Reviews

The Freedom Box Generate Money Using Electricity

The Freedom Box Generate Money Using Electricity

Natural Multi-purpose Cleaner

Natural Multi-purpose Cleaner

Food for Freedom Review

Food for Freedom Review

EDC Prepping Program Review

EDC Prepping Program Review

My Survival Farm Review

My Survival Farm Review

Articles

References Of Agriculture Policy In Zambia

Effect on soil organic matter and soil fertility of the chitemene slash-and-burn practice used in northern Zambia. In K. Mulongoy and R. Merckx, Eds. Soil Organic Matter Dynamics and Sustainability of Tropical Agriculture. John Wiley, Chichester, United Kingdom, pp. 367-375. Baldock, J. A. and P.N. Nelson. 2000. Soil organic matter. In M.E. Sumner, Ed. Handbook of Soil Science. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 25-84. Biswas, J.C., J.K. Ladhs, and F.B. Dazzo. 2000. Rhizobia...

What Causes Microclimates

Temperature Alpine Rner Silene

Microclimates are caused by local differences in the amount of heat or water received or trapped near the surface. A microclimate may differ from its surroundings by receiving more energy, so it is a little warmer than its surroundings. On the other hand, if it is shaded it may be cooler on average, because it does not get the direct heating of the sun. Its humidity may differ water may have accumulated there making things damper, or there may be less water so that it is drier. Also the wind...

Kaapvaal Craton South Africa

Cratons Africa

The Archean Kaapvaal craton of southern Africa contains some of the world's oldest and most intensely studied Archean rocks, yet nearly 86 percent of the craton is covered by younger rocks. The craton covers approximately 363,000 square miles (585,000 km2) near the southern tip of the African continent. The craton is bordered on the north by the highgrade Limpopo mobile belt, initially formed when the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons collided at 2.6 billion years ago. On its southern and western...

The warming Effects of the Industrial Revolution

Steam Poer Invention

Until recently, humans did not significantly affect the much larger forces of climate and atmosphere. Many scientists believe, however, that with the dawn of the industrial age and the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas, and oil humans began to significantly add to the amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, enhancing the planet's natural greenhouse effect and causing higher temperatures. Climate change . . . is the single greatest threat that...

Main Characteristics Of Farming Systems In Drylands

Drylands have particular characteristics that will affect their capacity to sequester carbon. Drylands often experience high temperatures, low and erratic rainfall, minimal cloud cover, and small amounts of plant residues to act as surface cover to minimize radiation impact. As a result, soils in the drylands are, generally, both inherently low in organic matter and nutrients and rapidly lose large proportions of those small quantities as CO2 when exposed by tillage and other conventional...

Features of Agriculture and Forestry in the Humid and Sub Humid Tropics

Agriculture is very important for most countries in the humid and the sub-humid tropics. Take tropical Asia as an example. In tropical Asia, agriculture is a key economic sector. In 1993, ithad employed more than half of the labor force, accounting for 10-63 of the GDP in most countries of the region (IPCC, 1998). Substantial foreign exchange earnings also are derived from exports of agricultural products. Climate-sensitive crops - such as rice, other grains and cereals, vegetables, and spices...

Bilibino Nuclear Power Plant

Bilibino Russia

Bilibino Nuclear Power Plant in Russia's Far North is the world's northernmost nuclear power plant, and the only one in a permafrost region. (The Kola Power Station is also above the Arctic Circle, but has a milder climate.) Constructed from 1974 to 1976, the plant provides energy for the intensive industrial development of territories in the northern part of Magadan Oblast' and of the western part of Chukotka. These territories are rich in various mineral resources, but are remote from coal,...

Cold tolerance in plants

If you are a gardener in an area with cold winters, you will know that most plants do not grow over the winter and survive the conditions in a dormant state. The first cold snap will kill off flowering annuals, which then overwinter as seeds. Early growth in the spring will be destroyed by a late frost and so careful gardeners will cover the emerging shoots of their early potatoes with earth to protect them. Plants are subjected to chilling stress at temperatures in the range 0-15 C and to...

Fossil Fuel Use in Agriculture

Energy is required for all agricultural operations. Modern intensive agriculture requires much more energy input than did traditional farming methods, since it relies on the use of fossil fuels for tillage, transportation and grain drying, for the manufacture of fertilizers, pesticides and equipment used as agricultural inputs, and for generating electricity used on farms (Frye, 1984). Early estimates suggested that fossil fuel usage by agriculture, primarily of liquid fuels and electricity,...

Garbage Challenges in Developing Countries

Developing Countries Pictures

The problems of waste management are different for the developing world. Because the economies of developing countries are usually not as robust as the economies of countries such as the United States, people in these poorer countries tend to buy fewer products with less packaging, and they produce less waste than Americans or residents of other industrialized nations. On the A child scavenges on a dump in Manila, in the Philippines. Many developing countries have problems disposing of wastes....

Applications of bipolar membrane electrodialysis

Bipolar Electrodialysis System

Since bipolar membranes became available as commercial products in 1977 5 , a very large number of potential applications has been identified and has been studied extensively on a laboratory or pilot plant scale 31 . However, in spite of the obvious technical and economical advantages of the technology, large-scale industrial plants are still quite rare. The main reasons for the reluctant use of bipolar membrane electrodialysis are shortcomings of the available bipolar and monopolar membranes,...

Conventional Composting of Organic Wastes

Technologically, composting is the simplest way to treat solid waste containing hazardous substances. Composting converts biologically unstable organic matter into a more stable humuslike product that can be used as a soil conditioner or organic fertilizer. Additional benefits of composting of organic wastes include prevention of odors from rotting wastes, destruction of pathogens and parasites (especially in thermophilic composting), and retention of nutrients in the endproducts. There are...

Examples Of Composting In Europe

Apocalypse Meme

Several examples of different types of composting systems that have been in use in Europe are described below. All these systems are open-air processes, mostly on asphalt pavements. In Finland, two wastewater treatment plants (city of Lappeenranta and city of Loensiy) compost sludge mixed with ground bark as the bulking agent at a ratio of 1 1 by volume in 3-m-high windrow piles. Every three weeks, piles are shoveled over by scoop loader. After two weeks of processing the temperature rises to...

The role of ethnobotany in pharmaceutical prospecting

Plants have been the cornerstone of medicinal therapies for thousands of years and continue to be an essential part of health care for much of the world. The traditional origins of many current pharmaceuticals have been obscured by the process of drug development, such as aspirin from willow bark (Salix spp.), reserpine for hypertension from the Indian Snake Root (Rauwolfia serpentina) and D-tubocurarine, widely used as a muscle relaxant in surgery, from arrow poisons (Chondodendron tomentosum,...

The Influence of Temperature on the Nitrification Rate

Nitrification And Temperature

The optimum temperature for the growth of nitrifying bacteria, according to the literature, is between 28 C and 36 C, although an optimum temperature of up to 42 C has been reported for Nitrobacter by Painter (1970). Growth constants of nitrifying bacteria are greatly affected by temperature (Table 3.9). Figure 3.2 shows that the nitrification rate is a function of temperatures between 5 and 35 C. The maximum growth rate occurs at approximately 30 C. Curve A, which was produced by Borchardt...

Physical Water Pollution

A common form of physical water pollution is thermal pollution. This includes warm water from cooling towers, floating debris, foam, and garbage. In highly industrialized areas of the world, power plants are used in generating electricity, where warmer water generated in the process is generally released back to the environment. In nuclear plants, water is used in large quantity to cool reactors. The discharge of high-temperature water into a natural body of water can affect the downstream...

Table 54 Estimates for grain production in the USSR between 1928 and 1940 millions of tons

Source Wheatcroft and Davies, 1994. good but less than planned about 83.5 million tons. The Western estimate is only 64 million tons. Grain delivery was less than planned but twice that of 1928. It was a very good result and the country was able to export about 5.8 million tons in 1930. Much of the grain harvested should have been reserved for the state grain stock (Conquest, 2002). The planned target for 1931 was fixed at 97.9 million tons but already by 1...

Lime Types Uses Composition And Treatment

Lime Schematic Diagram

Acidic industrial wastewater can be neutralized with slaked lime Ca(OH)2 , caustic soda (NaOH), or soda ash (Na2C03). Since slaked lime is less expensive than other bases, it is the most commonly used chemical for acidic neutralization 5 . Two types of commercial lime with their associated hydrates are high calcium quicklime, otherwise known as calcium oxide (CaO), and dolomitic quicklime (CaO and MgO). The composition of these will depend on the source of the parent limestone and the method of...

Solar Energy Result Conclusion

The construction industry requires the extraction of vast quantities of materials, resulting in the consumption of energy resources and the release of deleterious pollutant emissions to the biosphere. Energy and pollutant emissions, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), may be regarded as being 'embodied' or associated with materials. Here the embodied energy was viewed as the quantity of energy required to extract, process, and supply the material under consideration. Likewise the emission of...

Case Study Broccoli Drying

Latest Conveyor Drying Systems

Fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea) was purchased from a local market in Izmir, Turkey. It was processed within 24 h. Broccoli samples were washed with water, and then the excess water on the surface of broccoli was removed with filter paper. Afterward, florets of broccoli were separated. Broccoli florets were dried in a heat pump conveyor dryer designed and constructed in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey, shown schematically in Fig....

Cake Filtration Equipment

Plate And Frame Filter Equipment Process

There are three general categories of filters used. These are Clarifying Filters - Usually cartridge-type or bag filters designed to remove small amounts of particles from a solution. Laboratory personnel typically use these types of filters. These types of filters are also used for 0.2 micron terminal sterilization. Cross low Filters - These are usually membrane-type filters used for ultrafiltration. In the field of biotechnology these types of filters are used in ultrafiltration devices used...

Aerated Static Pile Process

Part The Hair Detailed Look

The identifying feature of the aerated static pile system is a grid of aeration piping for forced aeration. A blower or fan aerates the pile. The aerated static pile process consists of mixing of dewatered sludge with a bulking agent (usually, wood chips), construction of the composting pile over the grid of aeration piping, composting, screening of the compost, and curing and storage. Figure 7.5 shows an aerated static pile process of composting. The aeration grid is usually made of 100- to...

Methods Of Disinfection And Disinfectant Agents Used

Generally, two methods of disinfection are used chemical and physical. The chemical methods, of course, use chemical agents, and the physical methods use physical agents. Historically, the most widely used chemical agent is chlorine. Other chemical agents that have been used include ozone, ClO2, the halogens bromine and iodine and bromine chloride, the metals copper and silver, KMnO4, phenol and phenolic compounds, alcohols, soaps and detergents, quaternary ammonium salts, hydrogen peroxide,...

Supercontinents and Climate

Cretaceous Plates Changing

The motion of the tectonic plates periodically causes most of the continental landmasses of the planet to collide with each other, forming giant continents known as supercontinents. For much of the past several billion years, these supercontinents have alternately formed and broken up in a process called the supercontinent cycle. The last supercontinent was known as Pangaea, which broke up about 160 million years ago to form the present-day plates on the planet. Before that the previous...

Types Of Carbon Sequestration

Carbon sequestration is the process through which CO2 from the atmosphere is absorbed by various carbon sinks. Principal carbon sinks include agricultural sinks, forests, geologic formations, and oceanic sinks. Carbon sequestration and storage (CSS) occurs when CO2 is absorbed by trees, plants, and crops through photosynthesis and stored as carbon in biomass, such as tree trunks, branches, foliage, and roots, as well as in the soil. For a more in-depth discussion of the specifics of actual...

Types of Freshwater Ecosystem Services

The goods and services provided to humans by freshwater benthic ecosystems may be classed as provisioning services, or products obtained from ecosystems, such as plant and animal food and fiber supporting services, or services necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services, such as waste processing, the production of a sustained clean water supply, flood abatement, and climate moderation and cultural services, or nonmaterial benefits obtained from ecosystems, such as aesthetics,...

Biological Removal of Phosphorus

Biological Remediation Processes

Phosphorus is a constituent of wastewater, averaging around 10 mg liter in most cases. The principal form in food and agricultural wastewater is organically bound phosphorus. Organically bound phosphorus originates from body and food waste and, upon biological decomposition of these solids, is converted to orthophosphates. Biological phosphate removal is a relatively new technology dating back to the late 1950s it wasn't until the 1970s that there were full-scale processes developed for...

Causes Of Droughts In South Africa

Having described the pattern of rainfall-producing systems in the country, attention now focuses on some of the causes of periods of insufficient rainfall and droughts. The forcing mechanisms for droughts are well documented for the southern African region (see, e.g., Tyson, 1986 Mason and Jury, 1997 Lindesay, 1998 Tyson and Preston-Whyte, 2000). Much of the recent research in the country has focused on the prolonged droughts of the last two decades (namely the 1980s and 1990s) Tyson and Dyer,...

Drought caused by changes in Global Atmospheric circulation

Bunzl Southwest

Global oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns undergo frequent shifts that affect large parts of the globe, particularly those arid and semiarid parts affected by Hadley Cell circulation. One of the better known variations in global circulation is known as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Fluctuations in global circulation can account for natural disasters, including the Dust Bowl days of the 1930s in the U.S. plains states. Similar global climate...

The Worlds Oldest Ophiolite

Early Earth Evolution Sketch

Prior to 2001, no complete Phanerozoic-like ophiol-ite sequences had been recognized from Archean rock sequences around the world, leading some workers to the conclusion that no Archean ophiolites or oceanic crustal fragments are preserved. These ideas were challenged by the discovery of a complete 2.5 billion-year-old ophiolite sequence in the North China craton. This remarkable rock sequence includes chert and pillow lava, a sheeted dike complex, gabbro and layered gabbro, cumulate ultramafic...

Temperature distribution in glaciers and ice sheets

Temperatures in glaciers and ice sheets vary in space and time. Temperate glaciers have temperatures at or close to 0 C, while the upper part of the Antarctic ice sheet may be as cold as -40 to -60 C (Fig. 4.2). The melting temperature of ice decreases with increasing pressure at a rate of 0.072 C per 106 pascals (MPa lPa INm-2). As an example, the pressure at the base of a 2000 m thick glacier or ice sheet is about 17.6 MPa, corresponding to a lowering of the melting point to 1.27 C. Therefore...

References Of Crop Production

Amani, I., Fischer, R.A. and Reynolds, M.P (1996) Canopy temperature depression association with yield of irrigated spring wheat cultivars in a hot climate. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 176, 119-129. Ammar, K., Lage, J., Villegas, D., Crossa, J., Hernandez, H. and Alvarado, G. (2008) Association among durum wheat international testing sites and trends in yield progress over the last twenty-two years. In Reynolds, M.P, Pietragalla, J. and Braun, H.-J. (eds) International Symposium on...

Land Treatment Systems

Waste Water Infiltration System Canada

Land application of wastewater is perhaps the oldest method for disposal and treatment of wastewaters. Early systems were used in England as Land Farms, which received untreated wastewater and night soil from nearby communities. Today, land application systems have included application to edible and nonedible crops, to rangelands, to forests and wood plantations, to recreational areas including parks and golf courses, and to disturbed lands such as mine spoil sites. Land application of...

Applications of electrodialysis

Lactic Acid Electrodialysis

Conventional electrodialysis is today commercially by far the most relevant ion-exchange membrane separation process. Electrodialysis was first developed for the desalination of brackish water to produce potable water. In this application, electrodialysis is replaced today to some extent by other membrane processes such as reverse osmosis and nanofiltration. Nevertheless, water desalination is still the most important large-scale application of electrodialysis. But other applications of...

Hydrogen Production from Fossil Fuels

Noncatalytic Partial Oxidation Reactor

Hydrogen production from fossil fuels such as natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, coal, tar and petroleum coke are well established industrial processes. The principle reaction mechanisms are shown in Figure 5. Hydrogen is produced on a very large scale, principally for ammonia and me- thanol synthesis and for hydrog nation and desulphurisation in refining and in petrochemicals. A preheated mixture of steam and hydrocarbon, usually natural gas, is passed through tubes containing a nickel-based...

Definition of Shallow Lakes and Ponds and World Distribution

Shallow Lakes Ecosystem

Shallow lakes and ponds are the most abundant lake types in the global landscape. They provide a myriad of ecosystemic and social services as well as goods and materials, while having great conservation value (for example for migratory birds). Such shallow systems usually occur in lowland areas, many in association to seasonal changes in the flood regimes of rivers. The origin of many of these systems can also be related to geological disturbances, such as glacial movements or other processes...

The Influence of pH on the Nitrification Rate

Nitrification Free Ammonia Inhibition

In the literature, the optimum pH value forthe nitrification process varies between 8 and 9. Figure 3.7 summarizes investigations of pH effects on the nitrification rate. Usually the nitrification rate decreases, as the pH decreases. By measuring the nitrification rates Meyerhof (1916) found the pH optimum for Nitrosomonas to be between 8,5 and 8,8, and for Nitrobacter to be 8,3 to 9,3. Hofman et al. (1973) made similar investigations, and found for both organisms an optimum pH of 8.3, and that...

Impacts of Climate Change in Japan

Effects That Climate Has Japan

The observed and projected impacts of climate change are described for several sectors The impacts on food (agriculture, livestock and fisheries) contain changes in the rice production, Ukikawa symptoms (detached fruit skin and flesh) in mandarin and grapes due to high temperature and delayed seaweed harvests due to a later cooling down of water temperatures in autumn. It is expected that poor ripening of rice increases, a shift northward will take place for apple cultivation lands (Fig. 1.38),...

Examples Of Composting In The United States

Aerated Static Pile Composting

In the United States, studies of windrow and aerated static pile composting were conducted in the mid-1970s in Beltsville, Maryland, and in Carson, California. As of 2003, there were more than 200 wastewater sludge composting facilities in the United States. Most of the composting facilities are aerated static pile systems, and some are in-vessel systems. Windrow composting is rarely used because of the potential odor generation and the large area requirement. The city of Eustis, Florida, uses...

Water Supply and Wastewater Management in the Medieval

Different Parts Medieval Monastery

Monasteries founded by Cistercians, Premonstratensians and Benedictines in Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries were exemplary business undertakings for that time. Besides the monks and the abbot, numerous lay persons worked and prayed there, all requiring a reliable source of water. Frequently, a monastery was placed near a river and a ditch was dug, which was laid with a necessary gradient through the area of the monastery. Figure 1.4 presents a system for water supply and wastewater...

Biodiversity Of Mangroves

Landform Ofmangrove

Biodiversity is usually defined at three levels, i.e. species, populations and ecosystems (Ray and McCormick 1992). The term biodiversity components has been recommended as an ecological reference to these several hierarchical levels, and the idea is particularly appropriate to describe tropical estuarine ecosystems (Yanez-Arancibia et al. 1994). Biodiversity components of tropical estuaries can refer to the high diversity of species, life histories, habitats and links in food webs, or the...

Combined Aerobic Processes

Fluidized Bed Reactor

The combined aerobic processes are designed to sustain shock loads in activated sludge, aerobic contactor, and trickling filter (biofilter) processes. There are several possible combinations of these aerobic processes activated biofilter process, trickling filter solids-contact process, biofilter activated-sludge process, and trickling filter-activated sludge process. The activated biofilter process is a trickling filter with recycling of secondary sludge back to the trickling-filter to create...

Landsystems of Glacial Deposition

Proximal Distal Lateral Moraine Slope

While clean and debris-covered glaciers show many similar features within their landsystems, they differ in the dominant processes operating at the ice margin and in the relative development of landforms (Figs 15.4 and 15.5). Figure. 15.4 A landsystem model for valley glaciers with relatively low supraglacial debris inputs. (From Benn and Evans, 1998). 1 Supraglacially entrained debris 2 Periglacial trimline above ice-scoured bedrock 3 Medial moraine 4 Fluted till surface 5 Paraglacial...

Dog Sledge In Inuit Culture

Inuit Greenland

Dog sleds (or sledges) are important to Arctic peoples' culture and lifestyle. Utilizing dogs to pull sleds is thought to have begun in Siberia around 7000 years ago. Up until recent times, travel by dog team was the main method of transportation during the winter. Dog sleds allowed people to move or travel to hunting grounds. Although it is now common to have eight to ten dogs, previously people could maintain only two or three dogs and sleds were used to haul gear while people usually walked....

Optimized Recycling Processes For Advanced Batteries Nickel Metal Hydride NiMH

Preliminary studies have been conducted on alternatives to the pyrometallurgical processing of Ni MH batteries. Hydrometallurgical treatment provides metal salts as products, which may offer market stability benefits in certain circumstances compared to the primary metals produced by smelting. Another advantage is that the separation and recovery of other valuable constituents such as titanium, vanadium, zirconium, and rare earths may become possible. The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) conducted...

The Worlds Major Vegetation Types

Coniferous Forests Iran

In the broadest sense the world's vegetation can be divided into several basic structural types, each of which includes several bionics 1. There is a set of forest vegetation bionics, which have a dense, closed canopy of trees. If you stand and look upwards in a forest, you see few large gaps between the crowns of the trees, which tend to overlap and interlock with one another. Forest biomes include tropical rainforest, temperate evergreen forest, temperate deciduous forest, and cold climate...

Impacts of Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Food Security

The direction of the various expected impacts on consumers and on farm income is summarized in Table 4.2. Farm income is defined as returns to land, labor, and capital. The net effect on food security depends on local conditions. Table 4.2 General Impacts of Rising Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases on Factors Affecting Food Security CO2 fertilization Climate change Extreme weather events Sea level rise Higher levels of CO2 in the atmosphere tend to increase plant growth. However, increases in...

Control of Co2 by Seafloor Spreading

The seafloor spreading theory is one hypothesis introduced to suggest a mechanism of controlled CO2 levels in the atmosphere, causing the observed variations between warm CO2-rich greenhouse intervals and cold CO2-depleted global cooling intervals. This theory focuses the control of CO2 levels on plate tectonic processes. During plate tectonics, carbon is cycled endlessly between the Earth's interior and its surface. It is this cycling of carbon in different stages that defines whether global...

Principles of construction on permafrost bases and foundations

Frozen Footings

For construction outside the permafrost regions it is usually believed that all the load from a structure is transmitted through the base of the foundation to bearing ground while ground in contact with the sides of a foundation only occasionally carries a vertical load (as with piles and deep foundations). The interaction between foundations and ground is assessed differently in the regions of deep seasonal freezing and of permafrost. The load is transmitted to ground here through all the...

Nitrous oxide from nitric acid production

Nitric acid is a key ingredient in N-based fertilizers. As a raw material, it also is used for the production of adipic acid (another important N2O source - see next section) and explosives, metal etching and in the processing of ferrous metals. Nitric acid production involves the oxidation of ammonia (NH3) using a platinum catalyst (Ostwald process). Nitrous oxide forms during the catalytic oxidation of ammonia over platinum rhodium gauzes, the major product being NO. It is estimated that...

Specific Effects of UVB Radiation on Plants

Ultraviolet Leaf Plants

Plants are highly sensitive to UV-B radiation because of their sessile nature. In plants, UV-B radiation damages cell membranes and all organelles within the cell, including the chloroplasts, mitochondria, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) within the nucleus. Damage to these cell organelles directly or indirectly affects basic plant metabolic processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, growth, and reproduction. Consequently, UV-B damage harms crop yield and quality. An overview of various...

Advocacy and operational ngos

The World Bank differentiates between operational and advocacy NGOs, where an operational NGO focuses on the design and implementation of development-related projects, such as service delivery, and an advocacy NGO defends or promotes a specific cause. A good example of an operational NGO is that of the work of the International Medicine Corps (IMC) in Afghanistan. In this case, the IMC instituted a vaccination campaign against measles, a disease that was identified by the World Health...

The Growth Of Environmental Awareness

1970s Environmental Disaster

Another factor that has helped focus attention on global warming in recent years is the growth of environmental awareness. Over the last few decades, there have been several notable anthropogenic environmental disasters. These have made the public more aware of environmental damage sometimes permanent. One of the worst anthropogenic disasters was the explosion at the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl, USSR, on April 26, 1986. A reactor exploded during a failed cooling system test and ignited a...

Externalities as Benefits and Drawbacks of Energy Efficiency

This section illustrates the large number of externalities in energy efficiency, since EE provides external benefits or imposed external costs in addition to financial outcome and energy production. As suggested in Table 5.9, the positive externalities are substantial. The table shows that externalities exist on a local, national, regional and global level. Institutions, such as the GEF focus mainly on global externalities. This contrasts with the fact that national and local benefits and the...

Sludge Thickening Concentration

Thickener Diagram

Further sludge concentration is first accomplished by the use of thickening equipment that will increase the solids content to between 2 and 5 . Sludge thickening is achieved through one of two means flotation and settling to the bottom by gravity or centrifugal force. The thickening operation separates water from the sludge as much as possible and is cost-effective because the cost involved in the process is well offset by the savings gained through the reduction of sludge volume, which...

Origins Of Earthquakes

Earthquakes can originate from sudden motion along a fault, from a volcanic eruption, bomb blasts, landslides, or anything else that suddenly releases energy on or in the Earth. Not every fault is associated with active earthquakes. Most faults are in fact no longer active but were active at some time in the geologic past. of the active faults, only some are particularly prone to earthquakes. Some faults are slippery, and the two blocks on either side just slide by each other passively without...

Conclusions And Further Challenges

From the number and nature of water recycling projects throughout the world, it can be concluded that the principle of treating wastewater as a valuable source becomes increasingly accepted. The larger demand of water due to population growth and increased comfort is translated into better protection of sources and eventually, zero discharge or nearly zero discharge systems. A remarkable observation is that in none of these projects adverse health effects were obtained, even on a long...

Major developments in agriculture

At the beginning of the twentieth century the Russian Empire was largely an agrarian peasant country. In around 1910, the urban population made up 20 percent of the total and required only 7 to 8 percent of the sown crop area to support it. Private farms with a cultivation area of more than 50 hectares provided only 5 percent of the total agricultural production of the country. More than 89 percent of agricultural land belonged to the Russian peasants (Chelintsev, 1928). The majority of the...

Unit operations and unit processes

Figure 1 shows the schematic of a conventional wastewater treatment plant using primary treatment. Raw wastewater is introduced either to the screen or to the comminutor. The grit channel removes the larger particles from the screened sewage, and the primary clarifier removes the larger particles of organic matter as well as inorganic matter that escapes removal by the grit channel. Primary treated sewage is then introduced to a secondary treatment process train downstream (not shown) where the...

Advanced Wastewater Treatment Processes

Elutriator Diagramm

Biological treatment processes, in combination with primary sedimentation, typically remove 85 of the BOD5 and soluble solids originally present in the raw wastewater and some of the heavy metals. Activated sludge generally produces an effluent of slightly higher quality, in terms of these constituents, than trickling filters or RBCs. When coupled with a disinfection step, these processes can provide substantial but not complete removal of bacteria and virus. However, they remove very little...

Intermediate Reboiler or Condenser

Reboiler Energy Balance

Exergy losses can by reduced by the use of an intermediate reboiler 2 . However, this measure does not lower the total energy requirement of a column. But a certain part of the heat is supplied at a lower temperature in reboiler 2 as illustrated in Figure 7.11, Therefore, the energy cost might be reduced. An intermediate reboiler is advantageous only if several external heat sources, for example, steam pressure levels, are available for the individual reboiler. Analogously to an intermediate...

Pangaea Ultimathe Future

Pangea Ultima

Scientists are interested in what the future may be like and how the Earth may eventually look. What will its climate be like How will its ecosystems function How many of the changes will be natural, and how many will be human caused In the case of plate tectonics, geologists have been able to trace the movement of the Earth's plates backward in time in order to determine the geographic positions of the continents and the resulting climates that affected them, such as tropical, polar, or...

Surface Loading Rate Surface Settling Rate and Surface Overflow Rate

The surface loading rate is the number of gallons of wastewater passing over 1 ft2 of tank per day. This can be used to compare actual conditions with design. Plant designs generally use a surface loading rate of 300 to 1200 gpd ft2. Other terms used synonymously with surface loading rate are surface settling rate and surface overflow rate. Surface Settling Rate (gpd ft2) -Flow (gpd)-2 (13.1) Problem A settling tank is 120 ft in diameter, and flow to the unit is 4.5 MGD. What is the surface...

Belt press filtration

Fresnel Lens Used For Drying Water

Belt filter presses employ single or double moving belts to continuously dewater sludges through one or more stages of dewatering. All belt press filtration processes include three basic operational stages chemical conditioning of the feed sludge gravity drainage to a nonfluid consistency shear and compression dewatering of the drained sludge. When dewater- Figure 7.5. A schematic diagram of a belt filter for sludge dewatering. (Courtesy of Falke Bruinsma at http photos.innersource.com) Figure...

The Koppen Climate Classification System

In 1900, the Russian-German climatologist Vladimir Koppen presented the scientific community with a system for classifying the world's climates. Today, it is called the Koppen Climate Classification System. It divides the Earth's surface into climatic regions that generally coincide with world patterns of vegetation and soils. The system has five major climate types. These are based on averages of annual rainfall and temperatures. The annual averages are combined with the monthly rain and...

Running the Ozipr Model

The EPA's OZIPR model (Ozone Isopleth Plotting Program, Research Version) was designed to be used primarily for calculating emissions reductions needed to reach the NAAQS for 03. Both DOS-based and Windows versions are available and can be downloaded from the Web site http www.academicpress.com pecs download OZIPR contains two comprehensive chemical mechanisms that use two different approaches to lumping organics. The two mechanisms used in these models, the RADM (Regional cid Deposition Model)...

Box 81 Q C3 and CAM plants

Many plants in arid environments decrease the problem of water loss through stomata by chemical tricks that help them take up CO with less water loss. These are known as C4 and CAM plants. Most plants are known as C3 plants. They take CO up into leaf cells which handle the whole photosynthetic reaction in the same cells. The C02 gets fixed into a three-carbon chain (hence the name C3), and then in the same cell the water-splitting part of photosynthesis gives the hydrogen needed to tack on to...

Defluorinated Phosphoric Acid

Bjerrum Diagram Phosphoric Acid

One method used in order to defluorinate wet process phosphoric acid is vacuum evaporation. The concentration of 54 P2O5 acid to a 68-72 P2O5 strength is performed in vessels that use high-pressure (30.6-37.4 atm or 450-550 psig) steam or an externally heated Dowtherm solution as the heat energy source for evaporation of water from the acid. Fluorine removal from the acid occurs concurrently with the water vapor loss. A typical process flow diagram for vacuum-type evaporation is shown in Figure...

Figure 8 Diagrammatic representation of anaerobic filter process from

Anaerobic Filter

Figure 9 Diagrammatic representation of fluidized and expanded bed reactor process from Ref. 77 . Figure 9 Diagrammatic representation of fluidized and expanded bed reactor process from Ref. 77 . Anaerobic Technologies Suppliers and Anaerobic Plants in the Pulp and Paper Industry. Table 13 shows the major suppliers of full-scale anaerobic treatment plants for industrial wastewater and the corresponding technologies. It may be noted from this table that a significant number of installations for...

Tire and TDF Use in Portland Cement Kilns

The portland cement production process is extremely energy intensive (from 4 to 6 million Btu's (MMBtu's) are required to make a ton of product) therefore, alternative and cost-effective fuel options are of great interest. Waste tires have been tried as a supplemental fuel in well over 30 cement kilns and in at least one rotary lime manufacturing kiln. Currently, tires are in use, either on a trial or permanent basis, in 11 cement kilns and one lime kiln. A cement kiln provides an environment...

Medicinal Plants Of Introduction

The value of biodiversity as a source of pharmaceutically active substances has been the subject of a number of studies, for example Pearce and Puroshothaman (this volume), McNeely (1988), Farnsworth and Soejarto (1985) and Principe (1991). This value is now being cited as one of the many arguments for conserving natural habitats and, in particular, tropical forests which contain the largest number of plant species. These analyses, however, ignore the additional role of these as sources of...

Waste Management in Europe

Garbage Containers Europe

Most developed countries face the same problems with trash as the United States. In fact, some areas of the globe are way ahead of the United States in trash technology and policies. Europe, for example, due to its dense population, began running out of landfill space long ago. Many European countries turned to incinerators, but this method has become increasingly disfavored because it produces too much air pollution and hazardous waste. As a result, some countries in Europe have begun...

The Thermal Wind Equation

Taylor Proudman Ocean

We saw in Section 5.2 that isobaric surfaces slope down from equator to pole. Moreover, these slopes increase with height, as can be seen, for example, in Fig. 5.13 and the schematic diagram, Fig. 5.14. Thus according to the geostrophic relation, Eq. 7-8, the geostrophic flow will increase with height, as indeed is observed in Fig. 5.20. According to T-P, however, dug dz 0. What's going on The Taylor-Proudman theorem pertains to a slow, steady, frictionless, barotropic fluid, in which p p(p)....

Physiological Adaptations In Coastal Vegetation

Flooded Dune Slack Magilligan

Tolerance of drought and the ability to regenerate in disturbed sites are two of the outstanding features of sand dune vegetation. Many of the moss and lichen species, which hold the surface of the sand dunes, have the remarkable property of being able to allow their tissues to dry out without losing viability. After prolonged periods of desiccation (e.g. lying on a herbarium sheet for 70 years ) some moss species begin to resume metabolic activity within 30 minutes of gaining access to water....

Utilizing all the waste

Fish Ensiling

There are three main categories of co-products that utilize all, or almost all, seafood processing wastes. These are compost, meals, and hydrolysates or digests. These products are often produced by independent entrepreneurs, who have the time and interest to learn the technology and to develop markets that, for the most part, have nothing to do with seafood. We will define each technology, explain how to get started on a small scale, and discuss the pros and cons of each. Composting is the...

Results and Discussion

We now apply the model presented above to some actual data (Joshi et al., 2008) sets as obtained through experiments in New Delhi, India, which is located at 77 12' E longitude and 28 35' N latitude. The test was performed from 9 00 a.m. to 4 00 p.m. on March 27, 2006, and the data measured included total solar irradiation, voltage, open-circuit voltage, current, short-circuit current, cell temperature, ambient temperature, and velocity of the air just above the photovoltaic surface. The data...

Combined Treatment of Industrial and Municipal Wastes

Most soap and detergent manufacturing facilities, as mentioned previously, discharge their untreated or pretreated wastes into municipal systems. The compositions of these wastewaters vary widely, with some being readily biodegradable and others inhibitory to normal biological treatment processes. In order to allow and surcharge such an effluent to a municipal treatment plant, an evaluation of its treatability is required. Such a detailed assessment of the wastewaters discharged from a factory...

Ohio River Case Study

The Ohio River Basin, covering a drainage area of 204,000 square miles, extends 1,306 miles from the headwaters of the Alleghany River in Potter County, Pennsylvania, to the confluence of the Ohio River with the Mississippi River at Cairo, Illinois. With a length of 981 miles from the confluence of the Alleghany and Monan-gahela rivers with the Ohio River at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, and a drainage area of 192,200 square miles, the Ohio River is the largest single tributary...

Cleaner production in the dairy industry

Cleaner Production is a preventative approach to environmental management that encompasses eco-efficiency, waste minimisation and pollution prevention. Cleaner Production is a forward-looking, 'anticipate and prevent' philosophy. Cleaner Production does not deny growth it merely insists that growth be ecologically sustainable (UNEP 2004). In this context, waste is considered a 'product' with negative economic value. Each action to reduce consumption of raw materials and energy, and reduce...

Demetallation and Recovery of Fuel Oil from Hazardous Waste

Waste Reduction Sheet Metal

Tarrer and Wen-Terng Wu Department of Chemical Engineering, Auburn University In the United States, automotive and other industrial sources generate about 1.2 billion gallons of used oil each year. The most pertinent features of this oil with regard to recycle and disposal problems are flash point and water, sediments, ash, nitrogen, and oxygen content. Many of the impurities are dispersed in the oil due to the very effective dispersant characteristics of the additives...

Chevron refinery as cooling tower makeup From

Zero Liquid Discharge Figure Diagram

The El Segundo, CA, Chevron refinery takes a further step in water reuse 76 . It receives 16,300 m3 day of reclaimed water to feed its boilers. Microfiltration (MF) and RO are used to treat secondary effluent from the Hyperion Wastewater Treatment Plant to provide low-pressure boiler feedwater while a second pass RO is used to produce high-pressure boiler feedwater. The concept of water reuse and zero liquid discharge in petroleum refineries has been proposed and debated for many years 77 . The...

TDF as Fuel in Waste Wood Boilers at Pulp and Paper Mills

Diagram Bark Conveyor

Pulp mills generate large amounts of waste wood products, such as bark and contaminated wood residues, in the process of making wood chips for the pulp digester. Also, many paper companies operate saw mills adjacent to the wood yard to maximize resources these mills generate waste wood slabs, logs, trimmings, pellets, shavings, saw dust, etc., that can be a solid waste disposal problem.1 Heating value of these waste wood ranges from about 7,925 to 9,010 Btu's per pound of fuel, on a dry basis....

Characteristics of Agricultural and Food Wastewater

Biological Oxygen Demand Test Flowcharts

Whenever and wherever food, in any form, is handled, processed, packed and stored, there will always be an unavoidable generation of wastewater. Wastewater is the most serious environmental problem in the manufacturing and processing of foods. Most of the volume of wastewater comes from cleaning operations at almost every stage of food processing and transportation operations. The quantity and general quality (i.e., pollutant strength, nature of constituents) of this processing wastewater...

Choice of emission factors

This section includes a discussion of the choice of emission factors for the Tier 1 method. The Tier 2 method is based on mass balance principles and the Tier 3 method is based on plant-specific data therefore there are no default emission factors applicable to the Tier 2 and Tier 3 methods. Petrochemical production Tier 1 default feedstocks and processes Conventional steam reforming without primary reformer Ethylene Dichloride Vinyl Chloride Monomer Balanced Process for EDC production with...

Introduction climate and agriculture in Russia

Busting Out Brick Wall Clip Art

When analyzing the development of Soviet agriculture it should be borne in mind that Russia is comparatively poorly endowed in terms of agricultural land and climate and that, under any system of farming, agricultural productivity would be appreciably lower than, for example, that of the United States or Western Europe. Russian farming is characterized by its extreme northerly location. The center of Russia lies at roughly the same latitude as Hudson Bay, and St. Petersburg is actually at the...

Two layers of the atmosphere

Based on chemical composition, the atmosphere is divided into two broad layers the homosphere and the heterosphere. The homosphere extends up to the height of 56 mi. (90 km.) and is characterised by uniformity in chemical composition. It consists of three thermal layers, namely, the troposphere, the stratosphere, and the mesosphere. Each sub-layer is separated from the adjoining layer by a shallow transitional zone. The het-erosphere has heterogeneous chemical composition, with layered...

History of Levee Building on the Mississippi River

Mississippi River Widening 100 Miles

The Mississippi River is the longest river in the world and encompasses the third-largest watershed, draining 41 percent of the continental United States including an area of 1,245,000 square miles (3,224,550 km2). The river transports 230 million tons of sediment, including the sixth-largest silt load in the world. Before the Europeans came and began altering the river, this silt used to cover the flood-plains with this fertile material during the semiannual floods and carry more downriver to...

Microclimates and vegetation

Dan Kay 316 Rust 800

Climate on the broad scale, across hundreds of kilometers, brings about the broad-scalc distribution of vegetation types (Chapters 1 and 2). However, even looking at the world much more locally, wc see that there arc also very substantial differences in the average climatc. For example, a south-facing slope has a different climate from a north-facing one. The year-round temperature and rainfall conditions under a tree will be different from those just a few meters away in the open. The...

Processes Of Mass Wasting

Mass movements are of three basic types, distinguished from each other by the way that the rock, soil, water, and debris move. slides move over and in contact with the underlying surface, while flows include movements of regolith, rock, water, and air in which the moving mass breaks into many pieces that flow in a chaotic mass movement. Falls move freely through the air and land at the base of the slope or escarpment. A continuum exists between different processes of mass wasting, but many...

Examples of landslide disasters

Mass wasting is one of the most costly of natural hazards, with the slow downslope creep of material causing billions of dollars in damage to properties every year in the United States. Earth movements do not kill many people in most years, but occasionally massive landslides take thousands or even hundreds of thousands of lives. Mass wasting is becoming more of a hazard in the United States as people move in great numbers from the plains into mountainous areas as population increases. This...

Carbon Capture and Storage

Geology Natural Gas Resources

According to the IPCC, CO2 capture and storage (CCS) is a process that involves capturing the CO2 arising from the combustion of fossil fuels (such as in power generation or refining fossil fuels), transport to a storage location, and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. Before CO2 gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured as a relatively pure gas. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, on a mass basis, CO2 is the 19th-largest commodity...

Global water use trends Ever increasing

Water is fundamental for all kinds of development. Human development and well-being, industrial and economic development, energy production and agriculture all rely on the availability of (often abundant) water resources. However, there are distinct differences between sectors of society, their relationship to water and the future implications that changes in availability may have. The 20th century witnessed a sixfold increase in human water use, while the population increased 'only' threefold...

Treatment of Battery Manufacturing Wastes

Aircraft Ion Battery Construction

Hawumba, Yung-Tse Hung, and Lawrence K. Wang 32.1 Introduction 32.1.1 Historical, Cultural, and Battery Technology Development 1303 32.2 Overview of the Manufacturing Process 32.2.1 Manufacturing Process 32.3 Battery Chemical Systems 32.3.1 Battery Classification 32.4 Description of Battery Subcategories in the Battery Industry of 32.4.2 Subcategory A Cadmium 32.4.3 Subcategory C Lead 32.4.4 Subcategory D Leclanche 32.4.5 Subcategory G Zinc Battery 32.4.6 Subcategory E Lithium Battery...

Multiple Extraction Procedure

Late Decelerations

The standard extraction tests (TCLP or California STLC) provide a one-time equilibrium solubility value of the heavy metal compounds in the extraction fluid but do not give an indication of the time-dependent stability of the residual matrix. The EPA multiple extraction procedure, designed for evaluating the leachability of materials exposed to so-called acid rain conditions, was used to test the stability of the polysilicate cementitious treatment protocol. Table 3 Effect of Particle Size on...

Romanticism And Conservation

Researchers and other intellectuals, including artists, began to recognize the local impacts of environmental degradation around the turn of the 19th century in the United States and Europe. For scientists, powers of observation were based on empiricism and the scientific method that were honed during the Enlightenment. Artists and intellectuals observed natural beauty and captured it in the painting, music, and literature of the Romantic period. Romanticism emerged along with the Industrial...

Ecological Zonation in Lakes

Three Zones Lake Ecosystem

W M Lewis, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Lakes show many kinds of spatial variation in both vertical and horizontal dimensions. Variation can be chemical, physical, or biotic, and is important to the understanding of ecosystem functions. Although some types of variation are unique to specific classes of lakes, others are common to most lakes, and correspond to an obvious spatial organization of the biota in lakes. The existence of certain...

Energy Awareness and Environmental Sustainability

Individual people and entire organizations are not likely to actively preserve energy or in general act in an environmental friendly way, unless they are aware of the issue and its problems. But what does being aware mean Even though there are many sophisticated definitions of awareness, just in the field of psychology for example, referring to consciousness, the Oxford Dictionary (fourth edition) offers a simple but very useful definition. It states that being aware means having knowledge or...

Renewable energy Policy Project Repp

Founded in 1995, the Renewable Energy Policy Project (REPP) is based in Washington, D.C. The organization researches strategies to make renewable sources competitive in energy markets and to stabilize carbon emissions. REPP supports reindus-trialization through the use of renewable technologies. It demonstrates that solar, wind, biomass, and other renewable sources can provide energy services at or below the cost of nonrenewables when structural barriers are removed. REPP works directly with...

Discussion And Conclusion

The current notion that food security is determined by household income, poverty, and access to resources rather than by aggregate increased food production puts the potential role of carbon sequestration in small-scale farming systems in a broad and complex context. One or two 'best' management practices that simultaneously boost soil carbon and crop yields, but fail to address any of the other multiple social goals of rural households, are most likely not the alternatives that are likely to...

The Limits of Recycling

Trade Waste Policy

Despite the benefits of recycling programs and their growing popularity, however, recycling has not solved the garbage problem. It is undisputed, for example, that recycling has not reduced the total amount of municipal wastes being generated by Americans. As conservationist Helen Spiegelman acknowledges, Even after the enormous exertions of America's cities and towns to recycle bottles, cans, newspapers and other consumer products, seventy percent of the products we buy are still going to...