below the direct influence of the wind, yet they arc w ind-driven. How can this be The effect of the wind is transmitted downwards to deeper layers via turbulence (eddy viscosity) and is mainly confined to the mixed surface layer above the...

The Thermal Wind Equation

Taylor Proudman Ocean

We saw in Section 5.2 that isobaric surfaces slope down from equator to pole. Moreover, these slopes increase with height, as can be seen, for example, in Fig. 5.13 and the schematic diagram, Fig. 5.14. Thus according to the geostrophic relation, Eq. 7-8, the geostrophic flow will increase with height, as indeed is observed in Fig. 5.20. According to T-P, however, dug dz 0. What's going on The Taylor-Proudman theorem pertains to a slow, steady, frictionless, barotropic fluid, in which p p(p)....

Global water use trends Ever increasing

Water is fundamental for all kinds of development. Human development and well-being, industrial and economic development, energy production and agriculture all rely on the availability of (often abundant) water resources. However, there are distinct differences between sectors of society, their relationship to water and the future implications that changes in availability may have. The 20th century witnessed a sixfold increase in human water use, while the population increased 'only' threefold...

Surface Loading Rate Surface Settling Rate and Surface Overflow Rate

The surface loading rate is the number of gallons of wastewater passing over 1 ft2 of tank per day. This can be used to compare actual conditions with design. Plant designs generally use a surface loading rate of 300 to 1200 gpd ft2. Other terms used synonymously with surface loading rate are surface settling rate and surface overflow rate. Surface Settling Rate (gpd ft2) -Flow (gpd)-2 (13.1) Problem A settling tank is 120 ft in diameter, and flow to the unit is 4.5 MGD. What is the surface...

The Influence of Temperature on the Nitrification Rate

Nitrification And Temperature

The optimum temperature for the growth of nitrifying bacteria, according to the literature, is between 28 C and 36 C, although an optimum temperature of up to 42 C has been reported for Nitrobacter by Painter (1970). Growth constants of nitrifying bacteria are greatly affected by temperature (Table 3.9). Figure 3.2 shows that the nitrification rate is a function of temperatures between 5 and 35 C. The maximum growth rate occurs at approximately 30 C. Curve A, which was produced by Borchardt...

Types of Freshwater Ecosystem Services

The goods and services provided to humans by freshwater benthic ecosystems may be classed as provisioning services, or products obtained from ecosystems, such as plant and animal food and fiber supporting services, or services necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services, such as waste processing, the production of a sustained clean water supply, flood abatement, and climate moderation and cultural services, or nonmaterial benefits obtained from ecosystems, such as aesthetics,...

Treatment of Battery Manufacturing Wastes

Aircraft Ion Battery Construction

Hawumba, Yung-Tse Hung, and Lawrence K. Wang 32.1 Introduction 32.1.1 Historical, Cultural, and Battery Technology Development 1303 32.2 Overview of the Manufacturing Process 32.2.1 Manufacturing Process 32.3 Battery Chemical Systems 32.3.1 Battery Classification 32.4 Description of Battery Subcategories in the Battery Industry of 32.4.2 Subcategory A Cadmium 32.4.3 Subcategory C Lead 32.4.4 Subcategory D Leclanche 32.4.5 Subcategory G Zinc Battery 32.4.6 Subcategory E Lithium Battery...

Landsystems of Glacial Deposition

Proximal Distal Lateral Moraine Slope

While clean and debris-covered glaciers show many similar features within their landsystems, they differ in the dominant processes operating at the ice margin and in the relative development of landforms (Figs 15.4 and 15.5). Figure. 15.4 A landsystem model for valley glaciers with relatively low supraglacial debris inputs. (From Benn and Evans, 1998). 1 Supraglacially entrained debris 2 Periglacial trimline above ice-scoured bedrock 3 Medial moraine 4 Fluted till surface 5 Paraglacial...

References Of Crop Production

Amani, I., Fischer, R.A. and Reynolds, M.P (1996) Canopy temperature depression association with yield of irrigated spring wheat cultivars in a hot climate. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 176, 119-129. Ammar, K., Lage, J., Villegas, D., Crossa, J., Hernandez, H. and Alvarado, G. (2008) Association among durum wheat international testing sites and trends in yield progress over the last twenty-two years. In Reynolds, M.P, Pietragalla, J. and Braun, H.-J. (eds) International Symposium on...

Tire and TDF Use in Portland Cement Kilns

The portland cement production process is extremely energy intensive (from 4 to 6 million Btu's (MMBtu's) are required to make a ton of product) therefore, alternative and cost-effective fuel options are of great interest. Waste tires have been tried as a supplemental fuel in well over 30 cement kilns and in at least one rotary lime manufacturing kiln. Currently, tires are in use, either on a trial or permanent basis, in 11 cement kilns and one lime kiln. A cement kiln provides an environment...

Types Of Satellite Imagery

Satellite imagery forms one of the basic tools for remote sensing. The types of satellite images available to the geologist, environmental scientist, and others are expanding rapidly, and only the most common in use are discussed here. The Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1), the first unmanned digital imaging satellite, was launched on July 23, 1972. Four other satellites from the same series, later named Landsat, were launched at intervals of a few years. The Landsat spacecraft...

The Ice Albedo Feedback Loop

Another important feedback loop is called the ice albedo effect. As noted above, albedo is the ability of a substance or a body to reflect sunlight. Ice and snow are white, which means that they reflect the sun's rays or, to put it another way, they have very high albedos. In fact, according to geographer Grant R. Bigg, ice and snow have the highest albedos of almost any natural sur-face.10 From 70 percent to 80 percent of the sunlight that strikes ice and snow is reflected back into space. The...

Tata energy Research institute TERI

The energy And Resources Institute (TERI) began in 1974 as the Tata Energy Research Institute. Motivated by concerns about finite, nonrenewable energy resources and pollution, Darbari Seth, a chemical engineer working for Tata Chemicals, proposed a research institute dedicated to the collection and dissemination of information regarding energy production and utilization. R.J.D. Tata, then chairman of the Tata Group, actively supported the institute, and TERI was formally established in Delhi in...

A2 The Concepts of First and Second Law Efficiency

The basic difference between both concepts is that while first law efficiency solely relates to the specific technology applied in order to satisfy certain tasks, for example, illumination and space heating, the concept of second law efficiency takes into account both the actual technology employed and the technology that would theoretically be the best for the same task. Our following example on whether to heat a house with either electric furnaces or heat pumps illustrates the difference...

Principles of construction on permafrost bases and foundations

Thawing Permafrost Norway

For construction outside the permafrost regions it is usually believed that all the load from a structure is transmitted through the base of the foundation to bearing ground while ground in contact with the sides of a foundation only occasionally carries a vertical load (as with piles and deep foundations). The interaction between foundations and ground is assessed differently in the regions of deep seasonal freezing and of permafrost. The load is transmitted to ground here through all the...

Applications of electrodialysis

Lactic Acid Electrodialysis

Conventional electrodialysis is today commercially by far the most relevant ion-exchange membrane separation process. Electrodialysis was first developed for the desalination of brackish water to produce potable water. In this application, electrodialysis is replaced today to some extent by other membrane processes such as reverse osmosis and nanofiltration. Nevertheless, water desalination is still the most important large-scale application of electrodialysis. But other applications of...

The Milankovitch Cycles

Piano Sound Waves

Earth's orbit does not remain fixed it varies over time. Major contributing factors to ice ages are these natural variations that occur between the Earth-Sun relationship. There are three natural cycles that have an effect on Earth's climate. The cycles have to do with Earth's axial tilt, its elliptical orbit around the Sun, and its wobble, or precession (the direction the North Pole points). These orbital parameters have cyclic occurrences (periodicities) that range from 22,000 to 100,000...

Introduction energy use in food processing

Cooling Curve Food Processing

The production of food, which sustains the human energy balance, requires a considerable and continuous supply of energy delivered from natural resources, principally in the form of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil and natural gas. For example, a typical energy requirement for the delivery of 1 J in the form of food consumes almost 10 J from natural resources. In the production of food for human consumption, the processing of food and drink requires a considerable part of this energy see for...

Major developments in agriculture

At the beginning of the twentieth century the Russian Empire was largely an agrarian peasant country. In around 1910, the urban population made up 20 percent of the total and required only 7 to 8 percent of the sown crop area to support it. Private farms with a cultivation area of more than 50 hectares provided only 5 percent of the total agricultural production of the country. More than 89 percent of agricultural land belonged to the Russian peasants (Chelintsev, 1928). The majority of the...

Hydrogen Production from Fossil Fuels

Noncatalytic Partial Oxidation Reactor

Hydrogen production from fossil fuels such as natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, coal, tar and petroleum coke are well established industrial processes. The principle reaction mechanisms are shown in Figure 5. Hydrogen is produced on a very large scale, principally for ammonia and me- thanol synthesis and for hydrog nation and desulphurisation in refining and in petrochemicals. A preheated mixture of steam and hydrocarbon, usually natural gas, is passed through tubes containing a nickel-based...

Nitrous oxide from nitric acid production

Nitric acid is a key ingredient in N-based fertilizers. As a raw material, it also is used for the production of adipic acid (another important N2O source - see next section) and explosives, metal etching and in the processing of ferrous metals. Nitric acid production involves the oxidation of ammonia (NH3) using a platinum catalyst (Ostwald process). Nitrous oxide forms during the catalytic oxidation of ammonia over platinum rhodium gauzes, the major product being NO. It is estimated that...

Efficiency Parameters of CCS

The efficiency ofCCS as a measure for lowering CO2 emissions is described using various parameters energy requirements for CO2 capture, transport and storage First of all, in the process itself, the CO2 capture rate is an important characteristic value and design parameter. It describes how much of the CO 2 that would otherwise be emitted into the atmosphere is captured from the process and stored. In the three methods developed for CO2 capture from power plants, the capture rate is typically...

Origins Of Earthquakes

Earthquakes can originate from sudden motion along a fault, from a volcanic eruption, bomb blasts, landslides, or anything else that suddenly releases energy on or in the Earth. Not every fault is associated with active earthquakes. Most faults are in fact no longer active but were active at some time in the geologic past. of the active faults, only some are particularly prone to earthquakes. Some faults are slippery, and the two blocks on either side just slide by each other passively without...

Aerated Static Pile Process

Part The Hair Detailed Look

The identifying feature of the aerated static pile system is a grid of aeration piping for forced aeration. A blower or fan aerates the pile. The aerated static pile process consists of mixing of dewatered sludge with a bulking agent (usually, wood chips), construction of the composting pile over the grid of aeration piping, composting, screening of the compost, and curing and storage. Figure 7.5 shows an aerated static pile process of composting. The aeration grid is usually made of 100- to...

The role of ethnobotany in pharmaceutical prospecting

Plants have been the cornerstone of medicinal therapies for thousands of years and continue to be an essential part of health care for much of the world. The traditional origins of many current pharmaceuticals have been obscured by the process of drug development, such as aspirin from willow bark (Salix spp.), reserpine for hypertension from the Indian Snake Root (Rauwolfia serpentina) and D-tubocurarine, widely used as a muscle relaxant in surgery, from arrow poisons (Chondodendron tomentosum,...

Rotating Biological Contactors RBC

Rotating Biological Contactor Diagram

Increasingly stringent requirements for the removal of organic and inorganic substances from wastewater have necessitated the development of innovative, cost-effective wastewater treatment alternatives in recent years. The aerobic rotating biological contactor (RBC) is one of the biological processes for the treatment of organic wastewater. It is another type of attached growth process that combines advantages of biological fixed-film (short hydraulic retention time, high biomass concentration,...

Cake Filtration Equipment

Vacuum Rotary Drum Filter Sketch

There are three general categories of filters used. These are Clarifying Filters - Usually cartridge-type or bag filters designed to remove small amounts of particles from a solution. Laboratory personnel typically use these types of filters. These types of filters are also used for 0.2 micron terminal sterilization. Cross low Filters - These are usually membrane-type filters used for ultrafiltration. In the field of biotechnology these types of filters are used in ultrafiltration devices used...

The global problem Too much or too little nitrogen

Global Nitrogen Pool Population

Nitrogen, contained in amino acids, proteins and DNA, is necessary for life. While there is an abundance of nitrogen in nature, almost all is in an unreactive form (gaseous nitrogen, N2) that is not usable by most organisms. N compounds fall into two groups - non-reactive and reactive. Non-reactive N is N2. Reactive N (Nr) includes all biologically active, photochemically reactive, and radiatively active N compounds in the atmosphere and biosphere of the earth. Thus Nr includes inorganic...

Unit operations and unit processes

Figure 1 shows the schematic of a conventional wastewater treatment plant using primary treatment. Raw wastewater is introduced either to the screen or to the comminutor. The grit channel removes the larger particles from the screened sewage, and the primary clarifier removes the larger particles of organic matter as well as inorganic matter that escapes removal by the grit channel. Primary treated sewage is then introduced to a secondary treatment process train downstream (not shown) where the...

Theoretical Aspects Of Composting

The Composting Process

For the best results in a composting process, it is important to have appropriate mixing of sludge cake with bulking agents and recycled materials. For the process to operate in good condition, it needs to have the optimum mass balance, moisture, temperature, pH, nutrients, and air. Figure 7.11 shows a mass balance diagram that can be used for all three composting systems windrow, aerated static pile, and in-vessel. In the diagram A' weight of ready compost in one day A weight of recycled...

Kaapvaal Craton South Africa

Cratons Africa

The Archean Kaapvaal craton of southern Africa contains some of the world's oldest and most intensely studied Archean rocks, yet nearly 86 percent of the craton is covered by younger rocks. The craton covers approximately 363,000 square miles (585,000 km2) near the southern tip of the African continent. The craton is bordered on the north by the highgrade Limpopo mobile belt, initially formed when the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons collided at 2.6 billion years ago. On its southern and western...

Examples Of Composting In Europe

Apocalypse Meme

Several examples of different types of composting systems that have been in use in Europe are described below. All these systems are open-air processes, mostly on asphalt pavements. In Finland, two wastewater treatment plants (city of Lappeenranta and city of Loensiy) compost sludge mixed with ground bark as the bulking agent at a ratio of 1 1 by volume in 3-m-high windrow piles. Every three weeks, piles are shoveled over by scoop loader. After two weeks of processing the temperature rises to...

Ecological Zonation in Lakes

Lake Zonation

W M Lewis, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Lakes show many kinds of spatial variation in both vertical and horizontal dimensions. Variation can be chemical, physical, or biotic, and is important to the understanding of ecosystem functions. Although some types of variation are unique to specific classes of lakes, others are common to most lakes, and correspond to an obvious spatial organization of the biota in lakes. The existence of certain...

Belt press filtration

Fresnel Lens Used For Drying Water

Belt filter presses employ single or double moving belts to continuously dewater sludges through one or more stages of dewatering. All belt press filtration processes include three basic operational stages chemical conditioning of the feed sludge gravity drainage to a nonfluid consistency shear and compression dewatering of the drained sludge. When dewater- Figure 7.5. A schematic diagram of a belt filter for sludge dewatering. (Courtesy of Falke Bruinsma at http photos.innersource.com) Figure...

Agricultural Hazardous Wastes

Company Policy Hazardous Waste

Industrial manufacturing is not the only industry that generates hazardous wastes, however. Enormous amounts of hazardous chemical pesticides and herbicides are used on crops by U.S. agriculture producers each year. Many of these chemicals run off into the soil and groundwater, and any materials left over are considered hazardous wastes. In some cases, too, the application of phosphate fertilizer produces fluoride wastes. Even animal manure produces concentrated nitrates that can leach into...

Processes of Decomposition of Refuse in Landfills

Geomorphic Processes

Landfilled material will gradually change in form and will exhibit different engineering and physical properties as a result of various environmental factors. Witmer and coworkers 7,8 reported the garbage decomposition process for a 10-year period as reflected on a particle size distribution curve. The aging process from fresh trash to aged trash along with the environmental and mechanical factors are illustrated in Figure 1. Mechanical processes do not directly contribute to the decomposition...

Panafrican belts and the

Amazon River Gondwana Supercontinent

The East African orogen encompasses the Arabian-Nubian shield in the north and the Mozambique belt in the south. These and several other orogenic Map of the East African orogen and other Pan-African belts that formed as ocean basins closed to form the supercontinent of Gondwana (modeled from T. Kusky, M. Abdelsalam, R. Tucker, and R. Stern, 2003) belts are commonly referred to as Pan-African belts, recognizing that many distinct belts in Africa and other continents experienced deformation,...

Demineralisation of whey

Whey is supersaturated with calcium phosphate and contains high levels of potassium and sodium. Calcium phosphate precipitation can cause problems such as fouling of the membrane or evaporator. High levels of minerals can inhibit lactose crystallisation which can adversely affect non-hygroscopic whey production and reduce yields and purity for lactose manufacture. The presence of high mineral levels limits the use of whey powder in infant formula and adversely affects the flavour and range of...

Figure 8 Diagrammatic representation of anaerobic filter process from

Anaerobic Filter

Figure 9 Diagrammatic representation of fluidized and expanded bed reactor process from Ref. 77 . Figure 9 Diagrammatic representation of fluidized and expanded bed reactor process from Ref. 77 . Anaerobic Technologies Suppliers and Anaerobic Plants in the Pulp and Paper Industry. Table 13 shows the major suppliers of full-scale anaerobic treatment plants for industrial wastewater and the corresponding technologies. It may be noted from this table that a significant number of installations for...

Alkalinity And Acidity Expressed As CaCO3

To find the equivalent concentration of alkalinity in terms of CaCO3 proceed as follows CaCO3 + 2H+ H2CO3 + Ca2+ (12.85) Note We have reacted the alkalinity species (CaCO3) with the hydrogen ion, since it is the property of alkalinity to react with an acid. From this reaction, the equivalent mass of CaCO3 is 50. Therefore, a mass equivalent of alkalinity is equal to 50 mass units expressed as CaCO3. For example, 1 gram equivalent of alkalinity is equal to 50 grams of alkalinity expressed as...

Main Characteristics Of Farming Systems In Drylands

Drylands have particular characteristics that will affect their capacity to sequester carbon. Drylands often experience high temperatures, low and erratic rainfall, minimal cloud cover, and small amounts of plant residues to act as surface cover to minimize radiation impact. As a result, soils in the drylands are, generally, both inherently low in organic matter and nutrients and rapidly lose large proportions of those small quantities as CO2 when exposed by tillage and other conventional...

Applications of bipolar membrane electrodialysis

Bipolar Electrodialysis System

Since bipolar membranes became available as commercial products in 1977 5 , a very large number of potential applications has been identified and has been studied extensively on a laboratory or pilot plant scale 31 . However, in spite of the obvious technical and economical advantages of the technology, large-scale industrial plants are still quite rare. The main reasons for the reluctant use of bipolar membrane electrodialysis are shortcomings of the available bipolar and monopolar membranes,...

Conventional Composting of Organic Wastes

Technologically, composting is the simplest way to treat solid waste containing hazardous substances. Composting converts biologically unstable organic matter into a more stable humuslike product that can be used as a soil conditioner or organic fertilizer. Additional benefits of composting of organic wastes include prevention of odors from rotting wastes, destruction of pathogens and parasites (especially in thermophilic composting), and retention of nutrients in the endproducts. There are...

Case Study Broccoli Drying

Latest Conveyor Drying Systems

Fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea) was purchased from a local market in Izmir, Turkey. It was processed within 24 h. Broccoli samples were washed with water, and then the excess water on the surface of broccoli was removed with filter paper. Afterward, florets of broccoli were separated. Broccoli florets were dried in a heat pump conveyor dryer designed and constructed in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey, shown schematically in Fig....

Biogeochemical Cycles

Combine Biogeochemical Cycles

Several chemicals are essential to life and follow predictable cycles through nature. In these natural cycles, or biogeochemical cycles, the chemicals are converted from one form to another as they progress through the environment. The water wastewater operator should be aware of the cycles dealing with nutrients (i.e., carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur) because they have a major impact on the performance of the plant and may require changes in operation at various times of the year to keep them...

Supercontinents and Climate

Cretaceous Plates Changing

The motion of the tectonic plates periodically causes most of the continental landmasses of the planet to collide with each other, forming giant continents known as supercontinents. For much of the past several billion years, these supercontinents have alternately formed and broken up in a process called the supercontinent cycle. The last supercontinent was known as Pangaea, which broke up about 160 million years ago to form the present-day plates on the planet. Before that the previous...

The Worlds Oldest Ophiolite

Early Earth Evolution Sketch

Prior to 2001, no complete Phanerozoic-like ophiol-ite sequences had been recognized from Archean rock sequences around the world, leading some workers to the conclusion that no Archean ophiolites or oceanic crustal fragments are preserved. These ideas were challenged by the discovery of a complete 2.5 billion-year-old ophiolite sequence in the North China craton. This remarkable rock sequence includes chert and pillow lava, a sheeted dike complex, gabbro and layered gabbro, cumulate ultramafic...

Land Treatment Systems

Waste Water Infiltration System Canada

Land application of wastewater is perhaps the oldest method for disposal and treatment of wastewaters. Early systems were used in England as Land Farms, which received untreated wastewater and night soil from nearby communities. Today, land application systems have included application to edible and nonedible crops, to rangelands, to forests and wood plantations, to recreational areas including parks and golf courses, and to disturbed lands such as mine spoil sites. Land application of...

Water Supply and Wastewater Management in the Medieval

Different Parts Medieval Monastery

Monasteries founded by Cistercians, Premonstratensians and Benedictines in Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries were exemplary business undertakings for that time. Besides the monks and the abbot, numerous lay persons worked and prayed there, all requiring a reliable source of water. Frequently, a monastery was placed near a river and a ditch was dug, which was laid with a necessary gradient through the area of the monastery. Figure 1.4 presents a system for water supply and wastewater...

Combined Aerobic Processes

Fluidized Bed Reactor

The combined aerobic processes are designed to sustain shock loads in activated sludge, aerobic contactor, and trickling filter (biofilter) processes. There are several possible combinations of these aerobic processes activated biofilter process, trickling filter solids-contact process, biofilter activated-sludge process, and trickling filter-activated sludge process. The activated biofilter process is a trickling filter with recycling of secondary sludge back to the trickling-filter to create...

Optimized Recycling Processes For Advanced Batteries Nickel Metal Hydride NiMH

Preliminary studies have been conducted on alternatives to the pyrometallurgical processing of Ni MH batteries. Hydrometallurgical treatment provides metal salts as products, which may offer market stability benefits in certain circumstances compared to the primary metals produced by smelting. Another advantage is that the separation and recovery of other valuable constituents such as titanium, vanadium, zirconium, and rare earths may become possible. The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) conducted...

Externalities as Benefits and Drawbacks of Energy Efficiency

This section illustrates the large number of externalities in energy efficiency, since EE provides external benefits or imposed external costs in addition to financial outcome and energy production. As suggested in Table 5.9, the positive externalities are substantial. The table shows that externalities exist on a local, national, regional and global level. Institutions, such as the GEF focus mainly on global externalities. This contrasts with the fact that national and local benefits and the...

Conclusions And Further Challenges

From the number and nature of water recycling projects throughout the world, it can be concluded that the principle of treating wastewater as a valuable source becomes increasingly accepted. The larger demand of water due to population growth and increased comfort is translated into better protection of sources and eventually, zero discharge or nearly zero discharge systems. A remarkable observation is that in none of these projects adverse health effects were obtained, even on a long...

Advanced Wastewater Treatment Processes

Elutriator Diagramm

Biological treatment processes, in combination with primary sedimentation, typically remove 85 of the BOD5 and soluble solids originally present in the raw wastewater and some of the heavy metals. Activated sludge generally produces an effluent of slightly higher quality, in terms of these constituents, than trickling filters or RBCs. When coupled with a disinfection step, these processes can provide substantial but not complete removal of bacteria and virus. However, they remove very little...

Pangaea Ultimathe Future

Ecological Footprint

Scientists are interested in what the future may be like and how the Earth may eventually look. What will its climate be like How will its ecosystems function How many of the changes will be natural, and how many will be human caused In the case of plate tectonics, geologists have been able to trace the movement of the Earth's plates backward in time in order to determine the geographic positions of the continents and the resulting climates that affected them, such as tropical, polar, or...

Running the Ozipr Model

The EPA's OZIPR model (Ozone Isopleth Plotting Program, Research Version) was designed to be used primarily for calculating emissions reductions needed to reach the NAAQS for 03. Both DOS-based and Windows versions are available and can be downloaded from the Web site http www.academicpress.com pecs download OZIPR contains two comprehensive chemical mechanisms that use two different approaches to lumping organics. The two mechanisms used in these models, the RADM (Regional cid Deposition Model)...

Box 81 Q C3 and CAM plants

Many plants in arid environments decrease the problem of water loss through stomata by chemical tricks that help them take up CO with less water loss. These are known as C4 and CAM plants. Most plants are known as C3 plants. They take CO up into leaf cells which handle the whole photosynthetic reaction in the same cells. The C02 gets fixed into a three-carbon chain (hence the name C3), and then in the same cell the water-splitting part of photosynthesis gives the hydrogen needed to tack on to...