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Natural Multi-purpose Cleaner

Natural Multi-purpose Cleaner

Food for Freedom Review

Food for Freedom Review

EDC Prepping Program Review

EDC Prepping Program Review

My Survival Farm Review

My Survival Farm Review

Articles

The warming Effects of the Industrial Revolution

Steam Poer Invention

Until recently, humans did not significantly affect the much larger forces of climate and atmosphere. Many scientists believe, however, that with the dawn of the industrial age and the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas, and oil humans began to significantly add to the amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, enhancing the planet's natural greenhouse effect and causing higher temperatures. Climate change . . . is the single greatest threat that...

Garbage Challenges in Developing Countries

Developing Countries Pictures

The problems of waste management are different for the developing world. Because the economies of developing countries are usually not as robust as the economies of countries such as the United States, people in these poorer countries tend to buy fewer products with less packaging, and they produce less waste than Americans or residents of other industrialized nations. On the A child scavenges on a dump in Manila, in the Philippines. Many developing countries have problems disposing of wastes....

Surface Loading Rate Surface Settling Rate and Surface Overflow Rate

The surface loading rate is the number of gallons of wastewater passing over 1 ft2 of tank per day. This can be used to compare actual conditions with design. Plant designs generally use a surface loading rate of 300 to 1200 gpd ft2. Other terms used synonymously with surface loading rate are surface settling rate and surface overflow rate. Surface Settling Rate (gpd ft2) -Flow (gpd)-2 (13.1) Problem A settling tank is 120 ft in diameter, and flow to the unit is 4.5 MGD. What is the surface...

Fossil Fuel Use in Agriculture

Energy is required for all agricultural operations. Modern intensive agriculture requires much more energy input than did traditional farming methods, since it relies on the use of fossil fuels for tillage, transportation and grain drying, for the manufacture of fertilizers, pesticides and equipment used as agricultural inputs, and for generating electricity used on farms (Frye, 1984). Early estimates suggested that fossil fuel usage by agriculture, primarily of liquid fuels and electricity,...

Impacts of Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Food Security

The direction of the various expected impacts on consumers and on farm income is summarized in Table 4.2. Farm income is defined as returns to land, labor, and capital. The net effect on food security depends on local conditions. Table 4.2 General Impacts of Rising Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases on Factors Affecting Food Security CO2 fertilization Climate change Extreme weather events Sea level rise Higher levels of CO2 in the atmosphere tend to increase plant growth. However, increases in...

Belt press filtration

Fresnel Lens Used For Drying Water

Belt filter presses employ single or double moving belts to continuously dewater sludges through one or more stages of dewatering. All belt press filtration processes include three basic operational stages chemical conditioning of the feed sludge gravity drainage to a nonfluid consistency shear and compression dewatering of the drained sludge. When dewater- Figure 7.5. A schematic diagram of a belt filter for sludge dewatering. (Courtesy of Falke Bruinsma at http photos.innersource.com) Figure...

The Koppen Climate Classification System

In 1900, the Russian-German climatologist Vladimir Koppen presented the scientific community with a system for classifying the world's climates. Today, it is called the Koppen Climate Classification System. It divides the Earth's surface into climatic regions that generally coincide with world patterns of vegetation and soils. The system has five major climate types. These are based on averages of annual rainfall and temperatures. The annual averages are combined with the monthly rain and...

The Worlds Major Vegetation Types

Coniferous Forests Iran

In the broadest sense the world's vegetation can be divided into several basic structural types, each of which includes several bionics 1. There is a set of forest vegetation bionics, which have a dense, closed canopy of trees. If you stand and look upwards in a forest, you see few large gaps between the crowns of the trees, which tend to overlap and interlock with one another. Forest biomes include tropical rainforest, temperate evergreen forest, temperate deciduous forest, and cold climate...

Running the Ozipr Model

The EPA's OZIPR model (Ozone Isopleth Plotting Program, Research Version) was designed to be used primarily for calculating emissions reductions needed to reach the NAAQS for 03. Both DOS-based and Windows versions are available and can be downloaded from the Web site http www.academicpress.com pecs download OZIPR contains two comprehensive chemical mechanisms that use two different approaches to lumping organics. The two mechanisms used in these models, the RADM (Regional cid Deposition Model)...

Combined Aerobic Processes

Fluidized Bed Reactor

The combined aerobic processes are designed to sustain shock loads in activated sludge, aerobic contactor, and trickling filter (biofilter) processes. There are several possible combinations of these aerobic processes activated biofilter process, trickling filter solids-contact process, biofilter activated-sludge process, and trickling filter-activated sludge process. The activated biofilter process is a trickling filter with recycling of secondary sludge back to the trickling-filter to create...

Drought caused by changes in Global Atmospheric circulation

Aftermath Dust Bowl

Global oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns undergo frequent shifts that affect large parts of the globe, particularly those arid and semiarid parts affected by Hadley Cell circulation. One of the better known variations in global circulation is known as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Fluctuations in global circulation can account for natural disasters, including the Dust Bowl days of the 1930s in the U.S. plains states. Similar global climate...

Physical Water Pollution

A common form of physical water pollution is thermal pollution. This includes warm water from cooling towers, floating debris, foam, and garbage. In highly industrialized areas of the world, power plants are used in generating electricity, where warmer water generated in the process is generally released back to the environment. In nuclear plants, water is used in large quantity to cool reactors. The discharge of high-temperature water into a natural body of water can affect the downstream...

Box 81 Q C3 and CAM plants

Many plants in arid environments decrease the problem of water loss through stomata by chemical tricks that help them take up CO with less water loss. These are known as C4 and CAM plants. Most plants are known as C3 plants. They take CO up into leaf cells which handle the whole photosynthetic reaction in the same cells. The C02 gets fixed into a three-carbon chain (hence the name C3), and then in the same cell the water-splitting part of photosynthesis gives the hydrogen needed to tack on to...

Defluorinated Phosphoric Acid

Process Flow Diagram For Ms4 Stormwater

One method used in order to defluorinate wet process phosphoric acid is vacuum evaporation. The concentration of 54 P2O5 acid to a 68-72 P2O5 strength is performed in vessels that use high-pressure (30.6-37.4 atm or 450-550 psig) steam or an externally heated Dowtherm solution as the heat energy source for evaporation of water from the acid. Fluorine removal from the acid occurs concurrently with the water vapor loss. A typical process flow diagram for vacuum-type evaporation is shown in Figure...

The Influence of Temperature on the Nitrification Rate

Nitrification And Temperature

The optimum temperature for the growth of nitrifying bacteria, according to the literature, is between 28 C and 36 C, although an optimum temperature of up to 42 C has been reported for Nitrobacter by Painter (1970). Growth constants of nitrifying bacteria are greatly affected by temperature (Table 3.9). Figure 3.2 shows that the nitrification rate is a function of temperatures between 5 and 35 C. The maximum growth rate occurs at approximately 30 C. Curve A, which was produced by Borchardt...

Types of Freshwater Ecosystem Services

The goods and services provided to humans by freshwater benthic ecosystems may be classed as provisioning services, or products obtained from ecosystems, such as plant and animal food and fiber supporting services, or services necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services, such as waste processing, the production of a sustained clean water supply, flood abatement, and climate moderation and cultural services, or nonmaterial benefits obtained from ecosystems, such as aesthetics,...

Figure 8 Diagrammatic representation of anaerobic filter process from

Anaerobic Filter

Figure 9 Diagrammatic representation of fluidized and expanded bed reactor process from Ref. 77 . Figure 9 Diagrammatic representation of fluidized and expanded bed reactor process from Ref. 77 . Anaerobic Technologies Suppliers and Anaerobic Plants in the Pulp and Paper Industry. Table 13 shows the major suppliers of full-scale anaerobic treatment plants for industrial wastewater and the corresponding technologies. It may be noted from this table that a significant number of installations for...

Methods Of Disinfection And Disinfectant Agents Used

Generally, two methods of disinfection are used chemical and physical. The chemical methods, of course, use chemical agents, and the physical methods use physical agents. Historically, the most widely used chemical agent is chlorine. Other chemical agents that have been used include ozone, ClO2, the halogens bromine and iodine and bromine chloride, the metals copper and silver, KMnO4, phenol and phenolic compounds, alcohols, soaps and detergents, quaternary ammonium salts, hydrogen peroxide,...

Tire and TDF Use in Portland Cement Kilns

The portland cement production process is extremely energy intensive (from 4 to 6 million Btu's (MMBtu's) are required to make a ton of product) therefore, alternative and cost-effective fuel options are of great interest. Waste tires have been tried as a supplemental fuel in well over 30 cement kilns and in at least one rotary lime manufacturing kiln. Currently, tires are in use, either on a trial or permanent basis, in 11 cement kilns and one lime kiln. A cement kiln provides an environment...

What Causes Microclimates

Temperature Alpine Rner Silene

Microclimates are caused by local differences in the amount of heat or water received or trapped near the surface. A microclimate may differ from its surroundings by receiving more energy, so it is a little warmer than its surroundings. On the other hand, if it is shaded it may be cooler on average, because it does not get the direct heating of the sun. Its humidity may differ water may have accumulated there making things damper, or there may be less water so that it is drier. Also the wind...

Medicinal Plants Of Introduction

The value of biodiversity as a source of pharmaceutically active substances has been the subject of a number of studies, for example Pearce and Puroshothaman (this volume), McNeely (1988), Farnsworth and Soejarto (1985) and Principe (1991). This value is now being cited as one of the many arguments for conserving natural habitats and, in particular, tropical forests which contain the largest number of plant species. These analyses, however, ignore the additional role of these as sources of...

Waste Management in Europe

Garbage Containers Europe

Most developed countries face the same problems with trash as the United States. In fact, some areas of the globe are way ahead of the United States in trash technology and policies. Europe, for example, due to its dense population, began running out of landfill space long ago. Many European countries turned to incinerators, but this method has become increasingly disfavored because it produces too much air pollution and hazardous waste. As a result, some countries in Europe have begun...

The Thermal Wind Equation

Taylor Proudman Ocean

We saw in Section 5.2 that isobaric surfaces slope down from equator to pole. Moreover, these slopes increase with height, as can be seen, for example, in Fig. 5.13 and the schematic diagram, Fig. 5.14. Thus according to the geostrophic relation, Eq. 7-8, the geostrophic flow will increase with height, as indeed is observed in Fig. 5.20. According to T-P, however, dug dz 0. What's going on The Taylor-Proudman theorem pertains to a slow, steady, frictionless, barotropic fluid, in which p p(p)....

Utilizing all the waste

Fish Ensiling

There are three main categories of co-products that utilize all, or almost all, seafood processing wastes. These are compost, meals, and hydrolysates or digests. These products are often produced by independent entrepreneurs, who have the time and interest to learn the technology and to develop markets that, for the most part, have nothing to do with seafood. We will define each technology, explain how to get started on a small scale, and discuss the pros and cons of each. Composting is the...

Principles of construction on permafrost bases and foundations

Frozen Footings

For construction outside the permafrost regions it is usually believed that all the load from a structure is transmitted through the base of the foundation to bearing ground while ground in contact with the sides of a foundation only occasionally carries a vertical load (as with piles and deep foundations). The interaction between foundations and ground is assessed differently in the regions of deep seasonal freezing and of permafrost. The load is transmitted to ground here through all the...

Medicinal plants in Ghana

Ghana Climate And Vegetation

This section examines information on the use of medicinal plants collated from a number of case studies of different regions and ecosystems in Ghana. The management of plant habitats, the evidence of overexploitation and scarcity, and the effects of environmental and land use change is reviewed. A brief profile of the country, and an overview of the health system and concepts of illness and treatment, and the role of traditional healers, of which herbalists form the majority, is included. Ghana...

Biodiversity Of Mangroves

Landform Ofmangrove

Biodiversity is usually defined at three levels, i.e. species, populations and ecosystems (Ray and McCormick 1992). The term biodiversity components has been recommended as an ecological reference to these several hierarchical levels, and the idea is particularly appropriate to describe tropical estuarine ecosystems (Yanez-Arancibia et al. 1994). Biodiversity components of tropical estuaries can refer to the high diversity of species, life histories, habitats and links in food webs, or the...

Results and Discussion

We now apply the model presented above to some actual data (Joshi et al., 2008) sets as obtained through experiments in New Delhi, India, which is located at 77 12' E longitude and 28 35' N latitude. The test was performed from 9 00 a.m. to 4 00 p.m. on March 27, 2006, and the data measured included total solar irradiation, voltage, open-circuit voltage, current, short-circuit current, cell temperature, ambient temperature, and velocity of the air just above the photovoltaic surface. The data...

Ohio River Case Study

The Ohio River Basin, covering a drainage area of 204,000 square miles, extends 1,306 miles from the headwaters of the Alleghany River in Potter County, Pennsylvania, to the confluence of the Ohio River with the Mississippi River at Cairo, Illinois. With a length of 981 miles from the confluence of the Alleghany and Monan-gahela rivers with the Ohio River at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, and a drainage area of 192,200 square miles, the Ohio River is the largest single tributary...

Combined Treatment of Industrial and Municipal Wastes

Most soap and detergent manufacturing facilities, as mentioned previously, discharge their untreated or pretreated wastes into municipal systems. The compositions of these wastewaters vary widely, with some being readily biodegradable and others inhibitory to normal biological treatment processes. In order to allow and surcharge such an effluent to a municipal treatment plant, an evaluation of its treatability is required. Such a detailed assessment of the wastewaters discharged from a factory...

Cleaner production in the dairy industry

Cleaner Production is a preventative approach to environmental management that encompasses eco-efficiency, waste minimisation and pollution prevention. Cleaner Production is a forward-looking, 'anticipate and prevent' philosophy. Cleaner Production does not deny growth it merely insists that growth be ecologically sustainable (UNEP 2004). In this context, waste is considered a 'product' with negative economic value. Each action to reduce consumption of raw materials and energy, and reduce...

Demetallation and Recovery of Fuel Oil from Hazardous Waste

Waste Reduction Sheet Metal

Tarrer and Wen-Terng Wu Department of Chemical Engineering, Auburn University In the United States, automotive and other industrial sources generate about 1.2 billion gallons of used oil each year. The most pertinent features of this oil with regard to recycle and disposal problems are flash point and water, sediments, ash, nitrogen, and oxygen content. Many of the impurities are dispersed in the oil due to the very effective dispersant characteristics of the additives...

Conventional Composting of Organic Wastes

Technologically, composting is the simplest way to treat solid waste containing hazardous substances. Composting converts biologically unstable organic matter into a more stable humuslike product that can be used as a soil conditioner or organic fertilizer. Additional benefits of composting of organic wastes include prevention of odors from rotting wastes, destruction of pathogens and parasites (especially in thermophilic composting), and retention of nutrients in the endproducts. There are...

TDF as Fuel in Waste Wood Boilers at Pulp and Paper Mills

Diagram Bark Conveyor

Pulp mills generate large amounts of waste wood products, such as bark and contaminated wood residues, in the process of making wood chips for the pulp digester. Also, many paper companies operate saw mills adjacent to the wood yard to maximize resources these mills generate waste wood slabs, logs, trimmings, pellets, shavings, saw dust, etc., that can be a solid waste disposal problem.1 Heating value of these waste wood ranges from about 7,925 to 9,010 Btu's per pound of fuel, on a dry basis....

Chevron refinery as cooling tower makeup From

Zero Liquid Discharge Figure Diagram

The El Segundo, CA, Chevron refinery takes a further step in water reuse 76 . It receives 16,300 m3 day of reclaimed water to feed its boilers. Microfiltration (MF) and RO are used to treat secondary effluent from the Hyperion Wastewater Treatment Plant to provide low-pressure boiler feedwater while a second pass RO is used to produce high-pressure boiler feedwater. The concept of water reuse and zero liquid discharge in petroleum refineries has been proposed and debated for many years 77 . The...

Characteristics of Agricultural and Food Wastewater

Biological Oxygen Demand Test Flowcharts

Whenever and wherever food, in any form, is handled, processed, packed and stored, there will always be an unavoidable generation of wastewater. Wastewater is the most serious environmental problem in the manufacturing and processing of foods. Most of the volume of wastewater comes from cleaning operations at almost every stage of food processing and transportation operations. The quantity and general quality (i.e., pollutant strength, nature of constituents) of this processing wastewater...

Water Supply and Wastewater Management in the Medieval

Different Parts Medieval Monastery

Monasteries founded by Cistercians, Premonstratensians and Benedictines in Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries were exemplary business undertakings for that time. Besides the monks and the abbot, numerous lay persons worked and prayed there, all requiring a reliable source of water. Frequently, a monastery was placed near a river and a ditch was dug, which was laid with a necessary gradient through the area of the monastery. Figure 1.4 presents a system for water supply and wastewater...

Introduction climate and agriculture in Russia

Busting Out Brick Wall Clip Art

When analyzing the development of Soviet agriculture it should be borne in mind that Russia is comparatively poorly endowed in terms of agricultural land and climate and that, under any system of farming, agricultural productivity would be appreciably lower than, for example, that of the United States or Western Europe. Russian farming is characterized by its extreme northerly location. The center of Russia lies at roughly the same latitude as Hudson Bay, and St. Petersburg is actually at the...

Kaapvaal Craton South Africa

Cratons Africa

The Archean Kaapvaal craton of southern Africa contains some of the world's oldest and most intensely studied Archean rocks, yet nearly 86 percent of the craton is covered by younger rocks. The craton covers approximately 363,000 square miles (585,000 km2) near the southern tip of the African continent. The craton is bordered on the north by the highgrade Limpopo mobile belt, initially formed when the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons collided at 2.6 billion years ago. On its southern and western...

History of Levee Building on the Mississippi River

Mississippi River Widening 100 Miles

The Mississippi River is the longest river in the world and encompasses the third-largest watershed, draining 41 percent of the continental United States including an area of 1,245,000 square miles (3,224,550 km2). The river transports 230 million tons of sediment, including the sixth-largest silt load in the world. Before the Europeans came and began altering the river, this silt used to cover the flood-plains with this fertile material during the semiannual floods and carry more downriver to...

Microclimates and vegetation

Dan Kay 316 Rust 800

Climate on the broad scale, across hundreds of kilometers, brings about the broad-scalc distribution of vegetation types (Chapters 1 and 2). However, even looking at the world much more locally, wc see that there arc also very substantial differences in the average climatc. For example, a south-facing slope has a different climate from a north-facing one. The year-round temperature and rainfall conditions under a tree will be different from those just a few meters away in the open. The...

The Influence of pH on the Nitrification Rate

Nitrification Free Ammonia Inhibition

In the literature, the optimum pH value forthe nitrification process varies between 8 and 9. Figure 3.7 summarizes investigations of pH effects on the nitrification rate. Usually the nitrification rate decreases, as the pH decreases. By measuring the nitrification rates Meyerhof (1916) found the pH optimum for Nitrosomonas to be between 8,5 and 8,8, and for Nitrobacter to be 8,3 to 9,3. Hofman et al. (1973) made similar investigations, and found for both organisms an optimum pH of 8.3, and that...

Examples of landslide disasters

Mass wasting is one of the most costly of natural hazards, with the slow downslope creep of material causing billions of dollars in damage to properties every year in the United States. Earth movements do not kill many people in most years, but occasionally massive landslides take thousands or even hundreds of thousands of lives. Mass wasting is becoming more of a hazard in the United States as people move in great numbers from the plains into mountainous areas as population increases. This...

Types Of Carbon Sequestration

Carbon sequestration is the process through which CO2 from the atmosphere is absorbed by various carbon sinks. Principal carbon sinks include agricultural sinks, forests, geologic formations, and oceanic sinks. Carbon sequestration and storage (CSS) occurs when CO2 is absorbed by trees, plants, and crops through photosynthesis and stored as carbon in biomass, such as tree trunks, branches, foliage, and roots, as well as in the soil. For a more in-depth discussion of the specifics of actual...

The Growth Of Environmental Awareness

1970s Environmental Disaster

Another factor that has helped focus attention on global warming in recent years is the growth of environmental awareness. Over the last few decades, there have been several notable anthropogenic environmental disasters. These have made the public more aware of environmental damage sometimes permanent. One of the worst anthropogenic disasters was the explosion at the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl, USSR, on April 26, 1986. A reactor exploded during a failed cooling system test and ignited a...

Global water use trends Ever increasing

Water is fundamental for all kinds of development. Human development and well-being, industrial and economic development, energy production and agriculture all rely on the availability of (often abundant) water resources. However, there are distinct differences between sectors of society, their relationship to water and the future implications that changes in availability may have. The 20th century witnessed a sixfold increase in human water use, while the population increased 'only' threefold...

Advanced Wastewater Treatment Processes

Biological treatment processes, in combination with primary sedimentation, typically remove 85 of the BOD5 and soluble solids originally present in the raw wastewater and some of the heavy metals. Activated sludge generally produces an effluent of slightly higher quality, in terms of these constituents, than trickling filters or RBCs. When coupled with a disinfection step, these processes can provide substantial but not complete removal of bacteria and virus. However, they remove very little...

Treatment of Battery Manufacturing Wastes

Aircraft Ion Battery Construction

Hawumba, Yung-Tse Hung, and Lawrence K. Wang 32.1 Introduction 32.1.1 Historical, Cultural, and Battery Technology Development 1303 32.2 Overview of the Manufacturing Process 32.2.1 Manufacturing Process 32.3 Battery Chemical Systems 32.3.1 Battery Classification 32.4 Description of Battery Subcategories in the Battery Industry of 32.4.2 Subcategory A Cadmium 32.4.3 Subcategory C Lead 32.4.4 Subcategory D Leclanche 32.4.5 Subcategory G Zinc Battery 32.4.6 Subcategory E Lithium Battery...

Supercontinents and Climate

Supercontinents

The motion of the tectonic plates periodically causes most of the continental landmasses of the planet to collide with each other, forming giant continents known as supercontinents. For much of the past several billion years, these supercontinents have alternately formed and broken up in a process called the supercontinent cycle. The last supercontinent was known as Pangaea, which broke up about 160 million years ago to form the present-day plates on the planet. Before that the previous...

Sludge Thickening Concentration

Thickener Diagram

Further sludge concentration is first accomplished by the use of thickening equipment that will increase the solids content to between 2 and 5 . Sludge thickening is achieved through one of two means flotation and settling to the bottom by gravity or centrifugal force. The thickening operation separates water from the sludge as much as possible and is cost-effective because the cost involved in the process is well offset by the savings gained through the reduction of sludge volume, which...

Impacts of Climate Change in Japan

Climate Change Japan

The observed and projected impacts of climate change are described for several sectors The impacts on food (agriculture, livestock and fisheries) contain changes in the rice production, Ukikawa symptoms (detached fruit skin and flesh) in mandarin and grapes due to high temperature and delayed seaweed harvests due to a later cooling down of water temperatures in autumn. It is expected that poor ripening of rice increases, a shift northward will take place for apple cultivation lands (Fig. 1.38),...

Features of Agriculture and Forestry in the Humid and Sub Humid Tropics

Agriculture is very important for most countries in the humid and the sub-humid tropics. Take tropical Asia as an example. In tropical Asia, agriculture is a key economic sector. In 1993, ithad employed more than half of the labor force, accounting for 10-63 of the GDP in most countries of the region (IPCC, 1998). Substantial foreign exchange earnings also are derived from exports of agricultural products. Climate-sensitive crops - such as rice, other grains and cereals, vegetables, and spices...

Romanticism And Conservation

Researchers and other intellectuals, including artists, began to recognize the local impacts of environmental degradation around the turn of the 19th century in the United States and Europe. For scientists, powers of observation were based on empiricism and the scientific method that were honed during the Enlightenment. Artists and intellectuals observed natural beauty and captured it in the painting, music, and literature of the Romantic period. Romanticism emerged along with the Industrial...

Ecological Zonation in Lakes

Three Zones Lake Ecosystem

W M Lewis, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Lakes show many kinds of spatial variation in both vertical and horizontal dimensions. Variation can be chemical, physical, or biotic, and is important to the understanding of ecosystem functions. Although some types of variation are unique to specific classes of lakes, others are common to most lakes, and correspond to an obvious spatial organization of the biota in lakes. The existence of certain...

Energy Awareness and Environmental Sustainability

Individual people and entire organizations are not likely to actively preserve energy or in general act in an environmental friendly way, unless they are aware of the issue and its problems. But what does being aware mean Even though there are many sophisticated definitions of awareness, just in the field of psychology for example, referring to consciousness, the Oxford Dictionary (fourth edition) offers a simple but very useful definition. It states that being aware means having knowledge or...

Renewable energy Policy Project Repp

Founded in 1995, the Renewable Energy Policy Project (REPP) is based in Washington, D.C. The organization researches strategies to make renewable sources competitive in energy markets and to stabilize carbon emissions. REPP supports reindus-trialization through the use of renewable technologies. It demonstrates that solar, wind, biomass, and other renewable sources can provide energy services at or below the cost of nonrenewables when structural barriers are removed. REPP works directly with...

Table 54 Estimates for grain production in the USSR between 1928 and 1940 millions of tons

Source Wheatcroft and Davies, 1994. good but less than planned about 83.5 million tons. The Western estimate is only 64 million tons. Grain delivery was less than planned but twice that of 1928. It was a very good result and the country was able to export about 5.8 million tons in 1930. Much of the grain harvested should have been reserved for the state grain stock (Conquest, 2002). The planned target for 1931 was fixed at 97.9 million tons but already by 1...

Land Treatment Systems

Waste Water Infiltration System Canada

Land application of wastewater is perhaps the oldest method for disposal and treatment of wastewaters. Early systems were used in England as Land Farms, which received untreated wastewater and night soil from nearby communities. Today, land application systems have included application to edible and nonedible crops, to rangelands, to forests and wood plantations, to recreational areas including parks and golf courses, and to disturbed lands such as mine spoil sites. Land application of...

Pangaea Ultimathe Future

Pangea Ultima

Scientists are interested in what the future may be like and how the Earth may eventually look. What will its climate be like How will its ecosystems function How many of the changes will be natural, and how many will be human caused In the case of plate tectonics, geologists have been able to trace the movement of the Earth's plates backward in time in order to determine the geographic positions of the continents and the resulting climates that affected them, such as tropical, polar, or...

The Limits of Recycling

Trade Waste Policy

Despite the benefits of recycling programs and their growing popularity, however, recycling has not solved the garbage problem. It is undisputed, for example, that recycling has not reduced the total amount of municipal wastes being generated by Americans. As conservationist Helen Spiegelman acknowledges, Even after the enormous exertions of America's cities and towns to recycle bottles, cans, newspapers and other consumer products, seventy percent of the products we buy are still going to...

The Worlds Diminishing Freshwater Supply

Freshwater Floods

On a global scale only about half of the world's population has a connection to a piped-water supply in the home, whereas 30 percent rely on wells or local village pipes, and about 20 percent have no access at all to clean water. World population is expected to grow by another 50 percent (another 3-4 A levee on the Mississippi River being overtopped, with water flooding farmlands in Winfield, Missouri, during Midwest floods of summer 2008 (T. Kusky) billion people) in the next 50 years, so huge...

Agricultural Hazardous Wastes

Industrial manufacturing is not the only industry that generates hazardous wastes, however. Enormous amounts of hazardous chemical pesticides and herbicides are used on crops by U.S. agriculture producers each year. Many of these chemicals run off into the soil and groundwater, and any materials left over are considered hazardous wastes. In some cases, too, the application of phosphate fertilizer produces fluoride wastes. Even animal manure produces concentrated nitrates that can leach into...

Conclusions And Further Challenges

From the number and nature of water recycling projects throughout the world, it can be concluded that the principle of treating wastewater as a valuable source becomes increasingly accepted. The larger demand of water due to population growth and increased comfort is translated into better protection of sources and eventually, zero discharge or nearly zero discharge systems. A remarkable observation is that in none of these projects adverse health effects were obtained, even on a long...

Global Desalination Situation

Type Water Process

Kennedy2, Jan C. Schippers2 and Gary Amy2 11nstitute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM), University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany 2. Historical Development 8 3. Global Installed Desalination Capacity 11 3.1. Projected Growth of the Desalination Market 11 3.2. Global capacity by source water type 11 3.3. Global capacity by process 11 3.4. Global capacity by use type 12 3.5. Global capacity by plant size 14 3.6. Costs and energy demand of...

Global Distribution of Reservoirs

Stone Fish World Distribution

There are nearly 50 000 dams in the world with heights above 15 m- defined as large dams - and an almost innumerable number of small dams built for farm ponds and other tiny impoundments. These dams can retain > 6500 km3 of water, which represents > 15 of the annual global runoff (Figure 1). The area of former terrestrial habitat inundated by all large (> 108 m3) reservoirs in the world is comparable to the area of California or France. The environmental values that were lost as a result...

Phosphate Fertilizer A

H2so4 Rady Flow Chart

The phosphate fertilizer industry is defined as eight separate processes phosphate rock grinding, wet process phosphoric acid, phosphoric acid concentration, phosphoric acid clarification, normal superphosphate, triple superphosphate, ammonium phosphate, and sulfuric acid. Practically all phosphate manufacturers combine the various effluents into a large recycle water system. It is only when the quantity of recycle water increases beyond the capacity to contain it that effluent treatment is...

Lead Accumulator Structure

The electrodes, commonly named grid, are made by a lead alloy frame to improve both strenght and hardness of the grid supporting the so called active mass. This active mass is made by mixing very fine Pb powder with lead oxide (PbO or Pb304) and diluted H2S04. After drying, the mass composition turns basically into lead sulphate and unreacted lead oxides. The final electrodes are formed by spreading the mass over the grids and charging them through electrolysis in H2SO4. This gives rise to the...

Ecological Regions In Zambia

Characterize Agriculture Tanzania

Zambia is a landlocked country located in the tropics between latitude 8 -18 S and longitude 22 -33 E (Figure 25.1). Its tropical continental climate has clearly defined dry and rainy seasons. Three agroecological regions (see Figure 25.2 for locations), based on climatic characteristics with annual rainfall ranging between 700 and 1400 mm as the dominant factor, have been defined (Veldkamp et al., 1987). These zones are described below. Figure 25.1 Location of Zambia in Southern Africa. Figure...

Diurnal variation of solar irradiance

Diurnal Variation Solar Radiation

For a given set of atmospheric conditions, the irradiance at any point on the Earth's surface is determined by the solar elevation, b. This rises during the day from zero (or its minimum value in the Arctic or Antarctic during the summer) at dawn to its maximum value at noon, and then diminishes in a precisely symmetrical manner to zero (or the minimum value) at dusk. The exact manner of the variation of b with time of day depends on the latitude, and on the solar declination, d, at the time....

Dog Sledge In Inuit Culture

Inuit Greenland

Dog sleds (or sledges) are important to Arctic peoples' culture and lifestyle. Utilizing dogs to pull sleds is thought to have begun in Siberia around 7000 years ago. Up until recent times, travel by dog team was the main method of transportation during the winter. Dog sleds allowed people to move or travel to hunting grounds. Although it is now common to have eight to ten dogs, previously people could maintain only two or three dogs and sleds were used to haul gear while people usually walked....

The Equatorial Undercurrent

The Equatorial Undercurrent (Figures 5.1(b) and 5.2) is a major feature of equatorial circulation. Such an undercurrent occurs in all three oceans, although it is only a seasonal feature in the Indian Ocean. Equatorial Undercurrents flow from west to east, below the direct influence of the wind, yet they arc w ind-driven. How can this be The effect of the wind is transmitted downwards to deeper layers via turbulence (eddy viscosity) and is mainly confined to the mixed surface layer above the...

Main Characteristics Of Farming Systems In Drylands

Drylands have particular characteristics that will affect their capacity to sequester carbon. Drylands often experience high temperatures, low and erratic rainfall, minimal cloud cover, and small amounts of plant residues to act as surface cover to minimize radiation impact. As a result, soils in the drylands are, generally, both inherently low in organic matter and nutrients and rapidly lose large proportions of those small quantities as CO2 when exposed by tillage and other conventional...

Thermohaline Circulation and Climate

Variations in formation and circulation of ocean water may cause some of the thousands of years to decadal scale variations in climate. Cold water forms in the Arctic and Weddell seas. This cold, salty water is denser than other water in the ocean, so it sinks to the bottom and gets ponded behind seafloor topographic ridges, periodically spilling over into other parts of the oceans. The formation and redistribution of North Atlantic cold bottom water accounts for about 30 percent of the solar...

The Milankovitch Cycles

Earth's orbit does not remain fixed it varies over time. Major contributing factors to ice ages are these natural variations that occur between the Earth-Sun relationship. There are three natural cycles that have an effect on Earth's climate. The cycles have to do with Earth's axial tilt, its elliptical orbit around the Sun, and its wobble, or precession (the direction the North Pole points). These orbital parameters have cyclic occurrences (periodicities) that range from 22,000 to 100,000...

Specific Effects of UVB Radiation on Plants

Ultraviolet Leaf Plants

Plants are highly sensitive to UV-B radiation because of their sessile nature. In plants, UV-B radiation damages cell membranes and all organelles within the cell, including the chloroplasts, mitochondria, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) within the nucleus. Damage to these cell organelles directly or indirectly affects basic plant metabolic processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, growth, and reproduction. Consequently, UV-B damage harms crop yield and quality. An overview of various...

Types Of Satellite Imagery

Satellite imagery forms one of the basic tools for remote sensing. The types of satellite images available to the geologist, environmental scientist, and others are expanding rapidly, and only the most common in use are discussed here. The Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1), the first unmanned digital imaging satellite, was launched on July 23, 1972. Four other satellites from the same series, later named Landsat, were launched at intervals of a few years. The Landsat spacecraft...

Reference Approach vs Sectoral Approach

The Reference Approach and the Sectoral Approach often give different results because the Reference Approach is a top-down approach using a country's energy supply data and has no detailed information on how the individual fuels are used in each sector. The Reference Approach provides estimates of CO2 to compare with estimates derived using a Sectoral Approach. Theoretically, it indicates an upper bound to the Sectoral Approach 1A fuel combustion, because some of the carbon in the fuel is not...

Impacts Of Droughts In South Africa

Drought impacts, however, are not the result only of insufficient rainfall or searing temperature. In most cases, drought impacts are the outcome of the interaction of a number of social and other human factors that can heighten the vulnerability of communities and various exposure units (e.g., vegetation) and reduce resilience of society and ecosystems to the natural hazard (Dilley, 2000 Vogel et al, 2000). As a result of these components of drought, a number of impacts are recorded. The scale...

Nitrous oxide from nitric acid production

Nitric acid is a key ingredient in N-based fertilizers. As a raw material, it also is used for the production of adipic acid (another important N2O source - see next section) and explosives, metal etching and in the processing of ferrous metals. Nitric acid production involves the oxidation of ammonia (NH3) using a platinum catalyst (Ostwald process). Nitrous oxide forms during the catalytic oxidation of ammonia over platinum rhodium gauzes, the major product being NO. It is estimated that...

Control of Co2 by Seafloor Spreading

The seafloor spreading theory is one hypothesis introduced to suggest a mechanism of controlled CO2 levels in the atmosphere, causing the observed variations between warm CO2-rich greenhouse intervals and cold CO2-depleted global cooling intervals. This theory focuses the control of CO2 levels on plate tectonic processes. During plate tectonics, carbon is cycled endlessly between the Earth's interior and its surface. It is this cycling of carbon in different stages that defines whether global...

Shaanxi China January 23 1556

The deadliest earthquake and mass-wasting event on record occurred in 1556 in the central Chinese province of shaanxi. Most of the 830,000 deaths from this earthquake resulted from landslides and the collapse of homes built into loess, a deposit of wind-blown dust that covers much of central China. The loess represents the fine-grained soil eroded from the Gobi desert to the north and west and deposited by wind on the great loess plateau of central China. Thus, this disaster was triggered by an...

Cake Filtration Equipment

Plate And Frame Filter Equipment Process

There are three general categories of filters used. These are Clarifying Filters - Usually cartridge-type or bag filters designed to remove small amounts of particles from a solution. Laboratory personnel typically use these types of filters. These types of filters are also used for 0.2 micron terminal sterilization. Cross low Filters - These are usually membrane-type filters used for ultrafiltration. In the field of biotechnology these types of filters are used in ultrafiltration devices used...

The Worlds Oldest Ophiolite

Early Earth Evolution Sketch

Prior to 2001, no complete Phanerozoic-like ophiol-ite sequences had been recognized from Archean rock sequences around the world, leading some workers to the conclusion that no Archean ophiolites or oceanic crustal fragments are preserved. These ideas were challenged by the discovery of a complete 2.5 billion-year-old ophiolite sequence in the North China craton. This remarkable rock sequence includes chert and pillow lava, a sheeted dike complex, gabbro and layered gabbro, cumulate ultramafic...

Cover Crops with Allelopathic Potential

Providing weed suppression through the use of allelopathic cover crops is an important method of weed control in organic farming and it is one of the best possibilities of allelopathy application (Sullivan 2003a). Besides, growing of cover crops provide soil protection against erosion and better water infiltration, decrease nutrient losses especially nitrogen, improve soil physical and chemical characteristics, increase soil organic matter and biological diversity and reduce pressures of...

Amphibious Plant Adaptations

Climb Assist Devices Oil Rig Tower

Most amphibious herbaceous species in temperate zones are either rhizomatous or tuberous geophytes (plants with their perennating buds below ground) and rely more on vegetative propagation than seed for regeneration. Seed germination is often very low in many amphibious species and successful sexual reproduction takes place only during periods of exceptional drought when water table levels have receded long enough for seeds to germinate and produce established juvenile plants. This restricted...

Positive Draft Of Air Flow

The choice between the two alternative designs would have to be made on the basis of economics and other such factors since they should both give similar performance. This example illustrates the relationship between THL and media depth for a fixed media volume. Although it is recognized today that a minimum THL must be maintained to fully utilize the media and that recirculation can be used to achieve that THL, analysis of historical studies suggests that this requirement was not widely...

References Of Agriculture Policy In Zambia

Effect on soil organic matter and soil fertility of the chitemene slash-and-burn practice used in northern Zambia. In K. Mulongoy and R. Merckx, Eds. Soil Organic Matter Dynamics and Sustainability of Tropical Agriculture. John Wiley, Chichester, United Kingdom, pp. 367-375. Baldock, J. A. and P.N. Nelson. 2000. Soil organic matter. In M.E. Sumner, Ed. Handbook of Soil Science. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 25-84. Biswas, J.C., J.K. Ladhs, and F.B. Dazzo. 2000. Rhizobia...

Definition of Carbon Pools

The definitions of carbon pools according to IPCC (2006) are given in Table 4.3. Above-ground biomass (AGE) Above-ground biomass is expressed as tonnes of biomass or carbon per hectare. Above-ground biomass is the most important and visible carbon pool, and the dominant carbon pool in forests and plantations, although not in grasslands and croplands. Above-ground biomass is given the highest importance in carbon inventory and in most mitigation projects and is the most important pool for...

Hydrogen Production from Fossil Fuels

Noncatalytic Partial Oxidation Reactor

Hydrogen production from fossil fuels such as natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, coal, tar and petroleum coke are well established industrial processes. The principle reaction mechanisms are shown in Figure 5. Hydrogen is produced on a very large scale, principally for ammonia and me- thanol synthesis and for hydrog nation and desulphurisation in refining and in petrochemicals. A preheated mixture of steam and hydrocarbon, usually natural gas, is passed through tubes containing a nickel-based...

Will Human Civilization Face the Exhaustion of Water Resources Due to Global Change

The climate had always been changing and will continue to evolve in the future. So far the only acceptable conception has been based on the outputs of IPCC 12 , which declare that warming up of the Earth is caused by anthropogenic activities -specifically by emissions of carbon dioxide. But a series of scandals disclosed a specialized handling of the primary data so that the seriousness of the so far achieved results was challenged or even damaged. Nevertheless, the ever present question, which...

Vegetation Of Cold Climate Trees

Evial Ghost Scarey Taps Wije Board

2.1 BIOMES THE BROAD VEGETATION TYPES OF THE WORLD On the broadest scale, certain forms of vegetation occur again and again, scattered between different places around the planet. Depending on how finely you might choose to subdivide them, there are between five and twenty fundamental vegetation types in the world. They include, for example, tropical rainforest and savanna in the tropics, and in the high latitudes temperate forest and steppe. Such broad-scale vegetation types are known as...

Intermediate Reboiler or Condenser

Reboiler Energy Balance

Exergy losses can by reduced by the use of an intermediate reboiler 2 . However, this measure does not lower the total energy requirement of a column. But a certain part of the heat is supplied at a lower temperature in reboiler 2 as illustrated in Figure 7.11, Therefore, the energy cost might be reduced. An intermediate reboiler is advantageous only if several external heat sources, for example, steam pressure levels, are available for the individual reboiler. Analogously to an intermediate...

Unit operations and unit processes

Figure 1 shows the schematic of a conventional wastewater treatment plant using primary treatment. Raw wastewater is introduced either to the screen or to the comminutor. The grit channel removes the larger particles from the screened sewage, and the primary clarifier removes the larger particles of organic matter as well as inorganic matter that escapes removal by the grit channel. Primary treated sewage is then introduced to a secondary treatment process train downstream (not shown) where the...

Carbon sequestration by compost application

Compost is applied in agriculture to improve soil fertility by means of the supply of mineral fertilizers, such as potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen. Moreover, the input of compost strongly influences the soil carbon storage which is also an important factor of soil fertility. This is due to the fact that composting partly results in the increased formation of stable carbon compounds, i.e. humus-like substances and aggregates. These are made of complex compounds that render them resistant to...

Step Feed Activated Sludge

Phostrip Process

Figure 7.10 presents the schematic diagram for the configuration used to simulate an SFAS system. As in Figure 7.1, five equal sized CSTRs in series were used, with all biomass recycle to the first bioreactor, but in this case the feed was distributed evenly among the bioreactors. All other characteristics of the system, including the flow rates, feed concentrations, etc., were the same as those used to simulate the performance of the tanks-in-series system. 7.3.2 Effect of SRT on Steady-State...

Examples Of Composting In Europe

Apocalypse Meme

Several examples of different types of composting systems that have been in use in Europe are described below. All these systems are open-air processes, mostly on asphalt pavements. In Finland, two wastewater treatment plants (city of Lappeenranta and city of Loensiy) compost sludge mixed with ground bark as the bulking agent at a ratio of 1 1 by volume in 3-m-high windrow piles. Every three weeks, piles are shoveled over by scoop loader. After two weeks of processing the temperature rises to...

Definition of Shallow Lakes and Ponds and World Distribution

Shallow Lakes Ecosystem

Shallow lakes and ponds are the most abundant lake types in the global landscape. They provide a myriad of ecosystemic and social services as well as goods and materials, while having great conservation value (for example for migratory birds). Such shallow systems usually occur in lowland areas, many in association to seasonal changes in the flood regimes of rivers. The origin of many of these systems can also be related to geological disturbances, such as glacial movements or other processes...

Theoretical Aspects Of Composting

The Composting Process

For the best results in a composting process, it is important to have appropriate mixing of sludge cake with bulking agents and recycled materials. For the process to operate in good condition, it needs to have the optimum mass balance, moisture, temperature, pH, nutrients, and air. Figure 7.11 shows a mass balance diagram that can be used for all three composting systems windrow, aerated static pile, and in-vessel. In the diagram A' weight of ready compost in one day A weight of recycled...

Scientific DiscovERIES

Precambrian Life Reconstruction

Tycho Brahe grew up in a scientific era in which Aristotelian ideas that the universe was unchanging followed the principle of celestial immutability. While based at his observatory at Herrevad, Brahe made many observations on the planets and stars. On November 11, 1572, he made a discovery that changed the thinking about the universe. He observed a very bright star that appeared in the constellation Cassiopeia and showed that no star had been visible in that location before. At first other...

Indirect Effects Of Global Warming

Apart from the direct effects of global warming on the global climate, there is the issue of the indirect effects of it on the sociological, political, and economic climate of nations. It is reported that the social, economic, and physical infrastructural indices of a geographical region has evolved from the adaptation of all that region's society to the prevailing climate and to the hydrological conditions brought about by that climate over a finite time period. In cases, therefore, when the...