Wind Energy DIY Guide

Energy2green Wind And Solar Power System

The Energy 2 Green Manual Has Everything You Need To Build Your Very Own Functional Windmill Or Solar Panel, Including: Detailed Schematics and Diagrams Showing You Precisely How To Build Your Solar Panels (generates up to 200-watts each) or Windmill (generates up to 1000-Watts!) Including the Precise Measurements You Need For Optimum Performance! Step-by-Step Instructions So Easy To Follow that Even High School Students Can Build Fully Functional Solar Panels and Windmills! Where To Find The Materials You Need For Your Solar Panels or Windmill! Installation Instructions To Hook the Solar Panel or Windmill Up To Your Home! Detailed Maintenance Instructions and Schedule for Your Windmill or Solar Panel! Read more here...

Energy2green Wind And Solar Power System Overview

Rating:

4.7 stars out of 12 votes

Format: Ebook
Official Website: energy2green.com
Price: $49.99

Access Now

My Energy2green Wind And Solar Power System Review

Highly Recommended

All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable pdf so that purchasers of Energy2green Wind And Solar Power System can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

As a whole, this book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Wind energy an already mature energy

Wind power technology is already relatively mature, producing electricity under almost profitable conditions. Current machines can develop powers from 1.25 to 2.5 MW. The rotors fitted on 2.5 MW machines have a span of up to 80 m 59 . Virtually all high-power wind turbines have a three-blade rotor, which offers higher efficiency than two-blade rotors, without making construction of the wind turbine overcomplicated. Wind energy is almost competitive, the cost price of the electricity produced being in the region of D 50 MWh. The main drawback with wind energy lies in the fact that it is intermittent and cannot be modulated to match demand. Intermittent operation must be compensated by the grid, which limits the share of electricity that can be supplied by wind energy. In the future, the price of fossil fuels, together with constraints on CO2 emissions, should make wind energy more competitive. Recently, the development of wind energy, especially within the European Union, has been...

Wind Power

Electricity generated by wind power relies on air moving past a propeller to spin a turbine. Wind is created as a result of the differential heating of the earth's surface of the sun. Air masses move from areas of high atmospheric pressure to low atmosphere pressure. Wind energy creates very few greenhouse gases and will exist as long as the sun shines and winds blow. There are challenges to implementing wind energy, though. Wind energy, like other forms of renewable energy, operates effectively only in certain geographic areas and climates. Wind speeds and direction can vary hourly, daily, and seasonally. For example, winds are typically stronger during the day than at night. In temperate climates, the wind tends to be stronger during the winter than during the summer. Hence, a wind turbine only makes A wind turbine also needs a relatively open space, so that trees or buildings do not affect wind speeds. Critics of wind farms also argue that wind turbines can harm migrating birds and...

WiND PowEr In ActioN

Despite the limitations and boundaries that wind energy may extend, Germany has proven to be a success story and has become the world leader in wind power. In the early 1990s, Germany started out with almost no renewable resource industry, and it seemed unlikely that it would ever be considered a leader in these technologies. The decision of the German government, in 1990, to pass a law that required utilities to purchase the electricity generated from all renewable technologies, and to pay a minimum price, was governed by the public's increased concern about the security of energy supplies and its environmental impact. The results that Germany has experienced are staggering. The average cost of manufacturing wind turbines fell 43 percent 1990-2000. In 1997, Germany surpassed the United States to become the world leader in wind energy production. The percent of total electricity accounted for by wind power has increased from 3-6 percent 2001-07. In 2002 the renewable resource...

Wind energy

Where v is velocity (vector quantity), m is mass, f is force and a is acceleration (dv dt), mv is impulse. With the latter equation, we have an equation of motion for the fluid, more precisely the air. As the force (or sum of forces) is known, the change of wind speed follows from this (we take the symbol u instead of the symbol v for velocity) over time while mass is constant. Taking into account that energy is force multiplied by distance (E Fdx) and assuming constant wind velocity and neglecting other forces beside pressure gradient force fp, it follows simply for the wind energy Ew Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form, such as electricity, using wind turbines.

Wind speed

Clearly once of the main effects of the arrival of the tail-end of hurricanes and tropical storms is severe winds, both in terms of gusts and sustained winds and this is one of the principal agents of damage associated with these events. Typical maximum recorded wind speeds on land from Western Europe for the events in this survey vary from 70km h gusts all the way up to nearly 200km h gusts with values in excess of 100km h not being uncommon. The highest recorded value of any of the events in this survey was from Hurricane Debbie in 1961. At Malin Head on the extreme NW tip of Ireland a gust of 182km h was recorded. The next highest was at Fair Isle off Northern Scotland between the Orkneys and the Shetlands where Hurricane Flossie in 1978 produced a gust of 167km h. Hurricane Lili in 1996 produced the next highest gust value of 148km h and this was recorded at North Hessary Tor in Devon, England. More recently Hurricane Gordon in 2006 produced a gust of 130km h at Truro in Cornwall,...

Measurements of the vertical flux of CO2 above a surface

Atmospheric studies have the advantage of covering large areas of a heterogeneous landscape, but it is still necessary to understand the fluxes at a more detailed spatial scale to arrive at a mechanistic understanding of processes. Over the last 15 years, towers between 10 and 200 m tall have been springing up over a range of forests and other vegetation types, hosting instrumentation that directly measures the vertical exchange of carbon dioxide between the surface and the atmosphere (Fig. 4a). The most commonly used instrumentation is based on the technique of eddy covariance. This technique is based on the fact that the CO2 is transported by means of turbulent eddies, and that if both the vertical wind velocity and concentration of CO2 at a point can be measured with sufficient frequency to adequately capture these eddies, the covariance of these two measurements will correspond to the vertical flux of carbon dioxide at that point. For example, in daytime over a forest, air carried...

Alternative energy wind

WiND is A source of solar energy that does not rely on the condition of the sky. Unlike fossil fuels, wind energy can be collected during storms, snow, or the night. Wind power is the alteration of wind energy into more purposeful forms, usually electricity using wind turbines, and is a form of renewable energy. Wind power is greenhouse gas extenuating, clean, abundant, infinitely renewable, domestically produced, widely distributed, and supportive of rural economies. The International Energy Agency (IEA) projects that, 2000-30, global energy consumption will increase and electricity use could double, placing pressure on nonrenewable resources, public health, international stability, and the natural environment. One solution lies in finding and utilizing alternative energy sources. Renewable energy sources pose lower costs, whether environmental or health-related. The use of alternative energies to generate electricity is especially advantageous to developing countries, because of the...

Atlantic tropical cyclone activity 1938 2009

The phases of the PDO as described in the text. SST anomalies are shown in color in accord with the scale shown. The arrows show anomalies in wind speed and direction. Reproduced with permission from the Joint Institute for the Study of Atmosphere and Ocean (JISAO - http jisao.washington.edu) at the University of Washington. Fig. 2. The phases of the PDO as described in the text. SST anomalies are shown in color in accord with the scale shown. The arrows show anomalies in wind speed and direction. Reproduced with permission from the Joint Institute for the Study of Atmosphere and Ocean (JISAO - http jisao.washington.edu) at the University of Washington.

Predicting Climate Fluctuations and Agricultural Impacts

The key weather variables for crop prediction are rainfall, temperature and solar radiation, with humidity and wind speed playing also a role. As Doblas-Reyes et al. (2006) explained, seasonal climate forecasts are able to provide insight into the future climate evolution on timescales of seasons and longer because slowly-evolving variability in the oceans significantly influences variations in weather statistics. The climate forecast community is now capable of providing an end-to-end multi-scale (in space and time) integrated prediction system that provides skilful, useful predictions of variables with socio-economic interest.

American Gas Association

The AGA also provides written documents related to the use of natural gas and current concerns about climate change and global warming. On February 19, 2007, the company released the AGA Climate Change Principles, outlining how changes can be made that would result in natural gas being a safer, more environmentally responsible form of energy. Another document from the same day, the AGA Climate Change Talking Points, outlines various significant facts about natural gas, focusing on the improved efficiency of modern appliances and industrial machines, low rate of emissions compared to coal and fuel oil and arguing for construction of domestic natural gas plants, access to natural gas wells, and the construction of other plants and factories in the United States that would use natural gas power. The organization does not offer a solution to the problem of natural gas wells in protected areas. Nevertheless, due to limited availability of natural gas, AGA proposes research into alternate...

Energyrelated emission

The amount of CO2 emitted as a result of the generation of a given unit of electricity varies greatly depending on the fuel used and the level of efficiency at which the power plant operates. Generally speaking, coal-fuelled power generation is the most carbon-intensive, with the emission of up to 1 kg of CO2 for every kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity that it provides. Oil- and gas-fuelled electricity generation tends to have a lower CO2 emission cost. Even those energy-generation strategies without apparent use of fossil fuels generally have some associated CO2 emissions. Nuclear power, for instance, relies on large amounts of energy use for fuel extraction and processing, and so indirectly results in CO2 emissions. The construction of any power station, wind turbine or other power-generation facility carries with it an emission cost through the embodied energy of the materials used in its construction. This cost must be included if the full climate benefits of any one type of...

The Science of Paleoclimatology

When climatologists study the current climate, they have a wealth of information at their fingertips. For example, they can obtain data from instruments, such as barometers, anemometers, thermometers, and rain gauges at weather observatories around the world to collect data for rainfall amounts, temperature, evapotranspiration rates, humidity, wind speed and direction, and major flow of air currents, such as the jet stream. Climate data can be collected from the mountains and valleys of all continents, including Antarctica from the oceans and from sophisticated satellite equipment in space. Because of this, and especially with the advances in computer technology, science has made great strides in recent years in being able to study, understand, and predict climate. Multiple types of data can be collected. Climatic data for areas can be gathered and put into computer models, such as temperature, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and humidity.

Power Generation Sector

Wind power (renewable) Commercial With the exception of wind power, renewable technologies are not projected by IEA 7 to have major mitigation impacts for the ACT scenario in the 2050 time frame. In the case of solar generation, both photovoltaic and concentrating technologies are currently prohibitively expensive. However, the Blue scenario assumes major improvements and cost reductions for both solar technologies, allowing them to play a major role in low carbon power generation before 2050. For biomass, major utilization is projected to be limited by its dispersed nature, its low energy density, and competition for the limited resource in the transportation sector. Given the resource, environmental and sustainability challenges associated with fossil fuel and nuclear power generation technologies, it would be highly desirable to generate all required electricity from affordable renewable resources. Therefore, major technological development efforts, should be focused on enhancing...

Applied Energy services

AES is researching cleaner forms of energy, such as wind and solar power, and other means of environmental protection. Two decades after building its first U.S. power plant, the first AES wind farm was built in Texas, in 2006. The European countries of Bulgaria, France, and the United Kingdom also boast new AES wind farms. AES may also expand into liquefied natural gas. AES is also a partner with United Kingdom-based AgCert in AES AgriVerde, a coalition dedicated to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by tens of millions of tons per year, by the year 2012. Additionally, through other environmentally conscious endeavors, including capturing methane released by power generation reactions, the company plans to further reduce emissions by equivalent values. The power plants that participate in the emissions reductions are selected plants from Africa (northern), Asia, and Europe. BIBLIoGRAPHY. Daniel Czamanski, Privatization and Restructuring of Electricity Provision (Praeger Publishers,...

Threats To Coastal Communities

Because hurricanes get their energy from warm ocean water, it might be expected that increasing sea temperatures would elicit an increase in storm numbers or intensity. There are many complicating factors, however, in the formation of hurricanes. These include air movement where hurricanes form, height differences in wind speed (shear), and sea-level air pressure. The debate about the relationship between hurricanes and greenhouse gases is certain to continue.

Electricity Generation from Renewables

Wind mills and horizontal-axis and vertical-axis turbines are used to convert the kinetic energy of the wind into electricity. It is one of the more cost-effective forms of renewable energy with today's technology. The electricity produced by wind energy can be supplied to grid. The technology is beneficial for the locations where the wind velocity is high, for example, the coastal and sub-coastal areas. For a better functioning of a wind energy system the knowledge of the natural geographical variation in wind speed is important so as to smooth out fluctuations. Similar to the limitations of solar energy, wind energy generation is also affected by the intermittent nature of wind speed.

Thermal Assessment Procedures

Another approach based on synoptic climatology starts by identifying the various broad-scale weather types characterising a given locality. Several studies have identified that specific weather types (air masses) adversely affect mortality. Kalkstein et al. (1996) successfully extended this approach to heat health warning systems (HHWSs). The synoptic procedure classifies days that are considered to be meteorologically similar by statistically aggregating days in terms of a selection of meteorological variables such as air temperature, dew point, cloud cover, air pressure, wind speed and direction. The classification must be specifically derived for each particular locality where the synoptic approach is to be applied (see also Chapter 3).

Atmospheric Boundary Layer

The atmosphere near the earth's surface is almost always turbulent that is, the air is continually undergoing seemingly random motions, in addition to whatever wind may exist. The sources of turbulence are wind shear (the change in wind speed and direction with height) and convection (motions driven by air density differences resulting from surface heating or latent heating from water phase changes). Defining characteristics of turbulence are its chaotic fluctuations over a broad range of scales, and its diffusiveness. Therefore, trace constituents released into a turbulent fluid are rapidly diffused and the small-scale patterns of this diffusion cannot be predicted. Because of the randomness and the large range of scales of ABL turbulence, processes in the ABL are often described in terms of statistical averages of fluctuations. This means that most measurements of ABL structure need to be spatially or temporally averaged before they can be quantitatively interpreted.

Atmospheric Component of Models

The discovery of the various wind systems and accurate mapping of them enabled a huge leap in understanding of the Earth's atmosphere as a whole. It revealed the need for more advanced understanding of the atmosphere than could be provided by a single equation, no matter how sophisticated that might be. The Norwegian meteorologist Vilhelm Bjerknes and the British physicist Lewis Fry Richardson were among the vanguard of scientists attempting to use a series of mathematical equations to represent weather changes over finite parts of the globe. This was to be achieved by dividing the surface of the earth into a grid of cells of such a scale that it was feasible to complete the equations with the tools then available. However, these attempts were unsuccessful and ultimately abandoned.

The North Atlantic Oscillation NAO

The NAO is understood to swing from one phase to another to produce large changes in the mean wind speed and direction over the Atlantic, the heat and moisture transport between the Atlantic and the neighbouring continents and the intensity and number of storms, their paths, and the associated weather. Such variations have a significant impact on the wind and buoyancy-driven ocean circulation as well as on the site and intensity of water mass transformation (Fig. 3).

Turbulent Energy Flux through the Water Column Synthesis

From the discussion above, we can draw the following overall scheme of the energy flux through the stratified waters of a lake. The origin of the energy for turbulent mixing is usually wind, which is imposing momentum onto the surface of the water. Approximately 3 of the wind energy from the atmosphere reaches the epilimnion in the form of horizontal currents and about 10 thereof is finally transferred to the stratified water body underneath. The major part of the energy is dissipated by bottom interaction, and the minor part is dissipated in the interior by shear instabilities and breaking of internal waves. Of this dissipated energy, only about 10 produce buoyancy flux (mixing efficiency gmix, eqn. 5 ) increasing the potential energy of the stratification. Compared to the wind energy flux in the atmosphere, only a small fraction of 0.0003 actually causes the mixing against the stratification in the deep water, whereas the large fraction of 0.9997 is dissipated somewhere along the...

What Exactly Is Global Warming

Fact Companies worldwide that are already reducing their carbon emissions are finding that cutting pollution can be economically beneficial. For example, utility companies switching to wind power are creating new jobs, boosting their economies. Using skills and ingenuity can start new industries geared toward carbon-free technology and production. Even the world's major oil companies are currently getting involved in developing renewable energy resources.

Iron supply and the global carbon cycle

The concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the surface ocean exerts a fundamental control on air-sea CO2 exchange along with other factors such as ambient temperature, pH, and wind speed. Processes that affect DIC will therefore influence the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, and with it, climate (via the 'greenhouse effect'). One process that affects DIC concentrations is the biological removal of carbon from surface waters. Phytoplankton utilise carbon as well as nutrients at the ocean surface and incorporate it into cellular organic constituents. When biological activity reduces surface water DIC, the equilibrium concentration of gaseous CO2 is depressed, driving a net transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere into solution in the ocean. The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere will then exhibit an inverse relationship to the strength of the biological pump. Indeed, in the absence of any biological activity in the ocean, atmospheric CO2 would be about 50 higher than...

Smaller Spatial Scales

Over oceans, denser grid spacing in regional models mainly exploits the types 2 and 3 of the sources (list in first paragraph of this section). A typical tropical cyclone in the regional model and the global model are illustrated in Figs. 2.3 and 2.4, respectively. The GCM resolution is about 280 km and the regional model resolution is 50 km. Higher resolution leads to a much finer representation of the 850 hPa vorticity in the regional model compared to the driving GCM. The maximum vorticity near the center of the storm is much higher than that of the driving GCM. The maximum wind speed is higher in the regional model, and there is a clear minimum near the center of the storm, an attempt by the regional model to produce the storm's eye. Precipitation and humidity values are also higher in the regional model, and there appears to be a rain band that is not present in the GCM simulation. Therefore, the high-resolu- Fig. 2.3. Typical fields of a tropical cyclone in the regional model a...

Overview of Satellite Oceanography Techniques 231 Passive Active Techniques and Choice of Frequencies

Satellite systems operate at different frequencies depending on the signal to be derived. Visible (400-700 nm) and infra-red (0.7-20 m) frequencies are used for ocean colour and SST measurements. Passive (radiometry) microwave systems (130 cm) are used for SST in cloud situations, wind, sea ice and sea surface salinity retrievals. Radars operate in the microwave bands and provide measurements of sea surface height, wind speed and direction, wave spectra, sea ice cover and types and surface roughness. Radar pulses are emitted obliquely (15 -60 ) (SAR, scatterom-eter) or vertically (altimetry).

Numerical Crop and Climate Models

Crop simulation models use a rather limited set of climate variables from those output by numerical climate models. Surface temperature is used in the simulation of the rate of crop development, and for the rate of various growth processes such as leaf expansion, photosynthesis and respiration. Calculations of crop water requirements use precipitation and variables that determine evaporative demand such as relative humidity, wind speed and incoming solar radiation. The latter is also required for submodels of photosynthesis, where these are present. The most common time resolution needed of climate variables is daily, with some crop models requiring diurnal patterns of temperature.

Surface characteristics and meteorological variables

Local roughness length for momentum is determined by eddy correlation measurements at lower height in IMGRASS site. The reference height is taken as 2 meters. The regional effective values of z0m are estimated by fitting wind-speed measurements at different levels to the logarithmic velocity profiles using least-square method and taking for higher and denser canopy and d 0 for the lower and sparse covered canopy. Blending height is considered as a suitable reference level (Brutsaert and Sugita, 1992) to estimate regional heat flux. In the HEIFE area, the available lower-level sounding was measured two hour earlier (09 00h in the morning) than the satellite overpass time in another site of HEIFE which is about 30km away from Zhang-Ye site. This lower-level sounding was used to determine blending height and wind speed and potential temperature at this height. Unfortunately, we do not have the same measurements during the day of ATSR-2 acquisition in the IMGRASS campaign. Reference...

Study Regions New England

New England is affected by mature and late-stage Atlantic hurricanes that form at lower latitudes and approach from the south (figure 2.1a). Most hurricanes weaken by the time they reach New England, though an intensity of category 3 on the Saffir-Simpson scale (sustained wind speeds of 50-58 m s) is not unusual. Because hurricanes derive most of their energy from warm ocean water, hurricanes that pass over inland areas to the south and west generally cause little wind damage in New England. Similarly, because the highest surface winds are normally located to the right of the storm track, storms that pass offshore to the east also tend to cause less wind damage. The greatest impacts result from hurricanes that travel northward over the warm waters of the Gulf Stream and pass directly over New England. Rapid forward motion helps to offset the effects of weakening as the storms come over land or over the cold waters of the Gulf of Maine (Smith 1946).

Shipboard meteorology

The basic observables are sea surface temperature, air temperature, wind velocity, barometric pressure, incoming short- and long-wave radiation and humidity. Ships in the WOCE programme were valuable platforms from which to make accurate in-situ measurements. The chief advantages of WOCE ships were they travelled through data-sparse areas they were manned by crews and scientists with an interest in obtaining good meteorological data and their operating schedules permitted sensors and electronics to be returned to laboratories periodically for calibration. The minimum suite of measurements required on an automated system included wind velocity, air temperature, air humidity, sea surface temperature, downward radiative fluxes and air pressure. Other parameters of value included wind stress measured using the dissipation technique, ocean skin temperature (by downward-looking radiometer) and other radiative flux measurements. The latter quantities are required specifically for satellite...

Subgrid parameterisation schemes

One of the goals of this study is to quantify the effects of the presence of a forest on the temporal evolution of snowmelt. These processes are considered in the model by modifying the meteorological variables as provided with SAFRAN and a variable albedo parameterisation in CROCUS taking into account the faster decrease of albedo inside the canopy. The main phenomena that affect the climatic conditions inside a forest are the following shadowing effect of the trees for solar radiation (visible direct and diffuse as well as longwave), longwave radiation of the trees, increase of humidity, reduction of wind speed, reduction of temperature fluctuation amplitudes and interception of precipitation (including sublimation, melt and snow sliding from the branches). To characterise a forest, a certain number of parameters can be used its density, the type and shape of the trees, their size or the LAI. However, for spatial applications at the scale as the one presented here it is...

Atmospheric properties and feedbacks

Arid lands are significant determinants of the earth's albino and thus of its global radiation balance. Albedo and spectral characteristics of the surface are influenced not just by total plant cover, but also by the different properties of woody plants versus grass cover, so changes in plant functional group affect this global property. Arid lands are also significant contributors of dust (Pewe 1981 Pye 1987), which influences both the radiation balance of the atmosphere and the transport of N, S, Fe and other minerals over long distances. The extent to which changes in biota influence soil vulnerability to wind movement will determine the importance of these changes to those atmospheric properties. Desert soils, serving as possible sites for carbonate formation and having low organic matter content, represent important potential sinks for atmospheric carbon. It has also been suggested that deserts contribute significant amounts of methane to the atmosphere (due to termites), and...

Center for Ocean Atmospheric prediction Studies

The research on air sea interaction focuses on the transfer of energy from the atmosphere to the ocean. Areas of interest cover theoretical modeling, analysis of in situ observations, satellite-based observations, flux coupling for ocean and atmospheric models, and analysis of spatial temporal variability in surface turbulent fluxes. The In-Situ Fluxes Project at FSU aims to provide better products for marine surface variability. In particular, it addresses the transfer of energy between the ocean and the atmosphere, as well as variables related to this problem (wind speed, wind vectors, sea-surface temperature, air temperature, humidity, surface pressure, and wave characteristics).

Monitoring of Environment and Structure

Good climate data are critical in the design of permafrost infrastructure. They form the basis for calibration work before any construction starts and they are important input data when assessing the reliability and performance in the future. Therefore a climate station that measures air temperatures, precipitation, snow depth, short wave and long wave radiation, and wind speed and direction, is to be installed as early as possible. Often there is an existing network of weather stations that can be utilised to determine the locally prevailing conditions (in particular air temperature and snow depth).

Effect of gas transfer velocity on CO2 fluxes

Where the gas transfer velocity, k, is controlled by near-surface turbulence in the liquid boundary layer. Laboratory studies in wind-wave tanks have shown that k is a strong but non-unique function of wind speed (Wanninkhof et al., 2002). Results from various wind-wave tank investigations and field studies indicate that factors such as fetch, wave direction, atmospheric boundary layer stability and bubble entrainment influence the rate of gas transfer. Moreover, surfactants can inhibit gas exchange through their damping effect on waves. The commonly used gas transfer parameterizations have been based solely on wind speed, in large part because k is strongly dependent on wind, global and regional wind speed data are readily available and effects other than wind speed have not been well quantified (Wanninkhof et al., 2002). Table 3.1 shows the regional variations of the climatological sea-air exchange fluxes. Using an alternative gas exchange for-mulization, however, can suggest a...

The Action Of Wind On Surface Waters

Nevertheless, it is still possible to make some general statements and predictions about the action of wind on the sea. The greater the speed of the wind, the greater the frictional force acting on the sea-surface, and the stronger the surface current generated. The frictional force acting on the sea-surface as a result of the wind blowing over it is known as the wind stress. Wind stress, which is usually given the symbol x (Greek 'tau'), has been found by experiment to be proportional to the square of the wind speed, W. Thus How would ou expect the value of c to he affected h llic wind speed' The value of c will increase with increasing wind speed, which not only increases the amount of turbulent convection in the atmosphere over the sea (Section 2.2.2) but also increases the roughness of the sea-surface. Because of friction with the sea-surface, wind speed decreases with increasing proximity to the sea, and so the value of c to be used also depends critically on the height at which...

Sectors that May be Affected by Climate Change

Construction Increased focus on the indoor climate will be necessary, in particular on temperature and humidity conditions. To support adaptation measures to reduce extreme indoor temperatures during heat waves, guidelines for new construction techniques may be needed. Moreover, a compulsory labelling scheme may be introduced for small individual cooling facilities that can be set up at short notice. Drainage systems for roads should be considered in view of the risk of increased precipitation intensity. Increasing temperatures will increase the need for securing the safety installations on railways. As regards increased wind velocity, a risk analysis of possible windfalls onto roads and railways must be performed

Key Developments in SST Data Processing

A satellite measures the so-called skin temperature, i.e. at a depth from a few tens of microns (infra-red) up to a few mm only (microwave). Diurnal warming changes the SST over a layer of 1-10 m. The effect can be particularly large in regions of low wind speed and high solar radiation. GHRSST has defined the foundation SST as the temperature of the water column free of diurnal temperature variability. A key issue in SST data processing is to correct satellite SST measurements for skin and diurnal warming effects to provide precise estimations of the foundation SST. Night and day SST data from different satellites can then be merged through an optimal interpolation or a data assimilation system.

Water Resources And Temperature Rise

Glaciers are an intriguing part of the Earth's natural environment and have been identified as one of the significant and sensitive indicators of climate change. Their size, lifespan, and timescale information of accumulation and ablation, or growth and collapse (glacier retreat) are primarily attributed to change in climate elements such as temperature, precipitation, wind speed, humidity, and solar radiation.

Relations Before The Modern

Environmental sociologist Marina Fischer-Kowalsky refers to this new social setting and dynamic as a form of terrestrial colonization.26 This novel social adaptation to transformed landscape following the mass extinction of the late Pleistocene and early Holocene was accompanied by increasingly hierarchical forms of social life. Ancient civilizations finally emerged out of early city-states and institutionalized forms of inequality and violence. The exploitation of domesticated animal power and the domestication of plants species are at the root of civilization, playing an important role in subsequent population growth and geographic distribution of humans.27 Animals pulled the plow, animals carried produce to market, and animals provided a protein-rich complement to a grain-based diet. Although wind power was utilized to carry cargo by water, fire remained nonetheless the most important source of extrasomatic energy. It made possible the creation of artifacts we normally associate...

Turbulent Heat Fluxes

The equations used to estimate turbulent energy fluxes are a complex mixture of theory and empiricism. The simplest approach is to assume a well-mixed atmospheric boundary layer, with vertical fluxes of sensible and latent energy proportional to the wind speed. This can be parameterized through where pa and cpa are the density and specific heat capacity of the air, Ls v is the latent energy of sublimation or vaporization, ua is the wind speed, and CH and CE are dimensionless bulk exchange parameters for heat and moisture. The atmospheric variables 9 and q refer to the potential temperature and specific humidity of the air. Surface values of potential temperature and humidity in (3.12), sometimes referred to as skin values, are those within ca. 1 mm of the surface. These are taken to be the surface temperature of the snow or ice and the saturation specific humidity at this temperature. Snow and ice surfaces are characterized by a stable boundary layer, with cold air near the surface...

Disasters and hazards

The North-east Atlantic is the region with the deepest observed central pressures of extra-tropical cyclones, and the adjacent margin of north-west Europe has the greatest levels of extra-tropical cyclone historical building damage, forestry windthrow, and storm-surge impacts observed worldwide. Many studies report an increase in the 1980s in the number of deep (and high wind-speed) extra-tropical cyclone storms in this

Observational Techniques

At the other end of the spectrum, the smallest scale eddies that need to be measured to estimate a flux in the surface layer are roughly about 0.5z. In the mixed layer, the smallest scales are roughly about 0. lz(. Therefore, for measurements from a tower at a height of 2 m, and a wind speed of 5 m s, a frequency response of least 5Hz is required. In the mixed layer, for an aircraft flying at lOOm s in the middle of a 1 -km-deep CBL, a frequency response of at least 1 Hz is required. If the aircraft is flying lower, say about 30 m, which is in the upper part of the surface layer, a frequency response of at least 7 Hz is required. To achieve a frequency response of fc hertz using a sensor with a first-order time response, a sensor time constant of about 1 (6 1) s is required.

Climatic Data Atmospheric Observations

The most important examples of atmospheric measurement are air temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, radiation, and the composition of the atmosphere. However, visual observations of cloud type and fraction, precipitation type, or weather type are also important.

Climatic Data Historical Records

Accurate reconstruction of past climate relies on information from instruments that measure air pressure, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation, air temperature, and humidity made at weather or climate stations around the globe. But looking further back in time, the record declines, both in terms of the area of the world covered and the number of variables measured. By the late 1700s, it includes only a handful of places, mainly in Europe.

Historical perspective

Figure 4.1 The meridional structure of the tropopause. The potential vorticity discontinuity tropopause is shown by heavy solid lines, with the stratosphere shaded. The primary frontal zones are bounded by heavy dotted lines. The 40 m s-1 isotach (thin dashed line) encircles the cores of the primary jet streams (Ja, Arctic Jp, Polar Js, Subtropical). The secondary (thermal) tropopause is indicated by the heavy dashed line. Major tropospheric and stratospheric airmasses, tropopause surfaces and selected wind systems are labeled. Cross sections at any given time along any given longitude may differ greatly from this idealized model (from Shapiro et al., 1987b, by permission of AMS). Figure 4.1 The meridional structure of the tropopause. The potential vorticity discontinuity tropopause is shown by heavy solid lines, with the stratosphere shaded. The primary frontal zones are bounded by heavy dotted lines. The 40 m s-1 isotach (thin dashed line) encircles the cores of the primary jet...

Sources Producing Primary And Secondary Particles Primary Particles from Oceans Sea Salt Aerosol

The production of sea salt particles is mainly due to oceanic whitecaps. Bubbles from the whitecaps burst at the sea surface producing film droplets and jet droplets, which have quite different properties and whose proportions vary as a function of bubble size (Blanchard, 1980). Model estimates by Erickson and Duce (1988) indicate the mass median radii (MMR) for sea salt over the oceans (50 of the sea salt mass occurs on particles smaller than the MMR and 50 on particles larger than the MMR) should range between 3.0 and 7.5 m, which is in good agreement with observations. Both the amount of salt produced and the sizes of the particles vary in response to wind speed, but a consideration of the relative amounts of ocean and land covering Earth's surface together with the atmospheric loadings of dust and sea salt shows the production of sea salt particles may be less efficient than dust.

Agrometeorological Advisory Service AAS

Tte major challenge to coping strategies is the development of well differentiated and sufficiently scaled up operational services supporting preparedness strategies (e.g. Stigter et al. 2007). In India, the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting has for example developed an AAS in close collaboration with the India Meteorological Department, the Indian Council for Agricultural Research and the State Agricultural Universities. General Circulation Models (T-80 and T-170) constitute the basic tool for preparing location specific forecasts in the medium range, tte model output is subjected to statistical (Perfect Prog. Model) and synoptic interpretation for improving the skill of weather forecasts. In relation to the forecasts currently available, progress is expected by users on enhancing the skill and range of meteorological variables. It would be necessary to obtain information not only on the average values, but also on the extreme values (for example, for rainfall or...

Energy Use And Economic Growth

Then in 1973-1974, the conflict in the Middle East between Israel and its neighbours triggered a four-fold increase in oil prices in six months. Many countries, in particular in Europe and newly industrialised Japan, depended heavily on the Middle East for their oil, and consequently put into place a series of policies designed to reduce such dependence. For some, such as the UK and Norway, this stimulated the search for an exploitation of oil resources within their own territories. But most didn't have this option available to them, and thus they pursued aggressive policies designed to promote energy efficiency and conservation. They increased taxes on petroleum consumption, introduced subsidies for home insulation, and changed building codes to increase the efficiency of new homes. Some also worked hard to develop alternative sources of energy notable was Denmark's early promotion of wind energy, and Brazil's methanol programme.

Modeling and Analysis of Engine Performance

The Marnoch engine uses a pneumatic rotary actuator and a transmission system that converts mechanical energy provided through a flywheel to electricity in an electrical generator. Any cylinder configuration can be used and it is not restricted to a rotary actuator. The transmission can be a belt drive or direct drive, similar to systems used in wind turbines. The differential in pressure between the heated tank and the cooled tank drives the actuator. The size of the actuator depends on the size of the generator used. When the gas is highly compressed within the piston cylinder, the temperature differential needed to generate a sufficient pressure change is proportionately less than at a lower initial pressure. A prototype Mar-noch engine is shown in Fig. 14.2.

Transpiration and water use

It is now well established that for many plants, including rice, an increase in CO2 increases the stomatal resistance (rs) or, inversely, decreases the conductance (gs 1 rs) through a reduction in stomatal aperture (Akita, 1980 Morrison and Gifford 1983, 1984a Baker et al., 1990a Nakagawa et al., 1997 Homma et al., 1999). A 56 increase in rs (Morrison and Gifford, 1984a) and 40-49 increase in rc (Homma et al., 1999) were reported for rice subjected to long-term doubled CO2 treatments. However, doubling CO2 does not reduce Eto a similar extent as the rs increase. This is because an increase in rs causes a rise in TL which leads to an increase in E caused by the increase in the vapour pressure gradient between leaf and air (e*(TL) - ea). Thus, the effect of elevated CO2 on E depends not only on rs but also on evaporative demand of the environment, which in turn is determined by factors such as temperature, solar radiation, humidity and wind speed.

Organism Concentration in Wastewater and Downwind Aerosol

Aerosol particles may be up to 20 im in diameter, which is large enough to transport bacteria or virus. Aerosols will be produced any time that liquid droplets are sprayed into the air, or at the boundary layer above agitated water surfaces, or when sludges are moved about or aerated. Aerosol particles can travel significant distances, and the contained pathogens remain viable until inactivated by desiccation or ultraviolet light. The downwind travel distance for aerosol particles depends on the wind speed, turbulence, temperature, humidity, and presence of any barrier that might entrap the particle. With the impact sprinklers commonly used in land application of wastewater, the volume of aerosols produced amounts to about 0.3 of the water leaving the nozzle (Sorber et al., 1976). If no barrier is present, the greatest travel distance will occur with steady, nonturbulent winds under cool, humid conditions, which are generally most likely to happen at night. The concentration of...

Model for Daily Tropical Cyclone Intensity

To examine the hurricane-sun relationship in more detail we consider daily data. We first spline interpolate the 6-hr positions and maximum wind speeds to hourly values (Jagger and Elsner 2006) using the U.S. National Hurricane Center besttrack data (Neumann et al. 1999) for all tropical storms and hurricanes over the 63-year period 1944-2006. Tropical cyclones over the Caribbean Sea and near the United States were routinely monitored with aircraft reconnaissance during this time period. We then compute daily average tropical cyclone wind speed intensity from the spline-interpolated values. Quantile regression is a model to estimate the conditional quantile of a response variable given a set of observed covariates. Here we consider the 50, 75, 90, 95 and 99 percentiles of daily mean maximum tropical cyclone wind speed as an affine transformation of the daily number of sunspots. Quantile regression is an extension of median regression based on estimating the value of the parameter...

Impact of Climate on Agriculture and Forestry in Europe

Also, animal behaviour and production are affected by these factors. These like man are homoeotherms, thus they have a comfort zone within which the climatic factors produce no stress on metabolism. When ambient heating exceeds or is insufficient to maintain temperature within this zone, cold and heat stresses are produced. These stresses may be mediated by low temperatures, precipitation and high wind speeds, or by high temperatures and droughts, respectively. Both stresses cause lower food and higher water intake, which results in lower general performance (Fuquay, 1989). Moreover climatic factors have indirect effects on animal production (loss in weight and condition) via decreases in quality and quantity of forage.

Todays problems yesterdays governance

This is evident, for example, in the slow pace of change of regulations to enable the connection of micro-generation technologies to electricity networks. Up until very recently in the UK, for example, the government and its chief energy markets regulator, Ofgem, were preoccupied by competitive access between owners of very large power stations, and not thousands, potentially millions, of household sources like solar pho-tovoltaics (PV) or micro-CHP. In the case of renewable energy, in 2007 the UK government consulted on reforming its 'Renewables Obligation' in order to help the many renewable energy technologies that are currently less competitive than wind farms (see Chapter 8). For good or ill, however, UK policy remains wedded to a 'banded' market instrument, rather than more direct and assured supports like feed-in tariffs or a suite of technology-specific measures. In contrast, countries like Germany and Spain have adopted feed-in tariffs as more appropriate to their...

The Evaporation Conundrum

Where p and cp are air density and heat capacity, respectively, es(Ts) and ea are water vapour pressure in air for saturation at surface temperature (Ts) and ambient conditions, respectively, and - is the psychrometric constant. r is the resistance to vapour transport from the wet surface to the point of interest in the air where humidity is measured, which in turn can be separated into a bulk surface resistance (rs) and boundary-layer aerodynamic resistance (ra). This second description of evaporation emphasises that it is influenced not only by radiation, but also by aerodynamic parameters like air temperature, humidity and wind speed, as well as surface parameters like roughness. Viewing both the energy budget and diffusion models of evaporation together, it is clear that climate factors determine the partitioning of radiative energy absorbed by a surface between the energy dissipation processes, that is, evaporation and convection. where Ta is air temperature, A is the slope of...

WTimothy Liu and Kristina B Katsaros

Where p is the surface air density, L is the latent heat of vaporization, and E is evaporation. u, T and q are the equivalent neutral wind speed, temperature and specific humidity at a reference height (usually taken to be 10m). The subscript 's' indicates the values at the ocean surface. The transfer coefficients of momentum, heat and moisture under neutral stability, Cd, Ch and Ce, have been determined through fitting field measurements or solving flux-profile relations (e.g. Liu et al., 1979 Large and Pond, 1982 Bradley et al., 1991 Smith et al., 1992 DeCosmo et al., 1996 Fairall et al., 1996). Charnock (1955) postulated that Cd is a function of wind stress in a well-developed sea and Donelan et al. (1997) and others have found that Cd depends on sea state. Wind, temperature and specific humidity at any height in the atmospheric surface layer under any stratification can be converted to u, T and q, using the flux-profile relations (e.g. Liu and Tang, 1996). In general, us is...

The political saliency of the sustainable energy question

Well, then it is taken for granted it becomes an invisible underpinning for modern life. It is only when that system fails, and modern life risks disruption, that the importance of energy suddenly becomes visible and leaps up political agendas for a time. Recent energy blackouts in Europe and parts of the US were typical profile raising events. During these periods, the mainstream of public life takes an intense, if transient, interest. Arguments over how best to alter the energy system, for example, and restore energy services, can become very heated. Campaigns for and against large wind farms today, nuclear power stations a generation ago, or the construction of pylons to carry the national grid a generation earlier all attest to the highly political nature of this 'technical' issue.

Use of Nuclear with Renewables

An additional reduction might be achievable by combining a nuclear generating station with wind and solar. Nuclear power plants are considered base load generators. This means that they are designed and run to provide the minimum amount of electrical power that a utility must provide to its customers throughout the day. Other electrical generation technologies are used to address the peaks in electrical power usage that occur throughout the day as the electrical demand varies. This does not mean that nuclear power units cannot do what is referred to as load following, (which means that it can adjust its power output as demand for electricity fluctuates throughout the day). For example, the French developed advanced reactor called the EPR can be operated efficiently from 50 to 100 power (G. Vanderheydan, 2009, private communication). Thus, reactors could be combined with wind turbines or solar generating technologies so that when wind and sunlight conditions are favorable, the...

Mesoscale atmospheric vortices in the Okhotsk and Bering Seas results of satellite multisensor study

Winter mesoscale cyclones (MCs) are frequently formed over the northern Asian Marginal Seas. They are often associated with precipitation and severe winds causing ice drift and serious disturbance in fishery and transport operation at the sea. Mesocyclones are difficult to forecast because of their rapid evolution and movement. Climatological occurrence of mesoscale vortices in various areas is still poorly understood. They were investigated mainly in the Northern Atlantic Ocean, as well as in Gulf of Alaska and the Japan Sea in the Pacific Ocean. Favorable conditions for their development are also in the Bering and Okhotsk Seas and to the east of Kamchatka where MCs are frequently observed on satellite images. However, conventional network is here sparse and the published information on MCs is too limited. Thus the main sources of quantitative spatial data to examine these systems are satellite observations and fields of geophysical parameters retrieved from measurements conducted by...

Leaf form and physiology

Photosynthetic rates in the field are generally measured by using infra-red gas analysis equipment with the carbon dioxide concentration measured in a cuvette containing the leaf, or clamped to it. The cuvette has a forced ventilation system that disrupts the leaf's boundary layer. However, it is possible that in still-air conditions boundary-layer resistance might limit photosynthetic rates. Meinzer et al. (1995) found that porometry substantially over-estimated evapotranspiration in small trees and shrubs in tropical forest gaps when compared with measurements made using the heat-pulse technique and potometry of whole plants. Similarly, studies of canopy leaves in Panama found that under conditions of high stomatal conductance and low wind speeds transpiration becomes decoupled from stomatal conductance (Meinzer et al. 1997). The implication from these findings is that gas exchange measurements may often over-estimate maximal photosynthetic rates of individual leaves.

Lei Yang1 Wei Wei Li1 Dongxiao Wang1 and Yongping Li2

Using reanalysis and satellite data sets, numerical simulation and statistical methods are applied for investigating tropical cyclone (TC) of two ocean basins the South China Sea (SCS) and Bay of Bengal (BOB). Influenced by Asian monsoon, TCs' feature in these two ocean basins differ from the one of other open oceans. In this chapter, a unique TC case passing through SCS as well as TCs track characteristics in BOB are examined. The Fifth Pennsylvania State University and National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) is utilized to study the precipitation and wind speed during Typhoon Chanchu (2006) in SCS. Five model experiments with different physical parameterizations and sea surface temperature (SST) distributions are carried out in the study. Simulations are evaluated using satellite observations. It is found that the control experiment that is configured with the Blakadar boundary scheme, Resiner2 moisture, the Betts-Miller cumulus scheme and daily updated SST...

Iff v iff pUnontidalVv jjj putidai vrdv 3105

Wind energy sources for the kinetic energy The energy contribution due to large-scale and low-frequency atmospheric pressure perturbations is the work done associated with the so-called atmospheric loading. The global sum of this term is small, estimated as 0.04 TW by Wang et al. (2006). Wind energy input to the surface currents can be classified as (1) wind stress work on the surface geostrophic currents, estimated as 0.88 TW (Wunsch, 1998) and (2) wind stress work on the surface ageostrophic currents (the Ekman layer), estimated as 3 TW (Wang and Huang, 2004a). Wind energy input where surface geostrophic currents can be calculated from U0,g gk x Vn f (where n is the sea surface height inferred from either satellite altimeter data or numerical models), except near the equator. The total amount of energy input is estimated as 0.88 TW (Wunsch, 1998). Although the wind energy input is positive around 40 N, the major energy input is through the Southern Ocean and the equatorial band...

E 115e 120e110e 115e 120e110e 115e 120e

Different atmospheric conditions in PBL_MRF (boundary condition) and CUM_G (cumulus scheme) could cause an increase in latent heat flux and precipitation, but not in storm intensity, such as maximum wind speed and center pressure. However, a warmer SST (in SST_C) could result in an increase in storm intensity in addition to the increase in latent heat flux and precipitation. Model simulated precipitation and wind speed are compared with satellite data, in order to evaluate model performance and to test model sensitivity to several parameters that may impact simulation results. Atmospheric boundary condition, cumulus scheme and SST distribution can have different influences on rainfall and wind patten during different periods of a TC process. All five model runs in this study overestimate precipitation and underestimate maximum wind speed during Chanchu (2006). Large rainfall area mainly occurs on the west or northwest side of the rainfall center. Areas around rainfall and maximum wind...

Assumptions about future trends

The most dominant climatic drivers for water availability are precipitation, temperature, and evaporative demand (determined by net radiation at ground level, atmospheric humidity, wind speed, and temperature). Temperature is particularly important in snow-dominated basins and in coastal areas (due to the impact of temperature on sea level).

Recent developments in the energy system

Privatisation also opened a small window of opportunity for people seeking to promote renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies had been sidelined by the nationalised energy industries for decades. The state electricity industry had run a small, unsuccessful R& D programme looking at large wind turbines, but was reluctant to move further. The newly liberalised regime allowed private operators to import better Danish turbine technology, connect to the grid, and sell their renewable electricity. More significantly, privatisation ushered in new forms of public support for renewable energy discussed below. Nevertheless renewables as a proportion of total UK electricity supply reached only five per cent by 2008. This attests to the small window for renewable energy and the difficulties these technologies have competing in energy markets as currently structured. Perhaps ironically, it was nuclear power's advocates who made the case for continued public support in the new world of...

Australia and New Zealand

Warming is likely to be larger than that of the surrounding oceans, but comparable to the global mean. The warming is less in the south, especially in winter, with the warming in the South Island of New Zealand likely to remain less than the global mean. Precipitation is likely to decrease in southern Australia in winter and spring. Precipitation is very likely to decrease in southwestern Australia in winter. Precipitation is likely to increase in the west of the South Island of New Zealand. Changes in rainfall in northern and central Australia are uncertain. Increased mean wind speed is likely across the South Island of New Zealand, particularly in winter. Increased frequency of extreme high daily temperatures in Australia and New Zealand, and a decrease in the frequency of cold extremes is very likely. Extremes of daily precipitation are very likely to increase, except possibly in areas of significant decrease in mean rainfall (southern Australia in winter and spring). Increased...

Thunderstorm Hailstorm and Dust storm

In most countries, afforestation of fields is the main measure to protect the soil from dust storms. Improving soil resistance to erosion can be achieved by careful selection of cultivation methods, applying mineral and organic fertilizers, sowing grass and spraying various substances which enhance soil structure. It is also important to reduce the areas where a dust can gather, especially in tracts characterized by erosion. One major protection strategy is to establish well developed plant cover before the dust storms period, ttis can encourage a reduction in the wind speed in the layer above the ground by forming an effective buffer. When looking at the conditions under which dust storms develop and by examining the data on storm-induced damage, it is evident that measures to reduce the wind speed at the soil surface and to increase the cohesion of soil particles are both crucial. Such measures include the establishment of tree belts and wind breaks. Leaving stubble in fields,...

Development processes

The feedback arises in that the surface heat fluxes are proportional to the wind speed - turn on the winds, and the heat flux strengthens. The redistribution by convection results in a pressure drop, further strengthening the winds and hence the surface heat fluxes. WISHE can explain the growth of both tropical cyclones (hurricanes) and Polar Lows.

A sustainable energy governance example coordinating renewable energy expansion

Governance complexities soon become apparent even if we simplify to a supply-side example like renewable energy. Widespread renewable energy systems pose a considerable policy challenge. The policy 'object' - viable renewable energy systems - brings with it many coordination challenges. There are various renewable energy technologies to choose from (wind, solar, biomass, marine, and others), each of which can be configured at various scales in different ways, and each of which is already developed to various degrees. The innovation and deployment of renewable energy technologies involves a mix of established energy utilities and new business models and firms. Renewable energy projects like wind farms can involve large and protracted planning processes. Other projects involve smaller planning applications, but these can prove just as protracted and debilitating for the applicant (such as those for solar water heating panels in UK conservation areas). Both make demands upon the existing...

Integration of Renewable Energy

Distributed generation involves the use of small, modular energy conversion units close to the point of consumption by a wide variety of producers. In the power sector, utilities have limited experience of interconnecting numerous small-scale generation units to their distribution networks and the possible level of renewables penetration depends mostly on the existing electrical infrastructure considered. Bringing on land the power produced from a large offshore wind farm is (economically) only possible when a strong electric grid exists and sufficient electricity grid capacity is available. Other cases exist where a completely new energy infrastructure with the specific purpose of allowing very high penetration levels, up to 100 electricity from renewables, has been established.

Airsea Interaction under Hurricane Wind Conditions

Where U10 -the wind velocity at a standard meteorological height H10 10 m. which relate this coefficient to U10 are obtained either by generalizing empirical data (Garratt, 1977 Large & Pond, 1981, Taylor & Yelland, 2002 Fairall et al., 2003) or by numerical models (see, for example, Janssen, 1989 Janssen, 1991, Makin et.al, 1994 Hara & Belcher, 2004). Numerous field measurements give increasing dependencies of CD on wind speed, which relates to increasing of wave heights with the wind. where the hot reservoir is the ocean with the temperature TS and the cold reservoir is .the troposphere with the temperature To. The details of construction and operation of this heat engine are presented in (Emanuel, 1986 Emanuel, 1995, Emanuel, 2003), but one of the most important characteristics of a tropical cyclone, the maximum surface wind velocity, which determines its category, can be estimated without details from the Carnot theorem. According to the Carnot theorem, the maximum...

Renewable Energy Status and Prospects Status of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy

Abstract By 2050, the increased use of renewables such as hydropower, wind, solar, and biomass in power generation is projected to contribute between 9 and 16 of the CO2 emission reductions. The share of renewables in the generation mix increases from 18 today, to as high as 34 by 2050. Hydropower is already widely deployed and is, in many areas, the cheapest source of power. There is considerable potential for expansion, particularly for small hydro plants. The costs of onshore and offshore wind have declined sharply in recent years through mass deployment, the use of larger blades, and more sophisticated controls. Costs depend on location. The best onshore sites, which can produce power for about USD 0.04 per kWh, are already competitive with other power sources. Offshore installations are more costly, especially in deep water, but are expected to be commercial after 2030. In situations where wind will have a very high share of generation, it will need to be complemented by...

Alternatives to coal combustion

Renewable technologies offer the other major alternative to fossil fuel combustion. Today, however, these technologies are simply not in a position to meet the growing demand for new capacity across the globe. Growth in wind power capacity, perhaps the best option for the medium term, is already showing signs of being constrained by global manufacturing capacity. Solar power is almost certainly the Earth's long-term solution to electricity supply but it will probably be another generation before it can begin to provide the sort of capacity the world needs. Hydropower might be able to provide significantly more output, particularly in Africa where the infrastructure associated with increased hydro capacity can have other major benefits. Biomass, marine technologies, tidal power all these will have a role to play but none can match coal for cheapness, reliability and gross capacity.

Prospects for Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy

First-generation renewable technologies are mostly confined to locations where a particular resource is available. Hydropower, high-temperature geothermal resources, and onshore wind power are site specific, but are competitive in places where the basic resource is plentiful and of good quality. Their future use depends on exploiting the remaining resource potential, which is significant in many countries, and on overcoming challenges related to the environment and public acceptance. The second-generation of renewables has been commercially deployed, usually with incentives in place intended to ensure further cost reductions through increased scale and market learning. Offshore wind power, advanced biomass, solar PV and concentrating solar power technologies are being deployed now. All have benefited from R& D investments by IEA countries, mainly the 1980s. Markets for these technologies are strong and growing, but only in a few countries. Some of the technologies are already fully...

Modal instability with the influence of friction a

To determine the impacts of spatially nonuniform friction on the instability, we need to make additional computations. The frictional coefficient for generic land surfaces may be several times larger than that for water surfaces at moderate wind speeds (Arya, 1988). Thus, we present the result for aocean 0.015 and

Renewable Energy Technologies

There are many proven technologies available to produce renewable energy, and some new technologies are under development. One of the most promising renewable energy technologies for electricity generation is wind energy that uses airflows to run wind turbines. In good wind regimes, cost-wise, wind power is comparable to fossil alternatives, particularly when economic or environmental concerns are considered. Modern wind turbines range from around 600 KW to 5 MW of rated power. Most common wind turbines for commercial use are of a rated capacity of 1.5-3 MW. Wind energy is the fastest-growing renewable energy in the world. Since 1993, it is growing on average 30 percent a year. Windmills typically run at 2535 percent of their capacity over the course of a year. light directly into electricity. Photovoltaic power is also widely viewed as cost competitive, like wind power. As energy from the Sun is free and the cost of the photovoltaic cells is dropping, a solar energy boom is likely in...

Mesoscale cyclones Okhotsk

Aqua MODIS visible image taken at 02 25 UTC i.e. about 9 h before the Envisat data acquisition is given in Fig. 2b. Water clouds, increased total water vapor content and wind speed variations are responsible for lows' detection by Aqua AMSR-E before (at 02 25 UTC, Fig. 2a) and after (at 16 15 UTC, Fig. 2d) Envisat ASAR acquisition. Cyclonic circulation was also registered by QuikSCAT scatterometer (Fig. 2e). Maximum wind speed (12-15 m s) was measured to the south of the large low. This is consistent with radar backscatter (brightness) variations on ASAR image. The total atmospheric water vapor content V and total cloud liquid water content Q were retrieved from TB(23.8 V) and TB(36.5 V) (Mitnik and Mitnik 2003). The maximum V and Q values located to the southeast, east and northeast from the cyclone center in the spiral bands' area reached 79 kg m2 and 0.12-0.14 kg m2 correspondingly. The width of the bands in Q-field was about 20-30 km. Typical values in the cyclonic eddy...

Current sensitivity vulnerability and adaptive capacity to climate

The inter-annual, monthly and daily distribution of climate variables (e.g., temperature, radiation, precipitation, water vapour pressure in the air and wind speed) affects a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that drive the productivity of agricultural, forestry and fisheries systems. The latitudinal distribution of crop, pasture and forest species is a function of the current climatic and atmospheric conditions, as well as of photoperiod (e.g., Leff et al., 2004). Total seasonal precipitation as well as its pattern of variability (Olesen and Bindi, 2002) are both of major importance for agricultural, pastoral and forestry systems.

Governance And Public Order In The Long Emergency

It is possible to undo the damage of decades of neglect and to equip government to meet the conditions of the long emergency. But to do so will require creating the capacity necessary to solve multiple problems that cross the usual lines of authority, departments, and agencies as well as those between federal, state, and local governments. In the long emergency, governments at all levels will have to be smarter, more farsighted, more agile, and more strategic. That does not necessarily mean a larger and more intrusive role, but rather one that steers more effectively by incremental adjustments and not by revolution.32 We will need to build new alliances between the public, nongovernmental organizations, local and state governments, and business. Above all, government must enable creative leadership at all levels of society, and it must lead first by example, not simply by fiat. It must help catalyze the redesign of infrastructure, food systems, communities, transportation, and energy...

Renewables and Noncarbon Energy Sources

All locations are not suitable for producing wind power. Wind power is a function of wind speed cubed (kinetic energy increases with wind speed squared and that energy is transported to the wind turbine at the wind speed). Best sites are near seashores (e.g., Denmark), high-wind areas in continental interiors (e.g., North Dakota), or hilltops (e.g., Altamont Pass, California). The jet stream, with energy fluxes of > 10 kilowatts (kW) m-2, represents a high-density resource, but one that is difficult to harvest. In isolated regions transmission losses reduce efficiencies. For many sites public acceptance is an important barrier (e.g., offshore in Cape Cod and the North Sea). Intermittency limits wind power, in the absence of energy storage and long-distance transmission technologies, to 10 percent of base load power. Wind power can potentially provide a greater fraction of total power if coupled with improved energy storage and transmission systems (e.g., hydrogen, superconducting...

Discussion and conclusions

The clearly surface manifestations and accurate location of the mesoscale cyclones, frontal boundaries, wavelike disturbances on the fronts, mesoscale convective cells and rolls, etc. were found on many Envisat ASAR images of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Surface imprints of the atmospheric features can indicate wind direction needed for wind speed retrieval with C-band SCAT model CMOD4 or CMOD5.

Seasonal weather forecasts for crop yield modeling in Europe

Seasonal weather forecast for crop yield modeling in Europe is one of the applications of weather risk management, tte variability of weather at different time scales, such as daily, monthly, seasonal and beyond, is one of the factors that determine the growth of field-grown crops, tte key weather parameters for crop prediction are rainfall, temperature and solar radiation, secondary parameters being humidity and wind speed. Crop predictions require forecasts of these variables several weeks or even months ahead to enable informed management decisions, ttere is an increasing demand for climate predictions at different time scales in Europe, because they have valuable benefit for decision-making in the management of European Union agricultural production. Examples of this are monthly forecasts for emergency plans to reduce the impact of warm or cold spells, seasonal forecasts to cope with the remote effects caused by El Ni o or La Ni a events, inter-annual

Costs and Potential for Cost Reductions

From a pre-market level of about USD 0.80 per kWh in 1980, wind power costs have declined steadily. Wind power crossed the USD 0.10 per kWh threshold in about 1991, and dropped to about USD 0.05 per kWh in 1998. Since then, costs at the very best sites have dropped to about USD 0.03-USD 0.04 per kWh.7 7 These costs are not directly comparable with fossil-fuel-based power generation due to the variable nature of wind electricity and the grid integration costs. Costs of wind power installations depend on system components and size, as well as on the site. Generating capacity is primarily determined by the rotor-swept area and local wind patterns. Typical turnkey installation costs of onshore wind turbines are USD 850-USD 1,150 per kW. Investment costs differ considerably between onshore and offshore applications. For offshore installations, the foundation accounts for one-third or more of the cost. Turnkey installation costs are now in the range of USD 1,100-USD 2,000 per kW for...

An Offensive Coastal Defence

Another design for the islands may include the combination of different functions (Fig. 2.19). These islands consist of a basin, which is empty in regular circumstances but may be flooded in case of a storm. These fall-lake functions as a energy producer, using the hydropower when water enters the island and uses wind-energy to pump the water out again. Use of the extra storage during stormy weather may support the protective power of islands. Beside this function these kinds of islands give room to intensive harbour connected industries, which are difficult to implement on land.

Future RD Efforts

Box 5.2 Priority research and development areas for wind energy Careful consideration of interaction between wind turbines and wildlife aerofoils and on further advances in power electronics. The feasibility of floating wind turbines, individually and in multi-unit formations, has also been the focus of several studies. Offshore wind development and the role of wind energy within hydrogen-based energy systems are R& D priority areas for the long term. Technology and environmental issues raised by offshore wind energy development is the subject of much research and are likely to form an important part of future activities. In addition to using wind energy for electricity production, the technology could be applied to other energy applications in the long term, particularly hydrogen generation.

Challenges to Future Deployment

The current challenges to increased penetration of wind power are grid integration, forecasting of wind availability, public attitudes and visual impact. For offshore wind energy, a major challenge is cutting costs. The variable nature of wind electricity makes it difficult for wind to fully displace other electricity sources. When wind turbines constitute only a small fraction of generation capacity, their inter-mittency is hardly noticed by system operators, who are used to adjusting output to sudden changes in demand. At high penetrations, however, the marginal value of wind energy is equal only to the cost of the fuel and other marginal operating costs of power plants that are displaced. But if wind energy could be efficiently stored, wind power could compete economically with other types of electricity generation. There is a wide range of technologies now available for storing wind energy, but choosing the appropriate one depends critically on the duration of storage required....

Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht Utrecht University PO Box 80005 3508 TA Utrecht The Netherlands

In 1997-98, a meteorological expedition to Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, studied the details of the Antarctic boundary layer (Bintanja, 2001a). An extensive array of techniques was used at various locations, of which just one will be described here. Wind speed, temperature and relative humidity were measured at five levels (0.5 to 9 m above the surface) at a horizontally homogeneous location on the Antarctic ice sheet, near Swedish research station Svea (74 11'S, 10 13'W, 1150m above sea level). This site is subject to katabatic winds and prevailing synoptic easterlies, with an unobstructed fetch of at least 10km. The measurements took place from late December 1997 to early February 1998, with mean values of wind speed, temperature and relative humidity of 4.3 ms-1, -10.2 C and 70 , respectively. Sensors were sampled every 2min, and half-hourly means were calculated. For the purpose of this paper we will focus on a period with particularly strong winds (8-10 January 1998). Most...

Conclusions and Further References

In this paper, we have reported a numerical model for radiative transfer calculations on the atmosphere-ocean system. The present model uses the liquid sea surface as a boundary condition, taking into account the influence of wind-speed and wave age on the sea surface roughness. The algorithm is able to compute TOA reflectance for low and high wind speeds using a new wind-wave formulation. We consider this to be an initial proof of concept exercise, the main aim being on the performance of the implementation and its evaluation when compared with other existing formulations. For further application to remote sensing data imagery the reader is encouraged to see Ref. 19 where the authors apply the present model to evaluate the variability of MODIS reflectance at the visible and near IR regions. MODIS reflectance variability is interpreted by considering both wind and wind-wave effects on the sea surface roughness which directly influences the observed Sun glint pattern.

An analysis of the AWSderived surface fluxes

The sensible and latent turbulent heat fluxes are estimated from measured air temperature, humidity and wind speed using a bulk approach and a constant turbulent exchange coefficient of 0.00153 (Oerlemans & Klok, 2002). The sensible turbulent heat flux is positive throughout the entire year because mean daily air temperature always exceeds the surface temperature at our site. It is largest in summer when the surface temperature is limited to the melting point and the vertical temperature gradients are largest. This also generates a strong katabatic flow, which in turn enhances the turbulent exchange. The latent turbulent heat flux is small and on average positive, indicating that normally condensation or riming takes place. This adds about 2 cm water-equivalent per year to the glacier surface at the AWS site. Between

New Index for Tropical Cyclone Development from Sea Surface Temperature and Evaporation Fields

Abstract In this study, we present a new index (called the H-index) which is the spatial mean gradient of the logarithm of the surface wind speed with respect to sea surface temperature (SST), and can be easily computed from large scale fields of evaporation and SST Two independent physically based arguments indicate that tropical cyclones would tend to be spun-up in regions of negative H of large magnitude (< 1). In these regions which only occur in the tropics, significant releases of kinetic energy (KE) into the atmosphere from the ocean mixed layer due to convective instability give rise to warm core systems which may develop into intense TCs. The monthly mean histograms of H evaluated from reanalysis and SST data and averaged over the period 1979-2005 for three generation regions (the West Pacific, the Atlantic and the East Pacific) show a remarkable symmetrical pattern in which the standard deviation increases during the active season. This property is therefore ideally suited...

Plant Responses to Weather Conditions

Weather conditions play a fundamental role in plant growth and development due to their direct and indirect influence on each physical, chemical and biological process, that is regulated by specific requirements and any deviation from these patterns may exert a negative influence (Das et al. 2003). Air and soil temperature, air and soil humidity, solar radiation, wind speed and direction, rainfall, evapotranspiration are the most important variables affecting the vegetative and productive responses of

Applications of geospatial technologies for hurricane disaster management

Tran et al., (2009) showed the HAZUS-MH model to be a valuable planning tool when assessing implications of the combined effects of storm surge with hurricane force winds Using HAZUS analysis for estimating disaster associated losses, storm surge, residual flooding, and wind damage associated with hurricane categories 1 thru 5 enabled planning for health care contingencies for predicted damage and flooding that would occur at various levels of storm intensity. Vickery et al., (2006) compared modeled and observed losses for Hurricanes Andrew, Hugo, Erin, and Opal and they concluded that there was overall agreement at the zip code level but suggested that the damage and loss models may underestimate the small losses that occur at lower wind speeds (less than 100 mph). This underestimation is less significant for regional assessments but could become problematic for loss estimation in smaller areas.

Delineating potential damage from Hurricane Katrina An example of geospatial applications to disaster management

Hurricane Katrina provided an unparalleled opportunity to study a variety of damage conditions from hurricane force wind and rain over a wide area and range of landscape conditions. According to a National Hurricane Center (NHC) (Knabb et al., 2005) report, Hurricane Katrina was likely at Saffir-Simpson Category 4 storm a couple of hours before making landfall. Comparisons have been made between Hurricane Camille (1969) and Hurricane Katrina (2005). Fritz et al., (2007) mention that Hurricane Camille made more powerful landfall, but was considerably smaller, with hurricane wind gusts reaching only 100 km to the east of the eyewall while Katrina hurricane force winds extended 140 km to the east of the center. The resulting Katrina storm surge extent was also much wider and likely exceeded the 6.9 m high water mark recorded in the aftermath of hurricane Camille. The heaviest rainfall occurred in southeast Lousisana with over 30 reporting stations in seven states recording rainfall in...

Investigating The Ocean Through Computer M00elung

Because time was short, it was decided to construct a simple two-dimensional model, in which current flow (the Tsushima Current plus tidal currents) would, of necessity, be depth-averaged. This was considered to be an acceptable simplification, but resulted in local wind-driven currents being under-represented, because the flow was spread over the whole depth instead of confined to the surface Ekman layer. It was decided to compensate for this effect at the time of racing by adding a surface current of 3 of the wind speed (from local weather forecasts), at a small angle to the right of the wind (cf. Section 3.1).

Theoretical Interpretation of the Global Fields

Where F pE, in which p and pa are respectively the densities of freshwater and air, KE is the drag coefficient for water vapour, qs qs(T) is the saturated specific humidity at the sea surface where T is the sea surface temperature (SST), rs qi0 qs is the 10 m relative humidity with respect to T (which reduces to the relative humidity at 10 m for T T10), and u u10 is the surface wind speed at 10 m. On taking the (natural) logarithm of (1) we obtain the expression, Equation (4) is the central working relation for our study. Firstly, evaluating the second term on the right hand side for a sea surface temperature of 15 C (which is representative of the subtropics), yields, e L (RT2) 0.065 K-1. Hence, since from Figs. 1 and 2, the mean slope (d ln E dT) in the subtropics is approximately 0.065 K-1, it is clear that the variation of wind speed with sea surface temperature is of relatively small account. Here the evaporation gradient is controlled almost completely by the Clausius-Clapyron...

Spatial SciENcE METHoDS MoDels And Gis

An understanding of the geography of energy production and consumption is central to understanding the causes and consequences of global warming. Energy geography will also be essential to the development of strategies to combat global warming. Energy geographers work with climatologists to identify places with good wind energy potential. Some communities actively recruit wind power development. Others are not so sanguine. Hence, energy geographers work with land-use planners to find sites for wind turbines that are energy efficient and acceptable to communities in the area.

Simple Hurricane Model

In which h is the height at which the (azimuthal) wind speed becomes zero. On substituting for u in (11b) from (10) and integrating with respect to lnr, assuming that (gh T) is a constant, we obtain, Table 1 The wind speed (u0) at the outer radius of the hurricane (r0) as a function of the hurricane index (H) for a series of warm core temperature increments (AT) Table 1 The wind speed (u0) at the outer radius of the hurricane (r0) as a function of the hurricane index (H) for a series of warm core temperature increments (AT)

Optimization offarm technologies and the microclimate ofcrop stands

Changes in climate variability and climate can affect microclimatic conditions is many ways (Sivakumar et al. 2005). Modifications to the microclimate of crop stands were used in ancient cultures such as the Incas in the Peruvian highlands (Vogl 1990). ttese ancient camellones and qochas are a combination of water-filled canals and plots designed to improve the microclimate (especially to decrease nocturnal cooling) and water availability of crops and are still in occasional use. Another examples is kanchas (stone fences around small fields) and terraces on slopes, which can increase both air temperature and water regime and reduce the wind speed of crop stands in these semi-arid and cold environment. Similar systems can also be found in other parts of the world, developed by ancient farmers on their own experience.

Important Biophysical Aspects of Sinks that Shape Their Inclusion in Trading

Mass is at least as dependent on nature as is carbon storage in biological systems. A severe drought might disrupt vegetation growth or lead to a forest fire and thus to unplanned carbon emissions. That same drought might lead to low hydro capacity, increase demand for electricity for air conditioning and be associated with a lack of wind to power wind turbines. An electricity generator might then need to rely on existing fossil-generating capacity more than expected, leading to unplanned emissions of CO2. The unique features of the interaction between nature and management are important considerations in the design of a carbon trading system, and how it will work, but they are not a barrier to establishing markets for carbon. If anything, they enhance the case for a market - it is in just these cases of unexpected changes that markets are able to allocate goods to their highest use, and find goods at their least cost.

Box 72 Environmental migration

In addition to demand-side impacts, energy production is also likely to be affected by climate change. Except for impacts of extreme weather events, research evidence is more limited than for energy consumption but climate change could affect energy production and supply (a) if extreme weather events become more intense, (b) where regions dependent on water supplies for hydropower and or thermal powerplant cooling face reductions in water supplies, (c) where changed conditions affect facility siting decisions, and (d) where conditions change (positively or negatively) for biomass, windpower or solar energy production. in some areas, whereas greater stream flows, depending on their timing, might be beneficial (Casola et al., 2005 Voisin et al., 2006). According to Breslow and Sailor (2002), climate variability and long term climate change should be considered in siting wind power facilities (also see Hewer, 2006). Extreme weather events could threaten coastal energy infrastructures...

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable.

Get My Free Ebook